Jeweled Lacertas are burrowers and require a good six inches of substrate. A mix of potting soil and/or coco mulch and/or play sand is fine. Keep the substrate moist enough for it to hold a small den or burrow.
Heating and lighting, and humidity :
Jeweled Lacertas are from a temperate region of Europe and do not require extreme temperatures. One half of the cage should be the “warm” side and the other half the “cool” side, with temperatures ranging between 85 and 75 F between both sides. A basking area of 90-95 F is sufficient, and I recommend placing basking surfaces of various heights under the basking area to allow your lizard to thermoregulate.
As diurnal lizards, Jeweled Lacertas need UVB light, and I recommend an “all-in-one” Mercury Vapour Bulb that provides light, heat, and UV over the warm side of the cage. I use the Mega Ray brand and find that it is worth the cost (the 100W bulb is $55 to $65 and should last 12 to 18 months with careful handling). Over the cool side, a low wattage incandescent or halogen bulb is sufficient for minor heat and light (I use a 75W halogen, myself). No heat source is needed at night unless your home is particular cold all year during the night (under 70 F).
The photoperiod should fluctuate somewhat with the time of year, especially if you intend to hibernate (and breed) your lizard.
Moderate humidity is required; keep the substrate moist, spray a few times a week, and provide a hide box with damp moss or dirt.
6- Timon lepidus ( Previously Lacerta lepida) :
The ocellated lizard, eyed lizard or jeweled lacerta in the pet trade (Timon lepidus) (syn. Lacerta lepida)
The ocellated lizard, eyed lizard or jeweled lacerta in the pet trade (Timon lepidus) (syn. Lacerta lepida) is a species of wall lizard also known as the (Portuguese: sardão, Spanish: lagarto ocelado).
Near Threatened (IUCN 3.1)
T. l. ibericus López-Seoane, 1884
T. l. lepidus Daudin, 1802
T. l. nevadensis Buchholz, 1963
T. l. oteroi Castroviejo & Mateo, 1998
Lacerta lepida Daudin, 1802
Timon lepidus is one of the largest members of its family. The adult is 30 to 60 cm (0.98 to 1.97 ft) long and may reach up to 90 cm (3.0 ft), weighing more than 0.5 kg (1.1 lb). About two-thirds of its length is tail. Newly hatched young are 4 to 5 cm (1.5 to 2 in) long, excluding tail.
This is a robust lizard with a serrated collar. The male has a characteristic broad head. It has thick, strong legs, with long, curved claws. The dorsal background colour is usually green, but sometimes grey or brownish, especially on the head and tail. This is overlaid with black stippling that may form a bold pattern of interconnected rosettes. The underside is yellowish or greenish with both the male and female sporting bright blue spots along the flanks, though the male is typically brighter in colour than the female. Young are green, grey, or brown, with yellowish or white, often black-edged, spots all over.
Timon lepidus is native to southwestern Europe. It is found throughout the Iberian peninsula (Spain, Portugal), and is patchily distributed in southern France and extreme northwestern Italy. The range for each subspecies is:
-Timon lepidus ibericus - northwestern Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal)
-Timon lepidus lepidus
-Timon lepidus nevadensis - southeastern Spain
-Timon lepidus oteroi
Ecology and Conservation :
This reptile is found in various wild and cultivated habitats from sea level up to 2100 m in southern Spain. It is rare at higher altitudes. It prefers dry, bushy areas, such as open woodland and scrub, old olive groves and vineyards, and is sometimes found on more open, rocky or sandy areas. It can occasionally be seen basking on roadsides. The lizard usually stays on the ground, but climbs well on rocks and in trees. It can dig holes and sometimes uses abandoned rabbit burrows.
This lizard feeds mainly on large insects, especially beetles, and also robs birds’ nests and occasionally takes reptiles, frogs, and small mammals. It also eats fruit and other plant matter, especially in dry areas.
