Mali Uromastyx (Uromastyx maliensis)
Care articles :
courtesy to : www.reptilesmagazine.com/Lizard-Species/Mali-Uromastyx/
Adult Size: 10 to 15 inches total length
Range: North Africa
Captive Lifespan: 12 to 20 Years
Care Level: Intermediate
With imports pouring in, this chunky lizard is now the best-known of the ‘dabb’ lizards of the Mideast. In reality, its availability as a popular pet belies the difficulty of acclimating these animals to captivity. Mali Uromastyx lizards are so specialized for their harsh, desert habitat that they have a poor track record as a pet partly because hobbyists try to treat them ‘too well’ in their efforts to create caging conditions more suited for lizards from moister, more temperate regions.
Give the Mali uromastyx a large cage. Decorate it like a desert sandy gravel as a substrate with abundant rocks. They need an exceptionally hot basking lamp aimed at one end of the cage. It should reach well over 100 degrees Fahrenheit directly under the light because these guys like it hotter during the day than most lizards. Keep the ‘cool’ end in the high eighties to low nineties, although it can drop another 20 degrees over night.
Mali uromastyx are fully herbivorous, subsisting on leaves, flowers, and seeds of desert plants. That’s also how they obtain all their moisture. A water bowl is unnecessary in the cage because they don’t drink standing water. A nocturnal burrow is utilized in the wild, so try to simulate one for them in captivity.
For more information, read our detailed Mali Uromastyx care sheet.
2- Mali Uromastyx Breeding
courtesy to : www.reptilesmagazine.com/Mali-Uromastyx/em-Breeding/
BY DOUGLAS DIX
Mali uromastyx (Uromastyx dispar maliensis) entered the pet trade in the mid-1990s. Their hardiness and inexpensive price, coupled with an endearing temperament, led them to become the most abundant Uromastyx species in captivity in just a few short years.
Originating from Mali, Africa, the bulk of this Uromastyx species’ native range is hot, arid, broken scrublands characterized by rocky outcrops poking through otherwise fractured stone, clay and sand soils. Surface temperatures can exceed 120 degrees Fahrenheit during the summer and occasionally drop to near 32 degrees during the coldest winter nights. The lizards avoid these seasonal extremes by digging burrows, often 1 foot deep and up to 3 feet long, in the hard-packed soils.
Found in Mali, Africa, Mali uromastyx lizards occur in hot, arid and broken scrublands.
Adult Mali uromastyx measure between 11 and 15 inches in total length with an average body weight of 7 to 14 ounces.
As juveniles Mali uromastyx display a camouflage pattern of charcoal spotting on a gray background. Reared in their natural habitat, females retain this coloration. However, if reared in captivity, both sexes consistently develop jet-black heads, legs, tails and sides as they mature. Only their backs and bellies follow a more varied path. Most develop predominately black backs covered in yellow dots. A few reverse this pattern and have predominately yellow backs covered in black spotting, which vary from simple solid freckles to hollow honeycomb and eyespot shapes. Some develop solid-white bellies. Others have bellies solid black, solid yellow, tiger-striped black on yellow, or black on white.
Sexing Tips :
1-Mali uromastyx generally must be longer than 10 inches and more than 5¼ ounces to breed successfully. This takes about three years in captivity. Although they often breed communally in the wild, they do best if kept as true pairs year round in captivity.
2-Determining sex is tricky at first. Both sexes possess femoral pores, and when reared in captivity, coloration is no longer a reliable indicator of sex.
3-Looking for hemipenal bulges under the tail is the safest sexing method. Gently arch the tail over the lizard’s back. Study the underside of the tail just behind the vent opening. With females you’ll see the base of two ligaments, one on each side of the vent, angling down toward the tail tip. Just their base is visible, so it will look like a small upside-down V sitting just above each corner of the vent. With males the hemipenes sit on top of these ligaments, largely masking them. In this case, the pattern looks more like two parallel lines sitting just above the vent pointing toward the tail tip.
