Water gardens and pond material list :
Let us have look again into the Basics :
Then We will list and describe the equipments needed for the pond Filtration :
Pond Filtration Basics
courtesy to : worldofwater.com/pond-filtration-basics/
There are two main types of successful pond filtration. An Ultra Violet Clarifier filter kills green water to keep the water clear, while a Biological Filter looks after the water quality to keep the fish healthy and happy. Most modern filters combine these methods into one unit for convenience and ease of installation.
- Do All Ponds Need Filtration?
No. If you are intending not to have any fish, or you’re creating a wildlife pond with high plant stocks and just a few fish you may choose not to have a filter, and try to create a natural balance instead.
It is a relatively simple process but can take a very long time to get a balanced nitrogen cycle within your pond, hence why most people still opt for a filter of some kind.
The principle is very simple. You will need plenty of plants, probably covering two thirds of the pond area. These plants, along with naturally occurring helpful bacteria in the pond, will then use and digest any toxins left by fish and rotting organic waste, hopefully providing a good natural balance and a clear pond. It is important to remember that the plants should be well established before gradually introducing fish, and it could take at least eighteen months to create a naturally balanced pond.
- Biological Filtration
Most beginners believe a pond filter works by removing physical dirt and it is this which keeps the water sparkling clean.
In fact this is not the case, although a small amount of suspended particles are strained out by the biological filter.
A biological filter works like a mini sewage system for the pond. In simple terms the media within the filter creates a huge surface area, which becomes home to many millions of helpful bacteria. It is vital to keep these oxygenated by passing pond water through the filter 24 hours a day.
These helpful bacteria break down invisible toxins produced directly from the fish and the decaying of physical waste such as fish faeces, excess food or organic material at the bottom of the pond. This is done by the helpful bacteria breaking down the initial toxin Ammonia into Nitrite. A different type of helpful bacteria then breaks this dangerous Nitrite down to Nitrate which then can be absorbed by plants as they grow and is harmless to fish except in high concentrations. The bigger the pond or the more fish the larger the filter will need to be. Hence it is vital to purchase a filter which can easily cope with your pond volume and anticipated fish stocking level.
Please always check the capacity of your chosen filter with a member of staff.
Some advanced filter systems can strain out more solids from the water, but it has to be remembered that these still have to be biologically broken down unless physically removed by flushing or draining.
It is important to know when first starting a biological filter it can take up to six weeks for helpful bacteria to colonise the filter. During this period care should be taken to keep feeding down and to monitor your water quality regularly with a test kit.
Which Biological Filter?
All the filters been given two ratings on worldofwater.com.
Low Fish Stock: For ponds which are mainly plants with a no or few fish and with normal sunlight levels.
High Fish Stock: For ponds with less plants and a higher stocking level of fish or exposed high sunlight levels.
Please Note: If you have a pond with extremely high fish stocks or just koi it is worth considering a larger filter as it is impossible to over filter a pond biologically.
If you don’t know your pond volume, use our online calculator
Pick the symbol from below that most represents your pond & stocking level.
Decided on the filter location etc and decide on the best type for your needs.
Find one which easily handles your pond volume.
Always go up one model if it only just copes with your pond volume or your pond is in direct sunlight. Also remember fish grow and breed!
Remember: the more fish in a pond, the more waste generated, and the more helpful bacteria needed to break it down - therefore the bigger the filter the better.
Ultra Violet Clarifiers - Eliminate Green Water
Ultra violet clarifiers are available as a standalone unit to be added to existing biological filtration units or more commonly they are combined with a biological filter.
An ultra violet clarifier is an electrical unit through which water is pumped before it enters the biological filter, and its purpose is to eliminate green water and reduce harmful bacteria in the pond.
As the water is passed through the unit, it is subjected to high levels of U.V. light. This U.V. light causes the microscopic single cell algae to be clumped together allowing them to be collected and broken down by the biological filter, thus eliminating the problem of green water.
REMEMBER: CLEAR WATER ISN’T ALWAYS HEALTHY WATER!
None of these toxins can be seen by the naked eye. However testing the water periodically can easily monitor their levels.
Which UVC Filter?
You will need to know your pond volume to choose a suitable UVC
To find the right UVC for your pond consider the stocking and sunlight levels. If you either of these are high always pick you UVC based on the High Fish/Sunlight Level rating.
Always go up a model if in any doubt, you are unlikely to cause any problems as long as you have adequate biological filtration.
Different Types Of Filtration
There are three common types of filter, mostly available with combined Ultra Violet Clarifiers. It is important to bear in mind installation options before purchasing.
Gravity Return Filters
These filters are pump fed and gravity return. These will require a pump in the pond that feeds the filter. Water will then simply pass through the filter and return to the pond under gravity. This means the filter outlet must be higher than the point at which you want the water to return.
