2- African Eyed Lizards (Timon pater and Timon tangitanus) - Caresheet
courtesy to : www.dragonfarm.co.uk/Eyed-lizard-caresheet.php
Written by Mark Harris © 2011.
5- Timon tangitanus ( previously Lacerta tangitanus ) :
Timon tangitanus, common name Moroccan Eyed Lizard
Timon tangitanus, common name Moroccan Eyed Lizard, is a species of lizard in the Lacertidae family.
Conservation status :
Least Concern (IUCN 3.1)
Scientific classification :
Binomial name :
Lacerta tangitanus Boulenger, 1887
Lacerta ocellata tangitanaBoulenger 1889
Timon tangitanus — Schluter 2004: 44
Timon tangitanus — Mateo et al. 2005
Lacerta (Timon) tangitana — Montori et al. 2005
Timon tangitanus — Arnold et al. 2007
Lacerta (Timon) pater tangitanus — Sindaco & Jeremcenko 2008
Timon tangitanus can reach a length of about 70 cm. The body is green or brown, with blue ocelli on the back. For decades this species has been regarded as belonging to the genus Lacerta. It mainly feed on invertebrates, but also on fruits.
It is found in Northwest Africa (mountains of north western Algeria, mediterranean regions of Morocco and Western Sahara).
Its natural habitats are temperate forests, temperate shrubland, and Mediterranean-type shrubby vegetation. It prefers woodland edge, scrub and rocky areas. It is threatened by habitat loss.
For the external links , refrences click here to read the full wikipedia article
Care Articles :
1- Timon tangitanus - Berber lizard
Name: North African lizard lizard (name used in the past, not correct because the three-word, direct translation from the English name), Berber lizard * (* proposed name)
Language of the Day: North African ocellated lizard
German name : der Berbereidechse
Czech name : Ještěrka tangerská
Lacerta ocellata tangitana BOULENGER 1889
Timon tangitanus - SCHLÜTER 2004: 44
Timon tangitanus - MATEO et al. 2005
Lacerta (Timon) tangitana - MONTORI et al. 2005
Timon tangitanus - ARNOLD et al. 2007
Lacerta (Timon) pater tangitanus - SINDACO & JEREMCENKO 2008
Female Timon tangitanus (Daudin, 1802) reach about 45 cm male to about 65 cm, of which 1/3 is on the tail.
Length of life :
15 years or more in good conditions.
Head of green or green color is much larger thanThe females are very massive, the dewlap, the sides of the neck and the jaw edges can be light blue or turquoise. The ridge, excluding the pelvis, has a color from brightly green through turquoise to emerald green. There are rows of bright spots, blue streaks on the sides (often surrounded by a light green border) and dark brown or black dots. Brown pelvic segment with beige stains. White underbelly with light blue or turquoise tint. The upper part of the brown tail is light brown beige. Front paws: Upper part of emerald-green lower white fingers of pale yellow. Rear paws: Brown top with bright spots, and bottom - light beige or white, brown toes. Very well visible thighs.
Head small light brown, white dewlap. The ridge, excluding the pelvic, pearly-brown color, contains rows of bright spots, blue or light blue on the sides, dark brown or black dots of the white to creamy tan. Brown pelvic segment with beige stains. The upper part of the brown tail slightly darker than the back of the bottom beige. Front paws: Pearl-beige top bottom, pear-beige white bottom. Rear paws: Brown top with light spots, light beige or white, brown to brown. The thighs are barely noticeable.
The back of the body of young individuals is dark gray-brown, brown or crushed. The head is greenish or greenish brown.
Scales on the back are small, round or elliptical, ending in a more or less pronounced keel, arranged in 63-84 pieces in one transverse row. Scales on the stomach are arranged in 8-10 longitudinal and 28-34 transverse rows. Scales on the tail are grouped in distinct rings. The number of femoral openings is 11 - 16 on each side.
Algeria, Morocco and the Western Sahara.
Special features :
Rarely climbs the trees. Skittish. While making a run, it makes a lot of noise, but it often happens that (in particular the males) instead of running away, they squeeze the body and dew and hiss attack the attacker. He can painfully bite occasionally even by peeling off the skin.
These are extremely aggressive and territorial lizards - especially males, so do not hold 2 males in one terrarium . It is also recommended that there should not be only one female in the terrarium with the male, but at least 2 because the male would be disturbed by unbroken harassment during the mating season. There is a very common phenomenon of cannibalism, so do not put young in the terrarium with adults and should be taken into account that the female should be male or older, never younger, because the male can treat it as a food, not a partner. In addition, some males, especially those that were kept for several years themselves, may not tolerate the sudden appearance of a female or female in a terrarium.. A male defending the territory could kill them even if they were of the right size.
He leads a daily lifestyle.
They live in dry and rocky desert and semi-arid areas with barbed shrubs, often seen in old orchards and vineyards. In the mountains they reach the height of 2100 m asl
Possible large internal space of loose substrate - gravel or sand. Terrarium should be equipped with stones and at least one hide - the repository where the reptile will spend the night or hide under stress. The radiator should not be lower than 50 cm so that the reptile can not jump on it and not get burned. A common example is a decorative element. Boughs and plants potted.
