10 - Cyclodomorphus genus :
Cyclodomorphus is a genus of small to medium-sized skinks (family Scincidae). It belongs to the Egernia group which also includes the blue-tongued skinks (Austin & Arnold 2006).
-Cyclodomorphus casuarinae, She-oak Skink
-Cyclodomorphus praealtus, Alpine She-oak Skink
This species still new and not available yet in the market
- The she-oak skink (Cyclodomorphus casuarinae) :
The she-oak skink (Cyclodomorphus casuarinae) is a large, long-tailed, snake-like skink endemic to Tasmania, Australia. It is viviparous; mating in spring, and giving birth in latest summer.
Jump up^ Cogger, H.G. (1979). Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia. Reed: Sydney. ISBN 0-589-50108-9
Scientific classification :
(Duméril and Bibron)
Pink Tongue Skink Set-Up *~*Cyclodomorphus gerrardii
The land mullet ("Egernia" major) belongs to the Bellatorias clade
Other websites :
- Cyclodomorphus gerradii or Hemisphaeriodon gerrardii
The genus Hemisphaeriodon is closely related to the genus Cyclodomorphus
Hemisphaeriodon is a genus of lizards containing only one species, Hemisphaeriodon gerrardii, the pink-tongued skink. The genus Hemisphaeriodon is closely related to the genus Cyclodomorphus, which contains some of the largest members of the skink family (Scincidae). In Australia H. gerrardii is called commonly the pink-tongued lizard. As suggested by these common names, its distinguishing characteristic is a pink tongue as opposed to the blue tongue of the closely related genus Tiliqua.
W. Peters, 1867
Binomial name :
Hinulia gerrardii Gray, 1845
Hemisphaeriodon gerrardii— Wilhoft, 1960
Tiliqua gerrardii— Cogger, 1983
Cyclodomorphus gerrardii— Shea, 1990
Hemisphaeriodon gerrardi— Cogger, 2000
The specific name, gerrardii, is in honor of British herpetologist Edward Gerrard (1810-1910), who was Gray's "right-hand man" at the British Museum.
Commonly known as a "pink-tongued skink", it is a relatively large lizard of up to 45 cm that has a slender body with a long, slender and slightly prehensile tail about the same length as the body. The limbs are well developed with long digits and sharp claws. The neck is well pronounced and the head is relatively large, wider in males than in females. In adults the tongue is pink. H. gerrardii has a slate-grey to fawn dorsal ground colour with dark grey to brown or black cross bands. These bands are more pronounced in males and less so in females. There are about 20 cross bands from the neck to the tip of the tail, which run slightly backwards laterally. The ventral surfaces of H. gerrardii are white to pinkish or creamy brown and may be marbled on the cross bands. The scales are smooth and, on the head, edged with a darker colour. The tip of the snout is dark in adults with some darker spots on the head. The limbs are spotted or streaked darkly. All juveniles are marked with pronounced black cross bands on a very light grey ground colour. There are several dark spots on their heads, especially under the eyes. The tip of the snout is light in colour and the tongue and mouth are blue. Similar species (Cogger 2000): H. gerrardii has been associated with the genus Tiliqua as well as the genus Cyclodomorphus due to their close relation (previous names: Cyclodomorphus gerrardii and Tiliqua gerrardii). H. gerrardii is very similar in appearance to the Eastern blue-tongue, Tiliqua scincoides; however, H. gerrardii
has, true to its common name, a pink tongue as an adult. It is also much more slender than the T. scincoides, having a more slender body, a much longer and narrower tail as well as a smaller head. In addition, the limbs are more developed and longer than those of the blue-tongues. Hemisphaeriodon gerrardii can be distinguished from Cyclodomorphus spp.. by its relatively shorter body, longer limbs and a much broader head.