Breeding occurs in late spring or early summer. Males are territorial in spring and fight in the breeding season. The female lays up to 22 eggs in June and July about three months after mating, hiding them under stones and logs or in leaf litter or in loose damp soil. It tends to lay fewer, larger eggs in dry areas. The eggs hatch in eight to 14 weeks. The lizard is sexually mature at two years of age.
The ocellated lizard was part of the traditional cuisine of Extremadura, Spain. In this region, the lizard was usually prepared in guisado, made by frying slices of lizard in olive oil, after which they were stewed over a slow fire.
This species is currently under protection in Spain; capture and trade is forbidden.
Male and female ocellated lizard, Timon lepidus, courting.
For the external links , refrences click here to read the full wikipedia article
Care Articles :
1- JEWELED LACERTA
JEWELED LACERTA (Lacerta lepida / Timon lepidus)
courtesy to : bamboozoo.weebly.com/feature-jewelled-lacerta.html
By ZOE STEVENS
About the Jeweled Lacerta
Also known as the Ocellated Lizard, the Jeweled Lacerta is the largest Lacerta with males reaching up to two feet in length (with tail). They are bright green with intricate patterns on their backs (often in rosettes) and blue spots on their sides that reflect UV spectrum light. The males are larger than the females and have, in comparison, enormous heads. Jeweled Lacertas are fairly slim and light, with long tails and long toes and claws. They are common in the wild in Spain, Portugal and France, but are bred by few in captivity in North America.
Their natural habitat is open woodlands and rocky, shrubby meadows.
Purchasing a Jeweled Lacerta
Because they are protected from export, the few Jeweled Lacertas you will find in captivity and for sale are almost invariably captive bred. Look for clear, bright open eyes, a full belly and long, healthy toes, clear nostrils and a clean, pink mouth. Jeweled Lacertas can be encouraged to open their mouths by simply placing a finger, vertically, on the side of the lizard's face. Many will have lost tail tips so look here as well, but note that if some of the tail has been lost but is nicely healed, there is no future risk to the lizard as long as future sheds are monitored.
As hatchlings, males and females may not be easy to tell apart, but as they get a bit older the difference is obvious. Males have larger heads and have more robust colours and pattern. Females tend to have a paler green and a more muted, but still obvious, pattern. Both sexes are lovely.
Size and housing
Male Jeweled Lacertas will reach 24", with a few exceeding that by a few inches. Females will be 16-20". One male will require a minimum of a 4' x 2' x 2' cage; females, a minimum of 3' x 2' x 18'. Front opening cages are ideal as approaching the lizard from above can cause it to think you are a predator, but a tank with a screen lid do. Juveniles can be housed in smaller caging; a general rule of thumb is that the cage should be at least as deep as the lizard and twice as wide as the lizard (tail included).
Males and females should be housed together for breeding purposes only. These lizards can be extremely food-aggressive and rough during mating, and it is best to keep them alone for most the year. Juveniles should also be kept separate as the first of a group of juveniles to become a dominant male may kill the others. If you insist on keeping multiple animals together, larger than recommended caging is required.
Cage decor :
Jeweled Lacertas do climb but they are not particularly arboreal so provide them with large branches, pieces of cork bark, driftwood, or rocks.
If you do use rocks in the cage, make sure the rock is either very light (e.g., slate), or that it is resting on the bottom surface of the cage and not just in the surface of the substrate, because if the Lacerta burrows under the rock, it could be crushed. Partially buried cinder blocks actually make great hides because they have built-in caves.
I use a large rectangular Tupperware type container as a moist hide box. I made a hole in the lid large enough for the lizard to get through and put some damp moss in the hide box, and buried it in the substrate with the hole in the lid exposed. I recommend this type of moist hide; my Lacerta uses it every day and it is very handy during shedding.