Size of the terrarium for pairs of adults the minimum size of the terrarium is 150/80/80 cm (length / height / width) for one individual - 80/50/60 cm.
Cycle about 12 hours. We illuminate the radiator with the power depending on the size of the terrarium , usually 40-60W. It is also possible to use a heating cable its distribution should be gradual, i.e. there should be room strongly heated, moderately heated, poorly heated and those in which the heating cable will not - i.e., for example. One of their hiding places in the reptile ch Etna will spend the night or recedes in case of too high heat. As for all reptiles, it is advisable to use UV irradiation, for example, Exo Terra Repti Glo 10.0.
At 26-30 ° C, and under the radiator to 40 ° C. Consider the fall in night temperatures from 25 to 23 ° C.
Periodically spray the terrarium and the humidity should not be less than 50-60%.
Mainly animal free food adults eat large insects, rodents, small lizards and snakes. The lizard also does not despise the sweet fallen fruit. While hunting, the lizard performs delicate but fast wavy tail movements that are most likely to attract the victim. In the terrarium, youngsters are most often given crickets and cockers and larger locusts, mouse and mouse mice.
Visible distinct sexual dimorphism. Description of the gender distinction in the look department.
These lizards reach puberty in the second or third year after hatching. With adequate conditions, such as basic temperature requirements, habitat and humidity, and reptile reptiles for winter, the lizards breed in the terrarium during November-January . The male chases after the female trying to grab her by the tail. Copulation lasts 5-7 minutes. Sometimes, during the copulation, the paired couple falls from the terrarium wall or branch to the groundBut this does not stop the copulation. During the act the male strongly holds the female behind the pelvis above the pelvis, which can lead to even extensive wounds which must then be cured because the individual may die from the infection (in which case it is advisable to contact the veterinarian). The winter most active period is April and May. Eggs in the number of 5 to 24 pieces and about 20x15mm in size are usually folded in the late afternoon, evening or night. It is not known how long after copulation is the abolition of eggs. The female makes two or one egg at a time in a warm and humid place in the terrarium. Often under roots or in pots with plants. Sometimes, some females lay eggsalmost in the same place. Eggs are assembled at intervals of 6-8 weeks. Eggs are incubated in a slightly damp mixture of sand peat or vermiculite at 27-29 ° C. At higher temperatures or at temperatures below 22 ° C, the damaged young, unable to live. Incubation is long, usually takes 10-12 weeks. During this time care should be taken that the eggs will not dry out, but as with other lizards, water is not poured directly into the eggs but to the substrate in which they are incubated. Young are about 5-7 cm.
The lizard lizard is recommended for intermediate breeders. It is not covered by CITES and does not require registration. In the wild, usually live in groups - 1 male and several females.
These are very territorial animals, and it is often the case that a male does not accept a female and can severely injure her and even bite to death. In addition, females in the same group compete with each other for males often severely wounding or killing an opponent, therefore, before pairing individuals, it is important to closely observe whether the animalsare not aggressive towards each other, because sometimes the only way out may be to merge them only at mating time. .
If a male accepts a female, you should buy 2, not 1 female, as he or she may coerce your roommate to death, especially during the mating season.
During copulation, the male holds the femur firmly against the skin in the pelvic area, often hurting it, so we need to remember the terrarium's hygiene and wound care to avoid infection .
The study and sources of information :
Zuza Ogrodowczyk (Yui_Kurogane) on the basis of his own experience and literature:
- Timon tangitanus. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Miras, JAM, El Mouden, H., Pleguezuelos, J. & Slimani, T. 2005.
- Handbook - Amphibians and Reptiles . Ulrich Gruber.
1 Source The Reptile Database
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These lizards, once very rare in captivity, are becoming much more common thanks to the work of lizard breeders such as ourselves. They are never available as wild caught lizards. The Tunisian Eyed lizard Timon pater is naturally found in Tunisia and Algeria, while the Moroccan Eyed lizard Timon tangitanus is only found in Morocco. They are hardy lizards that make excellent pets, both for new and more experienced reptile keepers. Please note in the past I have also kept and bred many European Eyed lizards Timon lepidus, and this care guide can be used for this species also. The only differences being that lepidus produces larger clutches of eggs.
Indoors it can be housed in vivaria from 90cm long by 40cm deep by 40cm high, as a minimum for an adult pair. The sides of the cage should be opaque except for the front glass to give the lizards some sense of security. In Northern European countries such as the UK, Holland and Germany, they will do well in outdoor vivaria. Greenhouses are ideal for converting into outdoor vivaria. . During the summer months the outdoor vivaria should ideally be covered with mesh only, not glass or plastic, to allow the unfiltered sunlight to enter. For the rest of the year the cages should be covered with glass, or with ideally with UV transmitting plastic sheeting. When kept outdoors it is essential they have access to an underground hide to avoid the extremes of both hot and cold weather. The outdoor vivarium should be kept with a minimum temperature of around 1-2° C. Thermostatically controlled greenhouse fan heaters are perfect to keep the frost out.