From Springwood, NSW, along the eastern coastal country and eastern ranges to the Cairns region, QLD
Ecology and behaviour :
Hemisphaeriodon gerrardii inhabit wet sclerophyll forests and rainforests as well as moist areas in woodlands. They shelter beneath leaf litter, in hollow logs and crevices of rocks and trees and their slender bodies and limbs are an adaptation for moving in thick undergrowth. Hemisphaeriodon gerrardii move with lateral undulations on smooth surfaces, but hold their hind limbs close to the body and move the tail in a side-winding motion when moving through grass and when climbing on branches, using only the forelimbs. The lizards’ main diet consists of snails and slugs, for which they forage during twilight hours and at night in summer and also during the day in cooler months. To crush the shells of snails, H. gerrardii use their large and flattened teeth in the back of the upper and lower jaw. Hemisphaeriodon gerrardii are good climbers using their semi-prehensile tail as a supporting aid and, although only partially arboreal, climb trees to feed when necessary. The juveniles seem to climb vegetation more frequently to avoid predation. When threatened, H. gerrardii raises its body off the ground to appear larger and flickers or vibrates its tongue rapidly similar to snakes.
Breeding biology :
Courtship occurs in early spring for a period of six weeks, during which time males have been observed to fight. In mating, the male grasps the female’s head with his jaws and mounts her. After an estimated gestation period of 101 to 110 days, females produce large litters of 20 to 30 (largest recorded: 67) live-young in early summer. During birth, the female holds her hind legs close to her body, as when moving through grass, giving single births about every 30 minutes during which she moves around. The young are born curled up in a foetal membrane, which they eat after breaking free. Immediately after birth, the young start flickering their tongues. The tongue and mouth are dark blue and the ventral surface is black in juveniles, changing to pink and mauve respectively after about three months. The young are independent from straight after birth without any parental care and start feeding on slugs and snails. Age at sexual maturity is about 22 months.
Other websites :
Splitting Egernia in four
Cladistic analysis of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4, 12S rRNA, c-mos and β-fibrinogen intron 7 DNA sequence data delimits 4 clades in Egernia sensu lato, which are best regarded as separate genera—as had already been proposed in former times, often as early as the 19th century:
Bellatorias Wells & Wellington, 1984 (= Hortonia)
Largish to very large skinks (adult snout-vent length 160–310 mm and more) with a bulky angular body and rather large eyes. 26–36 rows of midbody scales; dorsal scales smooth or weakly keeled. The nasal scale has a postnarial groove running to the first supralabial scale; the subocular scale row is incomplete. Eyelids usually have conspicuous cream-coloured margins.
11- Egernia genus :
Egernia is a genus of skinks (family Scincidae) that occurs in Australia. These skinks are ecologically diverse omnivores that inhabit a wide range of habitats. However, in the loose delimitation (which incorporates about 30 species) the genus is not monophyletic but an evolutionary grade, as has long been suspected due to its lack of characteristic apomorphies.
Some of the skinks traditionally placed in Egernia appear to be among the most intelligent squamates. They have been shown to be able to distinguish between relatives and unrelated conspecifics, and can recognize relatives individually. Several species form monogamous pair-bonds. Most of these species belong to Egernia sensu stricto, and similar behaviour is also known in the related Solomon Islands skink (Corucia zebrata). The latter means that the high intelligence and social skills are probably plesiomorphic for the Egernia genus-group as a whole, and that the solitary species appear to have evolved towards being less intelligent and social again. It may still be, however, that the intelligent behaviour is a homoplasy that evolved several times in the Egernia genus-group; the fact that Corucia is a monotypic and rather distinct genus makes it impossible to decide at present.
Systematics, taxonomy and evolution :
It is the namesake genus of the Egernia genus-group, which also includes the Solomon Islands skink (Corucia), Cyclodomorphus and the blue-tongued skinks (Tiliqua). In some older works, it is considered closely related to Mabuya, but even among the subfamily Lygosominae this genus does not seem to be particularly closely related and would—were the genus-groups treated at the rarely used rank of infrafamily—certainly constitute an infrafamily of its own. On the other hand, the enigmatic crocodile skinks (Tribolonotus) might be a very basal member of the Egernia genus-group.