Probably the most fun part of having a Jeweled Lacerta is feeding it! Once they get over their initial shyness, Jeweled Lacertas are typically very food motivated. They are omnivorous and eat mostly invertebrates: garden snails, dubia roaches (if legal in your area), superworms, darkling beetles and red wigglers are all great, and can easily be bred in an apartment with minimal work and smell. Crickets, silkworms and hornworms are easily obtained and nutritious. Butterworms, waxworms and small pieces of boiled chicken make good, occasional treats, and other insects such as grass hoppers, grubs, and beetles can be collected outdoors as long as you can do so legally and in an area that you know is not treated with any pesticides.
Jeweled Lacertas also eat small amounts of sweet fruit; ripe and mashed with a fork. Strawberry, apple, banana, mango and peaches have all been well received by my Lacerta.
Dust all food with calcium supplement most days; occasionally, use a vitamin or Calcium with D3 supplement instead.
Handling and temperament :
Jeweled Lacertas can be pretty skittish and shy, especially while they settle in (a process which can take several months), and are not really recommended if you are looking for a handling lizard. However, they can and do settle down and many can be gently and briefly handled. They are food motivated, and this can be used to your advantage. If you do attempt to handle your Lacerta, don’t grab or restrain it; rather, put your hand under its body and lift gently.
If you need to restrain a Jeweled Lacerta, drop a dishtowel on it and seize it confidently but carefully. They can drop their tails and they put up an awful fuss but they are hardy and recover quickly from handling related stress. Covering their faces or dimming the lights can help calm them.
Hibernation and breeding
Jeweled Lacertas can be hibernated and may do so on their own when the temperature drops in the winter. During this time they will continue to bask but they will eat and move a lot less. Hibernation is required for breeding but otherwise it is optional. You can keep the temperatures the same as in the summer to avoid it.
Hibernation should be initiated by gradually dropping the temperatures in the beginning of the winter to 40-50 F, and lasts 2 to 3 months. Sexual maturity is reached in 2 to 3 years. Mating generally occurs one week to a month after the hibernation is over, and can be violent. I have heard of males injuring and killing females during mating, so ensure that both animals are 100% healthy before attempting to breed them. About a week before laying up to 20 eggs (8-12 is average), the female will be restless and will dig often, and may stop eating. Be sure to provide a laying box where she will (hopefully) lay her eggs. The adults may eat the eggs so keep an eye on them and remove any eggs as soon as possible. Up to three clutches may be laid in a season.
The eggs should be incubated on appropriate incubating medium such as Vermiculite (damped with water, 1:1 ratio by weight) at 82-86 F and will hatch in 90-120 days. The new babies are about 2.5 inches long and eat the same thing as the adults, just smaller items.
2- Ocellated Lizard
Timon lepidus (DAUDIN, 1802)
Timon lepidus is the largest European lizard. This species can reach a body length of up to 80 cm and a weight of more than 500 gr. Some sources even mention a total length of 90 cm (ENGELMANN et al. 1985). 2/3 of the length is made up by the tail. The basic color is gray-green with turquoise and black scales on the back. The sides of the body are graced with several rows of blue to turquoise spots. The young animals are yellowish brown to green with black rimmed white spots on their back.
Breeding in captivity was successful many times. While these lizards are very shy in nature and have a flight distance of 6-10 m, in captivity they get used to the keeper and eat out of his hands. Even in Germany, it is possible to keep the Ocellated Lizard outdoors for several months.
The Ocellated Lizard prefers rocky habitats near walls, scrub-rich sites on roadsides, sparse bushland, old vineyards and olive groves. In Portugal for example, these lizards can be found in a height of up to 1000 m above sea level (MALKMUS 2002), and in Spain they have already been sighted in a height of over 2000 m above sea level. Timon lepidus occasionally climbs on trees (HOFER).
Socialization with the Frilled Lizard (Chlamydosaurus kingii) seems possible (ZAUNER 2002). Even a peaceful coexistence with Scheltopusiks and Uromastyx species was reported (RUTSCHKE 1989). Aggressive behavior towards other lizards is probably due to different factors. This could include similar body shape, size and color.
