Morelia spilota, commonly referred to as carpet python and diamond pythons, is a large snake of the family Pythonidae found inAustralia, New Guinea (Indonesia and Papua New Guinea), Bismarck Archipelago, and the northern Solomon Islands. There are many subspecies; ITIS lists six, the Reptile Database seven, and the IUCN eight.
Morelia spilota is a large species of python in the genus, reaching between 2 to 4 metres (6.6 to 13.1 ft) in length and weighing up to 15 kilograms (33 lb). M. s. mcdowelli is the largest subspecies, regularly attaining lengths of 2.7–3 m (8.9–9.8 ft). M. s. variegata is the smallest subspecies, averaging 120–180 cm (3.9–5.9 ft) in length. The average adult length is roughly 2 metres (6.6 ft). However, one 3-year-old captive male M. s. mcdowelli, measured in Ireland, was found to exceed 396 cm (12.99 ft). Males are typically smaller than females; in some regions females are up to four times heavier. The head is triangular with a conspicuous row of thermoreceptive labial pits.
The colouring of Morelia spilota is highly variable, ranging from olive to black with white or cream and gold markings. The patterning may be roughly diamond shaped or have intricate markings made up of light and dark bands on a background of gray or a version of brown.
Scientific classification :
M. s. spilota
The species is oviparous, with females laying 10–50 eggs at a time. Afterward, females coil around the eggs to protect them and keep them warm through using muscular contractions to generate heat. This type of maternal care, which is typical for pythons, ceases once the hatchlings have emerged.
Described as semi-arboreal, they are largely nocturnal, climbing trees and shrubs as well as crossing open areas such as rock faces, forest floors and even roads. However, basking behaviour is commonly observed.
Carpet pythons kill prey by constricting it until it suffocates. Their diet consists mainly of small mammals, birds, and lizards. Incidents of carpet pythons devouring small dogs have been reported.
The species is found throughout mainland Australia, with the exception of the arid centre and the western regions. It is widely distributed throughout the forest regions ofSouthwest Australia. It is also found in Indonesia (southern Western New Guinea in Merauke Regency), Papua New Guinea (southern Western Province, the Port Moresby area of Central Province), and on Yule Island. The type locality given is "Nouvelle-Hollande" [Australia].
Occurs in a wide variety of habitats, from the rainforests of northeastern Queensland (M. s. cheynei) through the River Red Gum/Riverbox woodlands of the Murray and Darling Rivers (M. s. metcalfei), to the arid, treeless islands of the Nuyts Archipelago off the South Australian west coast (M. s. imbricata). They are often found near human habitation where they perform a useful service by eating rats and other vermin. Morelia spilota is known to occur in areas that receive snowfall. Morelia spilota are (semi-arboreal) tree snakes; they do not completely rely on trees, however, and are capable of moving around elsewhere. Morelia spilota are also found in temperate grasslands with hot and dry weather.
Morelia spilota mcdowelli in theLamington National Park, Queensland, Australia.
Morelia spilota is not threatened as a species. The nominate subspecies, Morelia spilota spilota, is listed as threatened with extinction inVictoria. The subspecies M. spilota imbricata is regarded as near threatened in Western Australia, due to loss of habitat.
This species is a popular pet among snake enthusiasts. Some forms can be more irascible than others, such as M. s. mcdowelli and M. s. variegata. Forms that tend to be more even tempered include Morelia spilota and M. s. metcalfei. However this is not a hard rule. Although they can grow to a reasonable size (2–3.5 m) and can be nippy as hatchlings, most will grow into docile adults. However, care must be taken when feeding, as these snakes have a strong "feeding response" behaviour that can be mistaken for aggression. Captive specimens are normally fed live or frozen rats. They may have a lifespan of 15 to 20 years.
Morelia spilota variegata
The care requirements can be generalized for all subspecies. The subspecies Morelia spilota spilota, the cold weather Diamond python, has some separate requirements and habits.