The genus Egernia proper, as well as the other lineages, appear to be of Miocene—probably Early Miocene—origin, meaning they radiated at least 15, maybe 20 million years ago (mya). There are fossils of Egernia-like Lygosominae from around the Oligocene-Miocene boundary 23 mya, but these cannot be assigned to the present genus with certainty. Rather, they appear to be basal members of the Egernia genus-group, still very plesiomorphic Lygosominae with a habitus similar to Mabuya.
Egernia stokesii, a small species of Egernia sensu stricto
Genus:Egernia (but see text)
Contundo Wells & Wellington, 1984
Silubosaurus Gray, 1845
Sivascincus Wells & Wellington, 1985
Storrisaurus Wells & Wellington, 1985
Tropidolopisma A.M.C. Duméril &Bibron, 1839
and see text
The gidgee skink (E. stokesii) is a large species of the "typical" clade
Egernia sensu stricto – spiny-tailed skinks and crevice-skinks
Mid-sized to large skinks (adult snout-vent length 100–240 mm) with a bulky, usually somewhat flattened body and small eyes. 24–46 rows of midbody scales; dorsal scales smooth, ridged, keeled or spiny (the tail is often notably spiny). The nasal scale has a postnarial groove; the subocular scale row is incomplete. Eyelids similar in colour to the adjacent scales.
Egernia cunninghami (Gray, 1832) – Cunningham's skink
Egernia depressa (Günther, 1875) – pygmy spiny-tailed skink
Egernia douglasi Glauert, 1956 – Kimberley crevice-skink
Egernia formosa Fry, 1914 – Goldfield's crevice-skink (tentatively placed here)
Egernia hosmeri Kinghorn, 1955 – Hosmer's spiny-tailed skink
Egernia kingii (Gray, 1838) – King's skink
Egernia mcpheei Wells & Wellington, 1984 – eastern crevice-skink, McPhee's Egernia
Egernia napoleonis (Gray, 1838) – south-western crevice-skink
Egernia pilbarensis Storr, 1978 – Pilbara crevice-skink
Egernia richardi (W. Peters, 1869) – bright crevice-skink, dark spiny-tailed skink (= E. carinata)
Egernia rugosa De Vis, 1888 – Yakka skink (tentatively placed here)
Egernia saxatilis Cogger, 1960 – black crevice-skink, black rock skink
Egernia stokesii (Gray, 1845) – gidgee spiny-tailed skink, gidgee skink, Stoke's skink
Egernia striolata (W. Peters, 1870) – tree crevice-skink, "tree skink"
Egernia frerei (Günther, 1897) – major skink
Egernia major (Gray, 1845) – land mullet
Egernia obiri (Wells & Wellington, 1985) – Arnhem land skink (formerly E. arnhemensis)
Liopholis Fitzinger, 1843 (= Flamoscincus) – Australian desert and rock skinks:
Smallish to largish-sized skinks (adult snout-vent length 75–200 mm) with a bulky angular body and rather large eyes. 34–52 rows of midbody scales; dorsal scales usually smooth. The nasal scale has no postnarial groove; the subocular scale row is incomplete. Eyelids usually have conspicuous cream-coloured margins.
Egernia guthega Donnellan, Hutchinson, Dempsey & Osborne, 2002 – Guthega skink, Snowy Mountains skink, alpine Egernia
Egernia inornata (Rosén, 1905) – unadorned desert-skink, "desert skink"
Egernia kintorei (Stirling & Zietz, 1893) – Great Desert skink
Egernia margaretae (Storr, 1968) – Centralian Ranges rock-skink, Flinder's Ranges rock-skink
Egernia modesta (Storr, 1968) – Eastern Ranges rock-skink
Egernia montana Donnellan, Hutchinson, Dempsey & Osborne, 2002 – mountain Egernia, "mountain skink"
Egernia multiscutata (Mitchell & Behrndt, 1949) – southern sand-skink, heath skink, bull skink
Egernia pulchra (F. Werner, 1910) – south-western rock-skink, spectacled rock-skink
Egernia slateri (Storr, 1968) – Centralian Floodplains desert-skink, Slater's Egernia
Egernia striata (Sternfeld, 1919) – nocturnal desert-skink, night skink, striated Egernia
Egernia whitii (Lacépède, 1804) – White's skink, White's rock-skink
White's skink ("Egernia" whitii) of the Liopholis clade
Lissolepis Peters, 1872 – mourning skinks
Mid-sized skinks (adult snout-vent length 100–130 mm) with a bulky angular body and small eyes. 20–28 rows of midbody scales; dorsal scales smooth. The nasal scale has a postnarial groove; the subocular scale row is complete. Eyelids similar in colour to the adjacent scales.