In nature, the Ocellated Lizard goes dormant for 3-4 months. This period starts from around October and lasts until March/April. During this period, the temperature is at 4-7 °C. The soil in the winter container should be high enough to enable burying. BANIA (2002) mentions that her lizards rest for a period of one month and mate immediately afterwards. ZAUNER (2002) reports on a resting period of 2 months at temperatures of about 15 °C and switched-off lights. HAHN & FENSKE (1994) talk about a resting period of 4 months at 6-12 °C. Therefore, they transfer the reptiles into a tub, which is half-filled with a mixture of river sand and forest soil. The container is then darkened with a blanket. The substrate is held slightly damp by weekly spraying. RUTSCHKE (1989) reports on winter dormancy of 2-3 months for adult animals and of 6 weeks for semi-adults at a temperature of 6-11 °C. As a dormancy box he uses an old aquarium with a gauze lid filled with a 20 cm high layer of potting soil, moss and pieces of bark. He also keeps the substrate moist by weekly spraying.
In nature, the mating season starts from April to May. In captivity, ZAUNER (2002) observed pairings in mid-March, which lasted 5-9 minutes. HAHN & FENSKE (1994) report over a similarly long copulation while RUTSCHKE (1989) mentions up to 30 minutes. Almost exactly one month afterwards, the eggs are laid. At this time, RUTSCHKE (1989) offers a wooden box with dimensions of 20 x 15 x 10 cm filled with a mixture of damp sand and peat. The lid of the box is closed except for a gap of 5 cm width. A week before the actual egg laying, the females try to find the best place for egg deposition by test drillings. Around the same time, they refuse feed and can behave noticeable aggressive towards conspecifics. The eggs are mostly laid in the morning hours. RUTSCHKE (1989) reports that the eggs are guarded up to six days. A female can produce up to four clutches of 8-20 eggs every year. The eggs mostly stick together in a lump. BRUINS speaks about up to 3 clutches a year. LANGERWERF (2001) mentions that animals in the Netherlands have only two clutches a year and animals in Alabama can lay up to 4 clutches each year. RUTSCHKE (1989) also reports on 4 clutches per year. HAHN & FENSKE (1994) presume that the clutch size depends on the size and age of the females. While young animals lay 6-8 eggs, adult animals can produce up to 23 eggs. RUTSCHKE (1989) determined an average egg size of 16.5 x 22 mm if healthy young animals hatched. Eggs from which rachitic youngs hatched had an average size of 22 x 32 mm. Different materials are mentioned as incubation-substrate. ZAUNER (2002) speaks of vermiculite; RUTSCHKE (1989) prefers a peat-sand mixture or Sahara sand.
Timon lepidus can reach an age of at least 12 years.
Sexual differences :
Males are much larger than females and strongly built. Especially the skull is extremely massive, compared to the one of the females. Males have conspicuous femoral pores (femur = thigh) and are more intensely colored in particular regarding the green tint.
Timon lepidus ibericus (LÒPEZ-SEOANE, 1884)
Timon lepidus lepidus (DAUDIN, 1802)
Timon lepidus nevadensis (BUCHHOLZ, 1963)
Timon lepidus oteroi (CASTROVIEJO & MATEO, 1998)
Timon lepidus lepidus: Mediterranean coast of France, Spain (up to 2100 m above sea level), Portugal [e.g. Sierra de Sintra in the village Musifar in the "Parque de Monserrate" (LANTERMANN 2005)] and Italy (the Alps and Pyrenees up to 1000 m above sea level).
Timon lepidus nevadensis: Southeast of Spain: Alicante, Murcia, Almeria and Granada.
Timon lepidus ibericus: North-west Spain and north-west Portugal.
Timon lepidus oteroi: Sálvora Island in Spain.
