2- Ultraviolet (UV) Filtration :
A somewhat newer addition to the koi pond filtration arsenal is the UV sterilizer/clarifier. The UV filter has been mentioned on multiple occasions in this article as it has gained increased popularity over the years. You’ll see a lot of different filtration systems with UV as part of the package as well as in-line UV sterilizers and clarifiers too.
In essence, what happens is that pond water is passed over/near a UV light source and the ultraviolet light energy effectively disrupts the chemical bonds that bind the microorganism’s DNA together. As as result, the bacteria, virus, protozoans, algae, or mold effectively die.
The cool thing about UV is that is leaves no chemical residue or impurities in the water. Its just light energy that is strong enough, and at the right spectrum, to kill microorganisms and requires only a bulb change when it becomes too weak to kill. The UV sterilizer/clarifier is typically placed before the mechanical filtration as it tends to cause free floating algae to clump together.
UV sterilizer vs. UV Clarifiers
The difference? Well, not much. Clarifiers go as far as killing free floating algae that causes green water whereas a sterilizer gets at the other nasties in the pond such as viruses, bacteria, protozoans etc. A single in-line UV light for a small pond might be a sterilizer whereas that same light at a pond 3 times bigger might be considered a clarifier.
It really comes down to wattage (strength) and flow rate (which will dictate how long the water gets exposed to the UV light). Other important factors are your biological load already present in the pond. Do you have lots of fish or an appropriate amount?
Do you already have natural filtration going on in the form of aquatic plants? What is the volume of water in your pond? Big ponds need stronger UV exposure. To determine what your pond’s needs are its simply a matter of taking into account several key factors and using the chart below as a general guide.
UV balasts and bulbs are not necessarily cheap so is it worth it? Viruses and bacteria make up a large proportion of health problems in any given koi pond. Many koi pond problems stem from water quality issues which then translate into koi health problems as well as algae blooms. Fortunately, UV kills green water (free floating) algae which can infest your pond, die then cause a spike in nutrients and a drop in dissolved oxygen.
There is even a “major trend in swimming pool technology” being seen across the U.S where UV is being used in more and more pools which underscores the effectiveness of UV to kill unwanted, water-borne microorganisms. So the cost up front may very well save you plenty of money and headaches down the road.
UV light anatomy diagram :
Circa 1988- ?
This well made UV has been around in some form. While designated a Pond UV, I have also used it in aquariums too with good results.
These are what are called "Compact UV Sterilizers" and use use a different style UV lamps than the straight tube UVs. These lamps/bulbs carry designations such as PLL, PLS, G23, G7, G11.
Tetra only uses only quality low pressure high output UVC lamps/bulbs, however Tetra also makes many of the lamps proprietary so that it can be difficult to find the lamp without paying 2-3 times what a comparable high quality low pressure UV lamps would sell for.
Thankfully some other options for quality replacement bulbs/lamps are now available at a better cost
Resource: Premium UVC Replacement Bulbs/Lamps; Including Tetra G-7 9 Watt and G11 18 Watt
Another issue I have with the Tetra UV is that while these are well designed and well made, there are also comparable quality UVs in build and lamp usage such as the SunSun Terminator for much less in cost. So often a buyer will pay considerably more for their Tetra UV and not actually get a better unit.
Read more here : www.uvsterilizerreview.com/
*Newly designed solid cap, features Clear View Port, indicating bulb is operating
*Easy bulb replacement, no need to shut down system
*Highest quality pure hard quartz bulb and sleeve increases UV output
*Replaceable inner sleeve acts as an internal reflector maximizing UV efficiency
3- Ion Filtration :
Even newer than UV is the use of Ion Filtration. Its a compact, easy to set up system that effectively kills free floating algae, viruses and bacteria. The way it works is this: a flow chamber containing two anodes (elongated, rectangular metal blocks) have a low voltage current going to them. The anodes are made of copper, silver and zinc (though some are just copper and silver).
When there is an electric charge applied to the anodes they give off billions of positively charged ions of silver and copper. Because unwanted things like algae, fungus spores, viruses and bacteria are negatively charged they are attracted to the positive ions. The copper ions are able to damage the cell walls enough that the silver ions get in there and destroy the cell.
Because the electric charge is so minimal and localized to the in-line ionizer in your pipes there is no adverse affect to your fish nor is there residual copper or zinc in tests of the water. Also because it draws such little power its very inexpensive to operate. The anodes will eventually become worn out and require replacement every year or so.
AQUASCAPE POND SUPPLIES: IONGENT SYSTEM G2
AQUASCAPE IONGENT SYSTEM G2
Aquascape provides a great new product that will make the maintenance of your pond seem like the easiest job. The IonGenT second-generation electronic water clarifier for Ponds, Pondless® Waterfalls and other decorative water features drastically reduces maintenance caused by algae without the use of chemicals. This affordable, high quality device features a microprocessor that releases ions from a scientifically blended and tested probe that achieves maximum treatment results in water features.
The Aquascape IonGen System G2has numerous benefits that turn your pond or water garden into the backyard paradise you’ve always dreamt about. It’s not only extremely simple to install, but also compatible with all kinds of water containing fish and plants. This product is energy efficient, involving less that $1 a month electricity cost, while it treats containerized ponds up to 25,000 gallons and helps reduce unsightly string algae. Probe typically lasts 1-3 seasons, depending on the ionization level it is operated at, size of pond and water parameters of the water feature.