Egernia coventryi (Storr, 1978) – eastern mourning skink
Egernia luctuosa (W. Peters, 1866) – western mourning skink, western glossy swamp skink
This species still new and not available yet in the market
Egernia major, also known as Land Mullet are lizards. They are some of the largest members of the skink family (Scincidae). They can be easily confused with the related Egernia frerei, the Major Skink.
- Egernia major, also known as Land Mullet :
Scientific classification :
Binomial name :
Tropidolepisma major Gray, 1845
The species may reach total lengths of up to 60 cm (23.6 inches). They are uniform glossy black to brown, with a paler ring around the eye. Their colour, along with their large size, allow them to maintain a body temperature of 30 degrees Celsius; they spend much of the day basking in the sun. Adult males have slightly shorter bodies but slightly longer forelimbs and heads than adult females  The ventral side (belly) ranges in colouration from auburn (orange-brown) to white  Juveniles have prominent cream lateral spots
Egernia major is long-lived - with one captive female lizard known to have lived for at least 23 years
The unusual name comes from the pungent, fishy odour emitted when threatened.[verification needed] The common name "Land Mullet" is said to date back to Longman (1918), who reported it to be in common usage for the species around Tamborine Mountain. The name probably alludes to the superficial resemblance to the homonymous fish, which has a similarly blunt head, large scales and is of similar size and coloration.
Habitat and Distribution :
Native to Australia, they are generally restricted to the rainforest of south-eastern Australia. The range of natural distribution is in discontinuous locations from the northern side of the Hawkesbury River in the south, to the Conondale Range, near Maleny in south eastern Queensland. They occur at altitudes from sea level (Park Beach, New South Wales) to 840 m (Acacia Plateau, Queensland)
The species favours habitat with many fallen logs, and it remains in close proximity to these. The restricted sunlight of the forest type require a number of basking sites to be available. It is less frequently found in other types of environs, such as the open eucalypt woodland of the region.
The lizards shelter in hollow logs or burrows. Often these are dug in to the soil-bound root systems of fallen trees.
Land Mullets are normally reported to be very shy, dashing noisily to the cover of dense low vegetation if disturbed. However, in some popular National Parks, the lizards have become habituated - scavenging close to humans for scraps at picnic and camping sites.
Land Mullets are live-bearing reptiles which usually reproduce roughly 4 to 9 independent offspring per litter. Largely solitary, they primarily associate only when it is time to mate.
The land mullet eats woody fungi, mushrooms, berries, seeds, insects such as beetles and grasshoppers as well as decaying fruit material
Other websites :
Australian Land Mullet (Egernia major) Queensland, Australia
Land Mullet (Egernia major)
Land Mullet (Bellatorias major or Egernia major) / Riesen-Stachelskink in Lamington National Park
Land Mullets feeding
- Egernia stokesii :
Gidgee Skink :
courtesy to : australianmuseum.net.au/gidgee-skink
The Gidgee Skink (Egernia stokesii) is a shy species of spiny-tailed skink belonging to the large Egernia genus of Australian lizards. The species is named in honour of Admiral John Lort Stokes who served with Charles Darwin on the HMS Beagle and charted the Houtman Abrolhos Islands in Western Australia, where the type specimen was first collected. The common name is derived from the species' association with Gidgee Trees (Acacia species).
Gidgee Skink with white background
Photographer: Stuart Humphreys © Australian Museum
Standard Common Name :
This medium-sized skink has a relatively short tail with keeled scales along its dorsal surface from the back of the neck down to the tip of the pointed tail. The legs are quite short, requiring the lizard to slide on its belly when it moves around. Its colour can vary from dark brown to a rusty colour, with scattered patches of paler scales.