Pressure Filters :
Ideal for small to medium size pools and are directly fed from a pump in the pond. However since the filter is a sealed unit the water is still under pressure when leaving the filter, allowing much more flexibility in the positioning of the unit.
Gravity Feed Filters :
Normally used for larger Koi ponds. They are complex units to install and expert advice is available in our stores.
Filter Maintenance :
Biological filter: Only clean the filter media as instructed by the manufacturer or when absolutely necessary. It is usually obvious when they need cleaning by either water flow reduction through a pressurised filter or by some water passing over media in gravity filters.
When cleaning is required always rinse the media in bucket of pond water rather than tap water, as tap water contains chlorine that will kill the beneficial bacteria. Do not clean all the media at once, but stagger cleaning to keep a high population of the helpful bacteria.
Bacterial supplements are now readily available and can be used to boost the performance of the filter during the course of the season. They are also particularly useful to use when you have just installed a new filter, or cleaned an established one.
Ultra Violet Clarifiers: Always isolate the power supply before starting any work and never look directly at an illuminated U.V. bulb. Consult the manufacturers instructions for individual unit requirements.
The U.V. bulb will generally need replacing after six months work. When replacing the bulb, it is a good idea to change the "O" rings and seals. The quartz sleeve is very delicate, so handle with care. Remove any hard water residue or dirt from the Quartz sleeve as necessary. Drain and store in the winter if not being used.
Tips On Installing A Biological Filter
Gravity return Biological filters (Box Filters) have a gravity outlet therefore the outlet must be higher than the point of return.
Gravity outlet filters, keep the return pipe full bore, gently angled down and as short as possible.
To maximise water flow ensure the largest possible inlet hose is used.
Most top outlet filters will work better if partially buried keeping the sides tight around the media when full of water.
Always follow manufacturers instructions for individual model requirements
Tips On Running A Biological Filter :
Filters must run 24 hours a day (Certainly from March to October).
Pass your pond water through the filter at least every 1-2 hours.
Regularly check pump pre-filter to ensure good flow.
Remember a filter will take weeks to become biologically active.
Clear water does not mean healthy water. Test your water regularly.
Use a bacterial supplement to start and improve filter performance.
Always clean filter material in a bucket of pond water not in tap water.
Only clean media when flow is being inhibited.
Always test water and seek advice if fish suddenly look lethargic or unwell.
Pond Filtration equipements Types and List :
1- Filters :
- External Pond Filters
Filter will be Outside of the Pond :
External pond filters offer versatile, out-of-pond filtration solutions and are ideal for larger, more demanding ponds. External filters are usually easier to clean and maintain than submersibles. Available in a variety of models to accommodate ponds and water gardens of all sizes.
The external pressure filter system is a common one and typically consists of an intake in your pond (usually sits on the bottom) that draws water in then up through a line, out of the pond and into the pressure filter itself.
There are many different designs in the world of pressure filters but essentially you will find some manner of mechanical filtration (usually in the form of a sponge-like material) which then leads to biological filtration (usually in the form of bio-balls) then out of the filter. Some manufacturers will also have a UV light installed such that the water exiting the pressure filter passes by the UV prior to leaving the filter.
From the filter it will often enter back into the pond via a water fall. They are nice systems that can be hidden out of sight either in a false rock or in an accessible, sub-terranian compartment. As with any filtration system outfitted with mechanical filtration you will have to periodically rinse off the sponge material catching the particulates. See the diagram below for the typical set up on these style systems.
- Atlantic FilterFalls - The Atlantic FilterFalls line is a collection of high quality biological pond filters combined with the convenience of a waterfall spillway in a single unit. We like to use a waterfall filter when building a pond since it makes building the waterfall easier while providing an excellent location to hide the bio filter. Each unit features include a strong top grate which can support rocks on top of the unit for camouflage, a quality 1 1/2", 2" or 3" bulkhead (depending on model), two filter mats in addition to a filter media bag for biological filtration (media not included, we recommend Savio Springflo Media!). As a general rule, the flow rate of a waterfall should be a minimum of 100 gallons per hour per inch of waterfall spillway. For a waterfall with more punch, this number could be increased up to 200 gph per inch of spillway.
- Tetra Pond Waterfall Filter :
Ponds up to 1,000 Gallons - (Use Pumps 500 - 4,000 GPH)
The Tetra Waterfall Pond Filter creates beautiful waterfalls quickly and easilyand features a mesh bag that allows for the addition of bio-media for effective filtration for ponds up to 1,000 gallons. The Tetra Waterfall Pond Filter is easy to install and blends perfectly into landscaping.