We’ve all dreamt about that wonderful water project, while running away from stressful maintenance issues. Now, you have the durable, easy to maintain Aquascape IonGen System G2 taking care of that for you.
Complete with electronic control panel, outdoor-rated transformer, flow chamber, probe and fittings.
A microprocessor inside the IonGenâ”¢ release ions from a scientifically blended and tested probe that achieves maximum treatment results in water features. Drastically reduces pond maintenance caused by algae Helps reduce unsightly string algae Simple to install Compatible with water containing fish and plants Energy efficient (less than $1 a month in electricity cost) Treats containerized ponds up to 25,000 gallons Probe typically lasts 1-3 seasons, depending on the ionization level it is operated at, size of pond and water parameters of the water feature. Complete with electronic control panel, outdoor-rated transformer, flow chamber, probe, fittings
4- Ozone Filtration :
Disinfection of water via ozone has actually been around since the late 1800’s so its not surprising to see it in use in koi ponds (or where ever water needs to be sanitized). Ozone is arguably the most powerful destroyer of bacteria and viruses in the world of aquatic disinfection. In fact, its 50% more powerful than chlorine and yes, it kills algae cells too.
As with many forms of filtration mentioned above, there is no residue left over. In fact, the water is left super clean and more oxygenated because ozone breaks down into oxygen. Furthermore, only ozone can break down hydrocarbons like derivatives of oil and gas. So how does this all work?
Air is passed through the Ozone generation mechanism where electric current is applied resulting in the creation of ozone gas. This gas is them pumped into a special chamber where it is allowed to diffuse into the water. Immediately hydrocarbons, viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens are destroyed and the action of ozone destroying these unwanted nasties converts it (ozone) back into oxygen thereby further oxygenating the water. Your fish never come in contact with ozonated water as it all takes places in a sectioned off area or a special chamber.
These Aquasure OzonAir Puifier units have been designed to help control water borne algae and fungi, in addition the OzonAir purifier will lower bacteria levels in your pond giving your fish a more healthier environment to live in, and also give you the visual satisfaction of being able to see your fish!
The Aquasure OzonAir Purifier unit must be used in conjunction with an air pump and diffuser. Simply plug in and connect to any existing airline to healthier, cleaner water!
The AquaSure OzoneAir Purifier unit is a cost effective method of adding Ozone to your environment which has numerous benefits for the environment of your fish.
Product Features Of the OzoneAir Purifier:
Will oxide organic waste and colourants
Converts nitrite into nitrate
Increased oxygen levels
Increased efficiency of air diffusers
Keeps air diffusers clean
Low voltage Electronics
Costs less to run
Built in fault indicator
10m Cable with plug
Ozone (O3) is a triatomic molecule, consisting of three oxygen atoms. It is an allotrope of oxygen that is much less stable than the diatomic O2. These units will help give good water clarity and take the colorants out of your pond by helping remove proteins from the water which leave a yellowy/brown tinge.
The Air Micro Ozone is a compact unit that simply connects to your air line. Setting up requires nothing more than connecting an air line from your air pump to the ozone unit. Then connect the air line from the ozone unit to your inpond air outlet, this can be any form of air diffuser ceramic disc/stones, aerated drain, aerated retro dome etc.
The OzoneAir purifier unit will also help reduce a build up of algae and limescale to your airstones etc, Plug the unit in and it will produce 0.027mg of ozone per minute giving you 1.62 mg of ozone per hour. The OzonAir purifier unit is extremely cost effective as it uses only 9 watts of power!
The only maintenance required is a six monthly bulb replacement!
Ozone occurs naturally in the atmosphere when a molecule of Oxygen 'O²' is bound to a third oxygen atom, it becomes ozone or '0³'. Ozone is an unstable bluish water-soluble gas with a characteristic smell. In low levels it makes the air smell fresh and its colour makes the sky blue. Ozone is the 2nd strongest known oxidiser known to man and the most powerful readily available water sanitiser. It kills bacteria and viruses 3,125 times faster and is a 50% stronger oxidiser than chlorine.
Ozone can be produced by two methods.
Corona discharge method:
This is the most popular type of ozone generator for most industrial and personal uses. While variations of the "hot spark" coronal discharge method of ozone production exist, including medical grade and industrial grade ozone generators, these units usually work by means of a corona discharge tube.
Most of the ozone in the atmosphere is created when the high-energy ultraviolet rays of the Sun reach the rarefied gas molecules of the stratosphere. The ultraviolet energy excites the oxygen atoms, and they combine to form O3. The Air Micro Ozone Unit uses the latter.
This compact unit has an inlet where you connect your air line from your air pump, and an outlet which connects via airline to your in pond air outlet (ceramic disc,aerated retro dome etc).
The benefits of this unit are that the only maintenance is the six monthly replacement of a bulb. You should notice that after a couple of days there will be an improvement in water clarity and the dissolved oxygen levels should have risen slightly whilst the pH and ORP remain unchanged. Clarity should improve a reduction of docs should be notice. Additional peripherals such as air stones, aerated bottom drains,retro dome's should perfom better requiring less maintnance with the ozone unit attached. You will aslo notice that the ceramic air diffusers connected to the ozone unit will become more efficient .
Due to no change in the oxidation or reduction potential readings this unit produces a very low amount of ozone. It does break down in the pond thus removing dissolved organic molecules and it also raises the dissolved oxygen level of water.
The power consumption of this unit is only 9 watts.