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Silverstoneia is a genus of poison dart frogs (family Dendrobatidae) from southern Central America and northern South America, between southwestern Costa Rica and southwestern Colombia. It is named in honour of Phillip A. Silverstone, an expert on dendrobatoid frogs.
Silverstoneia are small frogs, with adult size <22 mm (0.87 in) in snout–vent length. They have brown, cryptic colouration in the dorsum. They have a pale oblique lateral stripe as well as pale ventrolateral stripe, but no pale dorsolateral stripe (except for some populations of Silverstoneia flotator in Costa Rica). Dorsal skin texture is granular posteriorly.
There are eight species of Silverstoneia:
Silverstoneia flotator from Panama
Scientific classification :
Grant et al., 2006
Silverstoneia dalyi Grant and Myers, 2013
Silverstoneia erasmios (Rivero and Serna, 2000)
Silverstoneia flotator (Dunn, 1931)
Silverstoneia gutturalis Grant and Myers, 2013
Silverstoneia minima Grant and Myers, 2013
Silverstoneia minutissima Grant and Myers, 2013
Silverstoneia nubicola (Dunn, 1924)
Silverstoneia punctiventris Grant and Myers, 2013
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Silverstoneia flotator calling in La Gamba, Costa Rica
courtesy to : www.dendrobase.de/index.php
The genus Silverstoneia was in 2006 by G RANT ET AL . established. The species contained in it were from the former large polyphyletischen genus Colostethussloutsourced. Type species for the genus is Phyllobates [Colostethus] nubicola D UNN , 1924. The genus name Silverstoneia is a Dedikationsname in honor of P HILLIP A. S ILVERSTONE . Within the family Dendrobatidae the genus now stands as a separate clade in the subfamily Colostethinae together with the sister genus Epipedobates M YERS 1987 and the genera Colostethus C OPE 1867 and Ameerega B AUER 1988. The division was based on morphological he and genetic traits. For the genus Silverstoneia are considered typical morphological similarities mainly characteristics of larval morphology. All species show a umbelliformes (umbrella-like) mouth field, which is inverted and dorsally inverted (specialization in surface nutrition). The lower rows of keratin teeth (Dentikel) and the hem of the oral field shows a number of skin lamellae (marginal papillan).
Typical umbrella-like mouth of larvae of Silverstoneia ssp. A: invaginated, B: everted.
© 2006 T. OSTROWSKI sensu S AVAGE (2002)
Genus typical feature of Silverstoneia is the third swollen finger of the hand.
© T. OSTROWSKI sensu SAVAGE (2002)
The genus is a Central American Faunenelement and spread from Costa Rica to Colombia (southern Valle de Cauca). In tropical South America east of the Andean chain, the genus is missing. The very small diurnal species are usually cryptically colored (exception: S. sp."Santa Fé") and inhabit the deciduous layer of rainforests at altitudes below 1600 m (lowland orprämontan e types). They are dependent on small streams and rivulets in the reproduction. They do not live strictly riparin but can also be found at some distance from running water.
Distribution area Silverstoneia
Madagascar Dart frogs
South America Dart Frogs - Species
Silverstoneia genus :
Silverstoneia genus :
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