- Easy to install waterfall filter ideal for ponds and water gradens
- Waterfall Filter for Ponds up to 1,000 Gallons - use pumps 500 to 4,000 GPH
- Waterfall Filter accepts 1" or 1.25" ID tubing
- Dimensions - 19.25"L x 11.75"W x 12.25"H
The mesh bag allows for the addition of 6-8 liters of Tetra Pond Bio-Activator media.
- External Multi-Stage Compartment Filters :
These filtration systems are external and designed quite simply. Its essentially a plastic box with mulitple sheets of filter media arranged in a pattern of coarse to fine. Some units, like the Matala Biosteps series, will have a UV clarifier in the first compartment before going through the stages of filtration.
Other manufacturers will put bioballs as the last stage however the 4 staged filter material in the Matala are also meant to act as substrate for the beneficial bacteria to colonize. Cleaning units like this is a simple matter of shaking off any debris clogging the filters, allowing it to settle to the bottom then purging the waste out through the bottom drain. In the case of these progressive, multi-stage filters the water drawn through the system is either pumped from a submersible at the bottom of the pond or an external pump draws it up from the pond.
Horizontal configuration of the stages:
Vertical configuration of the stages :
Italian-made pressurized external pond filter with built-in UV clarifier
Keeps pond water clear of debris AND free-floating green water algae
Simple 3-step self-cleaning feature eases routine pond filter maintenance
A clean filter is an effective filter for maintaining pond water quality. Sicce Green Reset External Pond Filter w/UV features a patented Easy Cleaning System to ensure optimum filter performance essential for clean, healthy pond water. Italian-made external pressurized pond filter boasts great filtration capacity plus an effective UV-C clarifier to achieve crystal-clear pond water.
To clean and optimize filter performance, simply 1) Lift the large Cleaning Handle, 2) Switch filter function to "Clean", and 3) Press down on the Cleaning Handle. Tubing you connect to the discharge outlet directs effluent to your lawn, flowerbed, garden or any area that benefits from free, nutrient-rich plant fertilizer! Place the Sicce Green Reset External Pond Filter w/UV next to your pond above water level or buried in the ground for discreet installation.
Sicce Green Reset External Pond Filter w/UV employs multiple foam filter sponges for effective debris and particulate-trapping mechanical filtration. Models 25 & 40 include Bio-Balls for added biological filtration. Powerful UV clarifier in all models delivers cleansing UV-C light to combat green pond water algae.
Pond Filters - Hozelock Ecopower Plus 1864 (UK)
Ecopower + 6000 : 1864
EcoPower + Pond Filters are high performance filters with built in UVC.
A complete biological and mechanical filter for ponds up to 6000 litres capacity.
The filters incorporate an ultra violet clarifier into the filter design, which can be partially buried in the ground to minimize its profile in the garden.
Media includes foam and cypripak biomedia to maximize cleaning performance and biological activity.
Ecopower is the affordable answer for those seeking clear and healthy water in garden ponds.
This filter can be partially buried in the ground, Water enters the filter through a stepped hose tail (20/25/32/40mm). From here it passes into the UV chamber. The UV chamber features a "turbulator" to ensure that the water is exposed correctly to the UV light produced by the 8w UV bulb. This clumps the algae that cause green water together. The water then passes through a venturi to aerate it.
The water passes into the bottom of the filter, passes through the biological media, and rises up through the foam filters. Waste in the bottom chamber can be desludged. The water exits through 32mm pipe work
this filter will look after 212cm of fish, and has a maximum flow rate of 3000 lph.
The biological media provides a home for friendly bacteria. These bacteria purify the water and remove fish waste. The foam filters remove debris and solid waste. When this filter is sized correctly, installed and maintained in accordance with our instructions we guarantee clear-water.
Max Pond size: 6000 Litres (It varies depends on the weather conditions, fish population, direct sunlight etc.)
Rec fish size: 250 cm
Rec Flow rate (LPH):3000 LPH / 2250 LPH
Inlet Hose Size: 20 to 30mm
Outlet Hose Size: 40mm
Filter box Size (mm):40cm L x 50cm H x 30cm W
1) Water enters the filter through a stepped hosetail. from here it passes in to the UV chamber.The UV chamber features a "turbulator" to ensure that the water is exposed correctly to the UV light produced by the 8w UV bulb. This clumps the algae that causes greenwater together. The water then passes through a venturi to aerate it.
2) The water passes into the bottom of the filter, passes through the biological media, and rises up through the foam filters. Waste in the bottom chamber can be desludged. The water exits through 32mm pipework
3) Viewing hatch to observe the internal operation of the filter, in particular whether any maintenance is needed.
- All-in-One :
The all-in-one systems like the shown below are often submersible units that have the mechanical filtration, biological filtration, UV clarifier and pump all in one compartment. So in the given example, this unit has an extended neck that then directs the filtered and clarified water into the fountain feature thus aerating the water.