Bring the Heat :
Mali uromastyx do best in habitats measuring at least 48 inches long, 24 inches wide and 14 inches tall. We at Deer Fern Farms prefer small, round birdseed (millet) for the bedding, but washed playground sand also works. Keep it shallow because you don’t want lizards to burrow in these substrates, which don’t safely hold up. For burrows, make small cavelike ceramic or natural-rock hides at the cool end of the enclosure. Make them around 2 inches tall and large enough in diameter to allow the animal to easily fit inside when slightly curled up.
We use one mercury vapor bulb, which emits heat and UVB, for the basking spot. Choose a wattage that will heat this spot to 115 degrees Fahrenheit, plus or minus 5 degrees. The main central area of the habitat floor should be around 95 to 100 degrees, and the surface under the hide at the cool end should be 90 degrees, plus or minus 5 degrees. All lights need to turn off at night, but maintain a nighttime temp above 70 degrees. A ceramic heat emitter or an undertank heating pad can supply supplemental heat if necessary.
Mali uromastyx do best if maintained below 30 percent humidity, but they are tolerant of higher humidity as long as the cage is dry and the temperatures are in the preferred ranges. They do not tolerate being cool and damp.
Mali uromastyx are adapted to obtain moisture from their diet, so water bowls are not a necessity. Under typical indoor housing conditions, water bowls are actually detrimental to their long-term health. As a precaution, we offer them a soak outside the habitat once every few weeks. The 100-degree water should be less than 1 inch deep. This soak allows them a drink if needed and helps to ensure clean sheds.
Build a Solid Base :
We offer once a day a base diet containing a 50-50 mix of spring greens and chopped endive. To this we add 5 percent warmed, mixed frozen veggies (peas, chopped carrots, corn and green beans) plus mixed yard weeds (dandelion greens, clover, plantain, chickweed and wild mustard). We also add pesticide-free edible flowers (nasturtiums, hibiscus, violas, roses, dandelions and clover) when in season. The final mix is misted with fresh water and placed in a shallow bowl near the middle of the habitat.
We supplement the diet of the Mali uromastyx daily with a light dusting of Miner-All calcium and mineral powder, which contains low levels, 4,000 international units, of vitamin D3. Every third day we dust with a vitamin mix called Uromastyx Dust.
Set the Mood :
Set up a breeding pair of Mali uromastyx as described, but add a nestbox in the cool end instead of the normal, cavelike hide.
The most practical nesting area for a Mali uromastyx is a completely self-enclosed tub. A 10-gallon soft-plastic tub with lid intact works well. Cut a 4-inch-diameter hole in the upper side, and attach a similar-sized flexible drainpipe to the hole to allow entry from ground level. Fill the box two-thirds full with a 50-50 mix of washed playground sand and peat moss. Adding 10 percent caliche soil makes it more attractive to nesting females. Add water until the substrate is slightly moist to the touch.
Although Mali uromastyx kept as pets can have a 12-hour photoperiod year round, put the lizards through an artificial winter to initiate breeding. Begin by dropping day lengths by one to two hours each week, either a few minutes each day or all at once each weekend, until they’re down to four to six hours of daylight.
Steadily decrease the average daytime ground temperature over this same time period until the mid-80s is the daily high. Nighttime lows should also drop 2 to 3 degrees each week and eventually be in the high 60s. Nighttime temperatures should persist throughout the night and most of the day. The exception is when basking lights are on, and temperatures climb back into the mid-80s.
During the early stages of Mali uromastyx brumation, we offer food every second or third day, and we offer normal amounts at the accustomed feeding time, usually midmorning. When the lizards are down to six hours of daylight, we stop feeding completely. Full brumation proceeds for another 60 days. After that, reverse the process. Add a daylight hour or two per week while gradually increasing the background habitat temperatures until the summer norms are reached.
Wait and Incubate Eggs
Breeding usually occurs right before you reach the normal 12-hour day. Male Mali uromastyx often head-bob at the female Mali uromastyx, especially in the early morning, and actual copulations are easy to miss.
Gestation lasts an average of four weeks before the female lays a single clutch of 10 to 20 eggs. Remove the Mali uromastyx eggs and the nestbox as soon as she finishes burying them.
