Other Articles and DIYs :
- Chilled Water Wall:
By : M.Sc. Rafael Gramm
Cooling and dehumidifying indoor environments using the Chilled Water Wall
Background and Developments
The Chilled Water Wall (CWW) combines the advantages of radiant cooling systems and effective indoor air dehumidification in a single system.
Both indoor spaces and individual zones are conditioned without users experiencing negative effects (such as draught or noise emitted by ventilation fans), and the limiting factors of conventional radiant cooling systems are intelligently avoided.
Applications of the Chilled Water Wall :
In contemporary open-plan offices, there are different ways in which the CWW contributes to enhancing performance and creating a healthy indoor climate. Besides providing air conditioning, it also removes pollutants from the indoor air. Since most air contaminants and dust particles bind to the water molecules, the CWW also offers an effective means of filtering these out of the air and removing them together with the fluid, creating a natural air cleaning effect.
Visually and aurally, the flowing stream of water has a soothing effect. Due to the great variety of individual applications there is considerable freedom of design. At the same time, there is clear evidence that this multi-functional space element enjoys a high level of user acceptance. In view of all this, the Chilled Water Wall is ideally suited for use in all indoor spaces where the occupants’ focus is on health, well-being and efficiency.
Air conditioning of building zones
The option of conditioning defined building zones is another benefit associated with the use of the CWW. It is possible to condition specific zones within a space, deliberately using the effect of radiant cooling. This option will tap considerable energy saving potentials e.g. in production facilities or entrance halls with high ceilings, as only those zones will be conditioned where occupants are present. In buildings that are not equipped with air conditioning systems, a local climate can be created around the CWW, which users will perceive as refreshing during the summer heat. The pleasant experience of a welcome refreshment may also increase the attractiveness of shops, fitness centres and other recreational facilities.
Working principle of the Chilled Water Wall :
In a closed system, water flows across a vertical wall component placed inside the room, forming a liquid film on the component’s surface. Without cooling, the water will evaporate and humidify the indoor air. In the winter months, this will significantly contribute to improving comfort in dry indoor spaces. In summer, however, a chiller cools the water to temperatures below 10 °C.
The great temperature difference between the indoor air and the water ensures efficient cooling while dehumidifying the indoor air.
If the water-film temperature remains below the dew point temperature of the indoor air, the indoor air humidity condenses at the water film and is discharged into the collecting basin. Excess water flows off through an overrun and can be collected for further use, if required.
Advantages over other systems :
Conventional air conditioners circulate cold and dry air. Though this type of air-based air conditioning is widely used, it is often criticized as being noisy and uncomfortable.
As alternative solutions, water-based cooling elements (such as large chilled ceilings) or cooling techniques with thermally activated building components have become established in the market. The advantage of these systems lies in their dual mode of action: the circulating air flow is cooled while a sink is created for the longwave radiation exchange with occupants and objects present inside the space. All this is achieved without causing noise or uncomfortable air draughts.
With these systems, however, the cooling power per unit area is limited. Contrary to the CWW, they are not suited for dehumidifying the indoor air, because the surface temperature of the cooling elements must not be reduced too radically in order to prevent condensation and mould formation.
The main benefit of the CWW is due to the fact that it can be operated at significantly lower temperatures without any problems. This will not only multiply the cooling power but also allow for effective dehumidification. Due to the long-wave radiation exchange with the chilled surface of the CWW and the reduced indoor air humidity, air temperatures inside the space will be perceived as comfortable even if they exceed the usual comfort temperature by several degrees. In this way, the Chilled Water Wall ensures efficient air conditioning of buildings and saves energy, too.
- Water Wall:
courtesy to : www.saferain.com/en/water-curtains/water-wall.html
The water wall is a versatile product that works both as an architectural interior fountain, thanks to its silent operation, as well as for exterior fountains, thanks to its high wind resistance.
ideal for decorating interiors and vertical gardens, since the water jets can slide like layers over different surfaces, such as glass (allowing the projection of images), natural stone or wooden walls, and more.
Furthermore, this wall of water or water wall is a low energy consumption fountain, since it needs minimal pressure and flow for proper operation.
- How to Make a Slate Water-Wall Feature
Construct a backyard rain wall with water trickling down a natural stone surface.
The rain-wall fountain is a tile wall mounted to a plywood structure with a water basin at the bottom. A circulating pump behind the wall pushes water up to a perforated copper tube on top of the wall so the water can run down the face of the tile.
Tools and Materials:
air compressor and hoses and a finish nailer
jig saw, table saw and miter saw
tape measure and a pencil
one sheet of 3/4” oak plywood
two sheets of tile backer board
drill press or drill gune with a tile drill bit
12"x12" natural slate tile
one container for fountain base
four 10’ pieces of copper pipe
one shut off for 1/2” pipe
one recirculating pump
one adapter for pump - 1/2” copper
two 1/2” copper end caps and two 1/2” copper tees
1. Build the frame. Cut the sides of the frame. If space permits, the base should be deeper at the bottom than the top. If the tile slopes outward at the bottom, there is less chance of splashing. Our frame is 7-feet tall with a slope of 3 inches at the top down to 12 inches at the bottom.
2. Add the face of the water wall to the frame. Try to size the width of the wall to fit your tile, so it doesn’t have to be cut.
If you are attaching the tiles to the wall with screws, use a piece of 3/4” plywood for the face of the water wall and cover it with pond liner. If you are adhering and grouting the tile to the wall, use a piece of tile backer board for the frame. Run a 2x2 piece of lumber down each vertical side of the wall to create a trough.
3. Build the base. If you’re using a pre-made container for the basin, build the base to fit. If you’re using a flexible pond liner, build the base to suit your fountain.
4. Make the base out of 3/4” plywood. Cut the sides to be 1 inch taller than your basin, or about 12 inches deep if you’re using a liner.
5. Cut all pieces using a table saw and miter saw, and then assemble using glue and nails. Cut the sides to hang below the base by about 2 inches to cover the casters. We’re using casters to make the fountain easier to move. Cover the inside of pond liner to waterproof it or insert the basin. Screw or staple the liner to the plywood at the top of base so it won't affect the seal. You can cover the screws or staples with wood trim.
6. Mount the wall frame to the base using screws and glue. Make sure the back of the fountain wall is perpendicular to the base so the pipe can run straight up the back.
7. There are two options for tiling the wall of the fountain. You can glue and grout the tile, like you would on a countertop or backsplash, or you can drill and screw the tiles like you’d install siding or shingles. If screwing the tile onto the plywood, drill two holes in each tile, about 1-1/2” in from each corner.
8. Starting at the bottom, screw the tiles to the wall, working your way up and overlapping tiles about 3 inches as you go. This will put the screw holes behind the tile above them, so there won’t be any leaks. Use a level and painter’s tape to make sure you adhere the tiles evenly.
9. Measure the height and width of the finished tile wall.
10. Solder together a tube that goes up the back of the tile wall and splits with a tee to each side. The top of the “T” should be about 1-inch smaller than your wall.
11. Before soldering in top of the “T”, drill a series of 1/8” holes in the pipe, about 1 inch apart. Solder end caps on the pipes, then solder them to the main leg of the “T”.
12. Use an adapter to fit the output of the pump to the copper line. Put a shut-off valve in the line to control water flow.
13. Fill the basin with clean water and turn on the pump. Use the shut-off valve to increase or decrease the water flow to get the level you want.