Also in some models have underwater lighting :
The Blagdon Inpond All-In-One Filter is an internal filtration system for small ponds. Just as the name suggests this is an all in one unit complete with filter, UVC, pump with interchangeable fountain heads and it even has a sensor operated pond light.
Extra Small 1400 – Recommended for ponds up to 500 Litres
Small 3000 – Recommended for ponds up to 1500 Litres
Product Description :
Extra Small 1400 Specifications
Pump – 700 Lt/hr, 12 Volt, 10 Watts, 1.25m Max Head Height, 13m Cable.
UV – 5 Watt Lamp, 230 Volt, 13m Cable
LED Light – 0.76 Watts
Small 3000 Specifications
Pump – 1500 Lt/Hr, 12 Volt, 26.5 Watts, 1.3m Max Head Height, 11.5m Cable.
UV – 9 Watt Lamp, 230 Volt, 10m Cable
LED Light – 0.76 Watts
Complete Filtration System
Great For Small Ponds Up To 500 Gallons
Make Your Pond Water Crystal Clear
The TetraPond® FK Series Filtration Fountain Kit includes everything you need to filter your small water garden. Both the FK5 & FK6 includes a filter box with 2 media pads, an energy efficient mag-drive pump and a fountain head assembly with 3 spray patterns. Simple design, easy to assemble parts, and a 12 foot power cord ensure a quick set-up of your TetraPond filter kit.
- Skimmer :
The bottom drain, as the name implies, is at the bottom of the pond however another form of filtration often seen in ponds is the skimmer. Skimmers are your other mechanical filtration system. The skimmer works on the top of the pond collecting floating debris such as leaves, grass, pollen and the like. The skimmer will pull from across the top of the pond collecting waste, filtering the water back to the pump.
Ranking those two systems in order of importance, the bottom drain would certainly be first. Floating debris will effectively be removed via the skimmer, but without it all things would ultimately make it to the bottom drain.
The skimmer also removes dissolved organic compounds. If you do not have a skimmer, the surface of your pond may end up with an oily film, which will reduce the ability of atmospheric oxygen to diffuse into the pond via the water’s surface.
Typical Pond Skimmer
The skimmer has a weir or a floating device that floats up and down with the water level. It skims only the surface of the water. If building a new pond you want to get the widest weir available, at 16 inches, to help clean the pond surface area quicker. The skimmer also has a “leaf basket,” which collects the large debris. Some skimmers may have netting or mats, but it works the same way. It ensures the debris cannot cloud the surface of your pond or get into the pump.
- The Basic Type of skimmers :
The Laguna PowerFlo Skimmer Filter 5000 is a heavy-duty surface skimmer and filter that provides superior mechanical and biological filtration in ponds up to 18,925 litres (5000 U).
- the combo type of skimmers :
Another type of skimmer the skimmer combo type which come with pump inside the same skimmer chamber .. examples of that :
For ponds up to 4000 gallons - ponds with fish to 2000 gallons
Maximum flow rate of 60 gpm (3600 gph)
Includes debris net and filter brushes for mechanical filtration and UTM1 biological media for compete filtration
Two chamber front-to back design - with pump chamber sitting behind the debris net instead of along side it
Factory installed spinweld bulkhead fittings for plumbing connections- Dual 2" fittings
Adjustable overflow for adjusting finished pond level
One piece aluminium framed debris net for quick and easy cleaning
Skimmers have a flange above the opening where water enters from the pond into the skimmer, allowing you to not only stack rocks along side but also above the skimmer opening
Stainless steel hardware for securing liner
8" water inlet
The Aquascape Signature Series 400 Pond Skimmer provides efficient mechanical filtration for your pond. Ideal for use in ponds up to 400 square feet, the Skimmer removes unwanted debris from the surface of the pond, significantly reducing maintenance and issues with water quality.
Its 6 inch weir with locking capability and large volume rigid leaf and debris basket makes maintenance quick and easy while its high-quality filter mat removes smaller sediment and debris. A patented adjustable faceplate allows the faceplate to be re-adjusted after installation, altering the water level as desired. Injection-molded fittings allow the check valve to thread directly into the skimmer wall, providing a professional watertight seal along the back of the filter. The natural-looking faux-rock lid includes grooves designed to help make the filter easy to hide into its surroundings and its rounded shape maximizes the structural design of the filter. The Aquascape Signature Series 400 Pond Skimmer is also backed by a limited Lifetime Warranty.
Provides efficient mechanical filtration for ponds up to 400 square feet
Removes unwanted debris from the surface of the pond, significantly reducing maintenance and issues with water quality
6 inch weir with locking capability and large volume rigid leaf and debris basket makes removal of debris quick and easy
Rounded shape maximizes the structural design while the durable lid provides protection of the filter components
Websites to consider whiled to know more or to purchase a skimmer to your pond :