Husbandry in the terrarium :
BANIA (2002) recommends a terrarium size of 180 x 60 x 80 cm for a couple. ZAUNER (2002) mentions a terrarium with a size of 200 x 100 x 150 cm for a couple. HAHN & FENSKE (1994) speak about 160 x 60 x 50 cm. Sizes of 130 x 40 x 45 cm as mentioned by RUTSCHKE (1989) seem be too small regarding the floor space for an adult couple; for small animals, however, they appear quite acceptable. Additionally, RUTSCHKE offers an outdoor enclosure with a floor area of 1 m².
The terrarium should be illuminated with fluorescent tubes and basking spots. Every 2-3 days, the lizards should be irradiated with an Osram Ultra Vitalux Bulb for 10-15 minutes (BANIA 2002). ZAUNER (2002) speaks about two 18 W neon tubes (Osram Biolux), a 100 W spot lamp and a 150 W halogen headlight for the above mentioned terrarium. HAHN & FENSKE (1994) light their terrarium with a 60 W basking spot and two fluorescent tubes of the light color 11. RUTSCHKE (1989) speaks about a bulb of 60-100 W and an UVA fluorescent lamp (TL H 09 N, Philips) which was installed at a distance of 30-50 cm above the ground of the terrarium. In addition, twice a week, a 3-minute irradiation with a sun lamp (Hanau) was performed from a distance of 1 meter. According to RUTSCHKE, supply with UV light of the parents seems to be indispensable for breeding healthy offspring. He repeatedly observed that, if the parents were not adequately supplied with UV light, rachitic young animals hatched. A sole substitution of minerals does not seem to have such a high priority.
25-30 °C. Locally, basking spots of 35 °C should be offered. By targeted illumination, ZAUNER (2002) divided the terrarium into a warmer part with temperatures between 30 and 45 °C and a cooler part with temperatures between 20 and 25° C. For the night, he mentions temperatures of about 18 °C.
50-70%. The terrarium should be sprinkled at least once per day. RUTSCHKE (1989) reports on spraying with water at room temperature in the morning.
To mimic a steppe-like landscape, choose a soil of a clay-sand mixture with a layer thickness of 5-15 cm. ZAUNER (2002) mentions washed aquarium sand as substrate. HAHN & FENSKE (1994) recommend against using fine quartz sand because of the dust which settles in the nostrils, causing constant sneezing. They recommend using river sand. RUTSCHKE (1989) mentions Sahara sand as optimal substrate. For decoration, you can use branches and stones. Cork tubes are used as a hideout. A bowl of fresh water should not miss. Since Ocellated Lizards are good climbers, you should take account of climbing opportunities. In the breeding season, the females must be offered suitable egg-laying vessels. ZAUNER (2002) uses plant bowls with a size of 40 x 20 x 15 cm filled with a damp potting compost-peat mixture that are placed in a shady place with a prevailing temperature of 25 °C and surface humidity of 80%. As an alternative, he offers a ceramic dish with a diameter of 19 cm filled with moist sand to a depth of 9 cm next to the basking area. The substrate is covered with a slate. Above the substrate, temperatures of 30 °C and a humidity of 70% prevail. He reports that his females always decided in favor of the last alternative.
BANIA (2002) recommends a feeding ratio of 75% animal diet to 25% fruits. Feeding should be performed 2-3 times a week. Possible food: applesauce, apricots, bananas, eggs, strawberries, poultry meat, crickets, locusts, honey, yogurt, cherries, jam, mice, moths, rats (nest young), earthworms, wax worms, snails and grapes. RUTSCHKE (1989) also mentions canned dog food that I would not recommend as the basis food.
The feed must be regularly dusted with a vitamin and calcium preparation. LANGERWERF (2001) points out that otherwise the animals easily suffer from bone diseases. Every two days, ZAUNER (2002) administers a mixture of 4 g calcium lactate per liter of drinking water, 4 ml AMYNIN® and 1 ml of a vitamin D3 preparation. In addition, each time the feed is dusted with ZVT® and the lizards are offered fragments of cuttlebone. ZAUNER observed that his lizards were eating stones with a diameter up to 1 cm in order to eliminate it again with the feces. Presumably, this measure helps with the digestion.