Size range :
Snout to vent length is 195mm
Similar Species :
Cunningham's Skink, Egernia cunninghami, Hosmer's Skink, Egernia hosmeri, Spiny-tailed Skink, Egernia depressa
The species has a widespread (though broken) distribution across semi-arid Australia, from far west New South Wales to the south-western interior of Western Australia. They are also known from several islands off the west coast of Western Australia.
The species occurs in shrubland and open woodland, and often on rock outcrops. Groups of Gidgee Skinks will shelter between rocks, split trees and logs, and within hollows.
The breeding season in the wild differs based on location; females in South Australia have been recorded giving birth between mid-summer and early autumn, however, a wild-caught female from Western Australia gave birth in mid-winter.
Feeding and Diet :
These omnivorous lizards feed predominately on vegetation such as fruit and leaves in the wild, as well as any invertebrate they can catch
The captive diet for this species at the Australian Museum is provided in three feeds within a period of a week. These consist of a small feed of chopped vegetables on one day, a small serving of kangaroo mince on another day as well two cockroaches or crickets for the third feeding. The timing and order of the diet is changed around to simulate natural conditions and prevent stereotypical behaviour (where an animal will have predicable activity patterns and essentially be waiting to be fed). This food is supplemented with calcium and vitamin powder to ensure that a nutritionally balanced diet is provided.
Other behaviours and adaptations
The species tends to defecate in the same spot, a habit that leads to little piles of scats and probably derives from the set routines of animals living in the same place for long periods. This behaviour allows a group of lizards to concentrate its scent in one location away from where they shelter, making it difficult for predators to locate home sites.
Living in large social groups makes it easier to spot danger. When threatened this lizard will take cover in a hollow log, under bark or between rocks. If harassed further it will inhale air, making its body swell up - this increased size, combined with the spiky keeled scales, makes it difficult for a predator to dislodge the lizard from its hiding place.
Life history mode :
Mating and reproduction
This species is highly monogamous with most males fathering only one litter. Females are sexually mature at a snout-vent length of 171 mm and have only one litter per season.
Not all mature females produce every season. In one study, 26 percent of the females did not reproduce in one year. Litter size ranges from 1-8. Gravid females experience contractions of the body and tail for up to 40 minutes prior to the beginning of birth. The young are born head first and each young takes from 26 to 73 seconds to be born. As little as 6 seconds may separate the birth of two skinks in the same litter and a single female can take 1-12 days to give birth to all her young.
Predators, Parasites and Diseases
Gidgee skinks fall prey to dingos, cats, foxes, birds of prey, monitors and snakes.
The species is often infected with the tick Amblyomma vikirri, a species that seems to be closely associated with rock outcrops. The larvae and nymphs of the tick tend to attach in the ears and on the digits whereas the adult ticks tend to seek the posterior part of the back and the tail.
This species is protected in Australia and cannot be collected from the wild and a permit is required in most states and territories to keep this species in captivity. Please see the Resources for keeping live animals page and check with your local wildlife licensing agency.
Cogger, H. G. 2000. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia. Reed New Holland, Sydney
Ehmann, H. 1992. Encyclopaedia of Australian Animals: Reptiles. Angus & Robertson. Pymble.
Fyfe, G. Skinks, Family Scincidae. From Swan, M. (ed.) 2008. Keeping and Breeding Australian Lizards. Mike Swan Herp Books. Lilydale.
Greer, A. E. 1990. The Biology and Evolution of Australian Lizards. Surrey Beatty & Sons.
Greer, A. E. 2006. Encyclopedia of Australian Reptiles – Scincidae. Australian Museum
Other websites :
Dry Vivarium/Terrarium -w Egernia Stokesii(Gidgee Skink) [HD]
Egernia Stokesii & Cunningham
Egernia stokesii Eating Cucumber
Egernia stokesii Enclosure
E. Stokesii babies.
Hand feeding Egernia Stokesii
Gidgee Skink / Egernia stokesii zellingi Breeding 2013 Augustus
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