Baby Eyed lizards can be fed daily on small crickets, buffalo worms, small hopper locusts, mini mealworms, and small cockroaches. Adult Eyed lizards can be fed Morio worms, adult crickets, well grown hopper locusts, and various roach species. It’s very important to ensure any insects used are first fed for 24 hours on a variety of green leafy matter, other veggies or fruits. Ideal nutrient-enriching diets for the insects include dandelions, watercress, clover, grass (especially for locusts), tomatoes, orange fleshed sweet potatoes and carrots. You may find your Eyed lizards will occasionally consume soft fruit such as blackberries and very ripe strawberries. They will naturally consume soft fruit during the autumn months in the wild.
Live food should be dusted every third meal with a combined multivitamin/mineral supplement such as Nutrobal. When the lizards are exposed to high output ultraviolet tubes (i.e. 10% UVB rated tubes) or mercury vapour bulbs, it is probably a good idea to use instead a 50/50 mix of nutrobal and calcium carbonate powder. Otherwise you risk overdosing with vitamin D3.
Fresh tap water is perfectly ok. There is no need to use a de-chlorinator. The water should be changed every few days, and the water dish cleaned thoroughly in soapy water every couple of weeks. Plastic jar lids make excellent shallow water containers for baby Eyed Lizards.
Day time temperatures should be, cool end betwee 20-25°C, hot end between 25-30°C, with a hot spot of 40°C.
Night time temperatures should be between 15-22°C. For hibernation the temperature should be between 5-15°C for around 2-3 months.
The vivarium should contain thick branches that enable the lizards to get off the ground, and bask near a heat source. This could be either a ceramic heater with thermostatic control, or a mercury vapour combined heat and UV light bulb. The latter cannot be regulated with a thermostat and therefore are only suitable in very large vivaria. Old fashioned tungsten light bulbs are now difficult to obtain with a sufficiently high enough wattage to be effective heaters. Generally any heat source needs to be placed at one end of the vivarium to ensure there is a ‘hot end’ and a ‘cool end’. Reptiles need to be able to move easily between different temperature zones to enable them to control their own body temperature. Very good quality digital ‘in/out’ style thermometers are now available at very reasonable prices. I would consider these an essential part of any vivarium set up
Lighting should be bright. Specialist reptile tubes should be used, rated at least 5% UVB (ultraviolet B range light), but preferably 10% UVB output. In large cages it is definitely worth considering two tubes. One should be a high output UVB tube, the other should be a tube designed to replicate natural daylight conditions. When using UV tube lighting, branches should be positioned so the lizards can choose to bask within 20cm of the light, whether they are near the heat source or not.
Lights should be on for around 13-14 hours per day in the summer months, 12 hours a day in the spring and autumn months, and only 8 hours a day for the winter months. The use of a timer switch is highly recommended.
Humidity should range from 40-60 %. All Eyed lizards should have a damp hide in the cool part of the vivarium. Keeping them in completely dry vivaria may cause the lizards to have problems shedding their skin. It’s a good idea to spray the vivarium thoroughly a couple of times a week. But the vivarium should be well ventilated, and should be dry within a couple of hours.
General Care and Notes
The first most important factors in keeping Eyed lizards healthy is that it is important to ensure that the feeder insects are nutrient enriched as suggested above. Lizards fed this way will consume natural levels of beta-carotenes essential for healthy eyes. Poor diets will result in Lizards with eye infections. The second most important consideration is that they receive good quality light with high levels of ultraviolet light in the UVa and UVb range. Modern 10% UVb tubes are very good, or even better unfiltered sunlight available when they are kept outdoors. These two factors also will lead to the best coloured, brightest green Eyed lizards.
Vivaria for Eyed lizards should have plenty of hiding places and live plants. But if you are not very green fingered, good quality plastic plants will do.
It is a good idea to hibernate your Eyed lizards for a period of two to three months. This will result in longer-lived lizards, and is essential for good breeding success. When cooling them down in the late winter, temperatures should be reduced very gradually over a period of several weeks. This is where a decent thermostat is essential. During the last couple of weeks no food should be offered, but water should be available at all times. It’s very important that lizards do not hibernate with food still left in their stomachs. At the end of the hibernation period temperatures should again be increased over a week or two.
Eyed lizards can be kept either on their own, in pairs or in breeding groups, with a single male and two or three females. Never house males together. After a couple of clutches of eggs are laid in a season, it is a good idea to remove the males to rest the females, otherwise the females may get exhausted. Over-production of eggs will shorten the life of the females. This is only a reported problem in indoor vivaria. Female Eyed lizards kept outdoors will naturally limit the amount of eggs they produce. Sexual maturity will likely be reached at around one year old, but I believe it is better to keep sexes separate until they are around 18 months old (after a second winter). First time breeding females produce around 10 eggs, but eventually they may lay 18 or more eggs per clutch. Good quality lighting and plenty of calcium in the diet is essential for fertile egg production.
Family Lacertidae : Introduction , general care and Generas / Species :
Family Lacertidae : Introduction , general care and Generas / Species :