Table: Incubation data found in the literature
Raising of the about 12 cm long young animals with a weight of 2.5 g is not problematic if they are regularly supplied with vitamins and minerals. RUTSCHKE (1989) reports that 5-20 animals can also be raised together without any major problems even beyond the maturity. Every 2 days they are irradiated with UV light (e.g. Osram Ultra-Vitalux). The young have a different color than the adults. They have a brown base color with black rimmed circular spots on the body. After 3 months, the lizards reach an average size of 250 mm (RUTSCHKE 1989). In 10 months they can reach a total length of up to 45 cm (ZAUNER 2002). RUTSCHKE (1989) reported that a male can reach 60.5 cm of total length with a SVL of 19 cm after four years. Sexual maturity is reached by 3-4 years (BANIA 2002). BRUINS indicates the time of maturity in males with two years. LANGERWERF (2001) also mentions 1-2 years. HAHN & FENSKE (1994) and RUTSCHKE (1989) observed first pairings at the age of one year.
BANIA, S. (2002): Eine der schönsten Echsen Europas im Terrarium - Die Perleidechse. - Natur und Tier-Verlag, Münster, REPTILIA Nr. 37, 7(5): 71-74.
BANNERT, H. (1994): Bericht über Freiland-Haltung und erfolgreiche Nachzucht im Freien von Lacerta lepida in Österreich. - Die Eidechse 5(13): 8-9.
BISCHOFF, W. (1982): Zur Frage der taxonomischen Stellung europäischer und nordwestafrikanischer Perleidechsen (Sauria, Lacertidae, Lacerta lepida-Gruppe). - Amphibia-Reptilia, Wiesbaden 2: 357-367.
BISCHOFF, W., M. CHEYLAN & W. BÖHME (1984): Lacerta lepida DAUDIN, 1802- Perleidechse. - In: Böhme W. (ed): Handbuch der Reptilien und Amphibien Europas, Band 2/I., Echsen II (Lacerta). - Aula-Verlag Wiesbaden, pp. 181-210.
Bonetti, M. (2002): 100 Sauri. - Mondadori (Milano), 192 pp.
BUSACK, S. D. (1987): Morphological and biochemical differentiation in Spanish and Maroccan populations of the lizard, Lacerta lepida. - J. Herpetol. 21(4): 277-284.
BRUINS, E. : Terrarien Enzyklopädie - Karl Müller Verlag.
CASTROVIEJO, J. & J. A. MATEO (1998): Una nueva subespecie de Lacerta lepida DAUDIN, 1802 (Sauria, Lacertidae) para la Isla de Salvora (Espana). - Publ. Asoc. Amigos de Donana, 12: 1-21.
DAUDIN, F. M. (1802): Histoire Naturelle, génerale et particulièredes reptiles, ouvrage faisant suite, a l’histoiure naturelle, générale et particulière composée par LECLERC DE BUFFON, et redigée par C. S. SONNINI, vol. 3. - F. Dufart, Paris.
DUMÉRIL, A. M. C. & G. BIBRON (1839): Erpétologie Générale on Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles. Vol. 5. - Roret/Fain et Thunot, Paris.
ENGELMANN, W. E., J. FRITZSCHE, R. GÜNTHER & F. J. OBST. (1993): Lurche und Kriechtiere Europas. - Neumann Verlag (Radebeul, Germany), 440 pp.
FUNKE, O. (1999): Standorttreue bei Timon lepidus lepidus. - Die Eidechse 10(2):63.
GALÁN REGALADO, P. & G. FERNÁNDEZ ARIAS (1993): Anfibios e réptiles de Galicia. - Vigo (Ed. Xerais de Galicia), 501 pp.
HAHNE, A. & R. FENSKE (1994): Haltung und Zucht der Perleidechse Lacerta lepida lepida DAUDIN, 1802 - Erfahrungen aus Terrarien- und Freilandhaltung. - Sauria, Berlin, 16(3): 17-23.