Prepare an incubation medium from slightly damp vermiculite or HatchRite cut with activated charcoal and 10 percent dry perlite. Fill a Tupperware container measuring 11 inches long, 7 inches wide and 4 inches tall about two-thirds full with this mix, and bury the eggs on their sides until only a small portion of each egg is visible. Original orientation of the Mali uromastyx eggs is not important, but handle them as little as possible. Put the lid on the container. No air holes are necessary.
Incubate the container at 92 degrees. Pop the lid once a week to circulate air and to look for any obviously bad Mali uromastyx eggs. Eggs more than 25 percent caved in, leaking fluid, or with fungal or bacterial growth are bad.
Tend to the Mini Malis
Mail uromastyx babies hatch in 60 to 80 days and require the same housing and feeding conditions as the adults. We make only two modifications. Paper towels are the substrate, and a half-inch-deep water dish is provided for the first two months.
Eight to 10 hatchling Mali uromastyx can be kept in a tank 4 feet long, 2 feet wide and 1½ feet tall. We remove two individuals every two to three months as they grow.
Most Mali uromastyx seek food within 24 hours of hatching. We offer the same diet given to adults, but we offer it twice per day: midmorning and midafternoon.
All in all, Mali uromastyx can be a rewarding species to work with. One of the hardier Uromastyx species, they are relaxed and receptive to their keepers. Regulations have closed off further export, so captive breeding of this species is more important than ever.
3- UROMASTYX MALIENSIS
courtesy to : www.agamen.nl/Engels/agama/maliensis.html
The Uromastyx maliensis also called Mali Uromastyx inhabits the northern parts of Mali and the south of Algeria, where they share their habitat with U. geyri. The climate in their natural habitat is known as a semi- desert to desert climate, with big temperature differences between day and night. The area is very dry and consist mostly of sand wth several rock formations.
Uromastyx are very territorial animals, and they live alone or in small groups with only one male and one or a few females. Males will fight, and can injure each other badly when put together, but also females can be very dominant to each other and cause troubles. It might even be difficult to keep a male and a female together in a terrarium all year round, and its advisable to have an extra cage ready in case they will fight. Uromastyx are diurnal lizards, very active during the day and basking a lot in front of their burrow, but they will retreat into their hides when the sense danger or when it gets to hot. Temperatures can be 10 degrees higher than with the U. acanthinura. From December until March they will retreat into there hides for a resting period.
The U. Maliensis is a medium sized Uromastyx, and will reach a total length of approximately 35-40 cm. Males are often very dark to black and at their backs they have a beautiful yellow colouring. Females often have a less dark brownish ground colour, and the yellow on their back is less bright. Also the males have a bigger head than the females. This probably is the best known of all Uromastyx species, and especially in the USA it is very common in the pet trade. And even though there are many success stories about breeding the maliensis, there are still a lot of wild caught animals for sale.
As this is a pretty active lizard we recommend a pretty big terrarium, I keep my malies in a 150cm x 70cm x 55cm terrarium. By creating a climbable back wall you can increase the floor space. The bigger the terrarium the better. By using flagstones and rocks artificial hides can be made, always make sure all rocks are safely secured and can’t fall on your lizard. (you won’t be the first one losing a reptile because it was crushed by a rock) As substrate I use washed play sand. You can decorate your terrarium with rocks flagstones and wood. Make sure there are enough hides in the terrarium, at least 1 for every animal. Uromastyx like to cramp themselves into their hides, keep that in mind and don’t make them to spacey.
As Uromastyx are real sun loving lizards there can’t be to much light in the cage. The lighting consists of a self ballasted ReptileUV Mega-ray (100W) and a 60 W incandescent spot lamp. UVB lighting seems to be very important for the proper growth and behaviour of these lizards. Without it these animals cannot process calcium and will quickly become calcium deficient and parish. Besides this lizards can see more colours than humans, all the way into the UVB spectrum, this might play a role in finding food and courtship The lamps are on for 12 hours a day (summer 14 hours, winter 8 hours). Animals bask when the air temperature is about 30°C and become active almost immediately. The temperature under one spot can go as high as 55°C and a little cooler under the other spot lamp (40°C). Nightly temperature can be dropped to about 20°C. To get this temperature gradient you need to have a relatively large cages, and at least 2 light bulbs.