HAHNE, A. (1994): Urlaubsbekanntschaften mit Perleidechsen in Portugal. - Die Eidechse 5(11): 11-12.
HOFER, R.: Amphibien Reptilien Kompaß. - Verlag Gräfe & Unzer, München.
LANGERWERF, B. (2001): Jewelt Lacertas: a mediterranean treasure (Timon lepidus). - Reptiles, Kalifornien, 9(12): 22-31.
LANKA, V. & Z. VIT (1984): Lurche und Kriechtiere. - Verlag Werner Dausien, Hanau, 224 S.
LANTERMANN, W. (2005): Die Perleidechse (Timon lepidus) - Fotoimpressionen von Europas größter Echsenart. - elaphe, Rheinbach, 13(2): 52-54.
MALKMUS, R. (1982): Beitrag zur Verbreitung der Amphibien und Reptilien in Portugal. - Salamandra 18(3-4):218-299.
MALKMUS, R. (1990): Herpetofaunistische Daten aus Nordostportugal. - Salamandra 26(2/3): 165-176.
MALKMUS, R. (2002): Zu Höhenverbreitung der Eidechsen Portugals. - Die Eidechse 13: 65-76.
MATEO, J. A., L. F. LOPEZJURADO & C. P. GUILLAUME (1996): Proteic and morphological variations in ocellated lizards (Lacertidae): A complex of species across the Strait of Gibraltar. - Comptes Rendus de L Academie Des Sciences Serie III - Sciences de la Vie - Life Sciences 319 (8): 737-746.
MAYER, W. & W. BISCHOFF (1996): Beiträge zur taxonomischen Revision der Gattung Lacerta (Reptilia: Lacertidae). Teil 1: Zootoca, Omanosaura, Timon und Teira als eigenständige Gattungen. - Salamandra 32(3): 163-170.
MEINIG, H. & M. SCHLÜPMANN (1987): Herpetologische Eindrücke einer Iberienreise. - Herpetofauna 9(49): 11-24.
ODIERNA, G. et al. (1990): Karyological differences between Lacerta lepida and Lacerta pater. - J. Herpetol. 24(1): 97-99.
PFAU, J. (1988): Beitrag zur Verbreitung der Herpetofauna in der Niederalgarve (Portugal). - Salamandra 24(4): 258-275.
RUTSCHKE, J. (1989): Erfahrungen bei langjähriger Haltung und Zucht der Perleidechse Lacerta lepida lepida DAUDIN, 1802 unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des UV-Einflusses auf die Vitalität der Jungtiere. - herpetofauna, Weinstadt, 11(60): 25-31.
SALVADOR, A. (1998): Reptiles, In: Fauna Ibérica, vol. 10. - Dep. de Publ. del CSIC, Museo Nac. de Cienc. Naturales, Madrid, 705 pp.
SCHMITT, G. (1957): Aufzucht von Perleidechsen. - DATZ, Stuttgart, 10: 271-273.
SPRÜNKEN, M. & J. RUTSCHKE (1992): Freilandhaltung am Niederrhein mit erfolgreicher Nachzucht von Lacerta lepida lepida DAUDIN, 1802 und Lacerta lepida nevadensis BUCHHOLZ, 1963. - herpetofauna, Weinstadt, 14(77): 6-10.
SUBIRÀ, E. F. (1996): Gaudí und die Herpetologie. - Natur und Tierverlag Münster, REPTILIA 1(1): 58-63.
TROIDL, S. (1999): Melanismus bei Timon l. lepidus. - Die Eidechse 10(1): 20-22.
ZAUNER, J. (2002): Haltung und Nachzucht der Perleidechse. - elaphe 10(3): 24-28.
Family Lacertidae : Introduction , general care and Generas / Species :
Family Lacertidae : Introduction , general care and Generas / Species :