Mature and juvenile animals are fed 6-7 times a week. They eat mostly vegetable matter but an occasional locust or wax moth larvae isn’t refused, but must be kept to a minimum as there is a debate about how this would have a negative effect in the long run. A very important aspect of the diet is to vary the vegetable matter fed to your Uro. Animals were mainly fed protein rich veggies with endive as the number one. The endive is mixed with rasped carrots, dandelion (flowers and leaves), cabbages and paksoi. The seeds of paksoi are not eaten. They Uro’s love birdseed, pollen granules and lentils The food is powdered with a calcium and vitamin supplement. 1-2 times a week the terrarium is misted about an hour before the lights are turned off to increase night time humidity. Normally a healthy Uromastyx will obtain the necessary water from his food and do not need a water bowl. I have not offered a water bowl over the last 5 years. But if you offer a water bowl make sure that it’s a very shallow bowl so the humidity in your terrarium wont go up too much.
Unfortunately I haven’t bred my malies yet, but especially in America there are a lot of good breeding results with this species. And also in the Netherlands and Germany this species is bred more often. So everything I write about the breeding and incubation of this Uromastyx species is from the literature listed below. To get them in a “breeding mood” a resting period from November to January is given. Lowering the temperature for 5 to 10 degrees celcius over this period should be sufficient. (Wilms) After copulation the female will lay 10 to sometimes even 24 eggs, in slightly moistened sand.
Incubation of the eggs
In the incubator at a temperature of 30-32 degrees Celsius the eggs will hatch in approximately 75 to 100 days.
Raising the juveniles
As I bought mine as juveniles I can tell you this from my own experience. The juveniles are kept the same as the adult lizards. Only the food offered is cut into appropriate (smaller) pieces, and in the beginning I offered a small water bowl. The young malies are very enthusiastic, and will go through the whole cage. Wild caught animals are much more difficult to acclimatise than captive bred juveniles, and are more skittish. Even though mine were captive bred they were still very skittish while they were young, but as they grew bigger the became “used to me”. I never handle my Uromastyx unless its absolutely necessary because this is stressful for the animal, and it will cool down quickly outside of it’s cage. Uromastyx are display animals, if you want to something to hold and cuddle ………. buy a cat.
Uromastyx maliensis is a very active lizard which can be kept in captivity if all basic conditions are taken care of, such as adequate housing, feeding, health, acclimatisation and heat/light. For advanced hobbyists this species gives a nice challenge in caring and breeding them. Off course we want to see a healthy population in captivity this is why this species must be bred more in captivity. Be sure to get captive bred animals, as they are easier to keep healthy and strong. Uromastyx are not lizards to pick up and cuddle when ever you feel like it, they are display animals witch should be enjoyed from INSIDE their terrarium.
• Uromastyx plus other common Agamids – Jerry G Walls – isbn 1882770870 – The herpetocultural library
• Spiny-tailed Agamids: Uromastyx and Xenagama – R D Bartlett – isbn< 0764125729 – Barron’s
• Uromastyx – Thomas Wilms – isbn 3936180121 – Herpeton
• Dornschwanzagamen – Thomas Wilms – isbn 3980621472 –Herpeton
• Uromastyx and Butterfly Agamids – Jerry G Walls – isbn 079382074x – TFH Publications
• Basic care of Uromastyx Lizards – Philippe De Vosjoil – Advanced vivarium systems
• AVS Uromastyx – Jerry G Walls – Bowtie Pr
• Uromastyx verzamelnummer, 2005 – Stichting Doelgroep Groene Leguanen
• Draco 31, Dornschwanzagamen – Draco
• Reptilia 16, Dorschwanze – Reptilia
Other Websites :
- Good : General care for all Uro. type: aqualandpetsplus.com/Lizards,
- General care of Uro : uromastyxcare.com/cage-habitat/
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Uromastyx - Introduction
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Uromastyx - Introduction
- As Pet
- SPECIES : Most Popular Species .
Other Species :