Carpet Python Capture! Wild Australia - Pt. 2 : SnakeBytesTV - Ep. 392 : AnimalBytesTV
Naming and taxonomy :
The first description of Morelia spilota was by Lacépède (1804), who placed it in the genus Coluber as Coluber spilotus. The species has since been described by various authors as containing a number of subspecies and hybrids, these have also been known by various informal names. The attempted arrangement of taxa in this, and other, Australasian Pythonidae has produced numerous synonyms. The discrete and roaming habits of this species have produced a low number of recorded specimens, giving inadequate sample numbers to support descriptions of a taxon's morphology. This is the case with proposed names which are sometimes cited, such as the Papuan Morelia spilota harrisoni (Hoser), despite being unaccepted or invalid. Common names are regional variants of carpet and diamond python or snake.
The following is an incomplete list of synonyms:
[Coluber] Arges - Linnaeus, 1758
[Coluber] Argus - Linnaeus, 1766
Coluber spilotus - Lacépède, 1804
[Python] punctatus - Merrem, 1820
[Coluber (Natrix)] Argus - Merrem, 1820
[Vipera (Echidna)] Spilotes - Merrem, 1820
Python Peronii - Wagler, 1828
Python spilotes - Gray In G. Grey, 1841
Morelia punctata - Gray, 1842
Morelia argus - A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1844
Morelia spilotes - Gray, 1849
M[orelia]. argus var. fasciolata - Jan In Jan & Sordelli, 1864
Python spilotes - Boulenger, 1893
[Python spilotes spilotes] - Werner, 1909
Python spilotes macrospila - Werner, 1909
Morelia argus - Loveridge, 1934
Morelia argus - Stull, 1935
Morelia spilotes spilotes - Worrell, 1961
Morelia argus argus - Stimson, 1969
Python spilotes - McDowell, 1975
[Python spilotus spilotus] - L.A. Smith, 1981
Morelia spilota - Cogger, Cameron & Cogger, 1983
Morelia spilota - Underwood & Stimson, 1990
Morelia spilota spilota - Barker & Barker, 1994
The geographic distribution and common names can summarized as follows:
For the external links , refrences click here to read the full wikipedia article
Care Sheet for the Carpet Python (Morelia spilotes) :
The carpet pythons are a diverse group of snakes from the Morelia genus that are native to a wide variety of biotopes in Australia and New Guinea. They are called carpet pythons because they exhibit a dazzling array of patterns and colors that mimic the beautiful woven carpets found in the Middle East. Collectively they are considered a hardy, medium size python with fairly easy captive care requirements. The more common carpet pythons available in the pet trade include jungle carpet pythons, diamond pythons, Irian Jaya pythons, and coastal carpet pythons. Selective breeding of carpet pythons has recently exploded with new “morphs” such as granite, caramel, jaguar and zebra carpet pythons.
Carpet Python Care Sheet :
BY JOHN BATTAGLIA
Jungle carpet python.
Carpet pythons are widely available in the USA and nearly all are captive bred. Almost every reptile show will have some carpet pythons for sale, and reptile classified sites on the internet have sections devoted solely for the sale of carpet pythons. Reptile specialty stores will usually have carpet pythons for sale and the larger chain pet stores sometimes have them. Range of price is as low as $75 to up to several thousand dollars for particular morphs (such as an albino zebra carpet python). Most carpet pythons are in the $200 to $300 range.
Carpet pythons come out of the egg pencil sized, and once mature they range from 5 feet to 9 feet in length. On the smaller end of the size range are Irian Jaya pythons (mature about 5 feet) and upper end are adult coastal carpet pythons which are closer to 9 feet in length. Usually males and females are about the same size, although females are usually larger in diamond and coastal carpet pythons.
Life span :
Carpet pythons in captivity can easily live 20 years or longer.
Caging for carpet pythons should allow for some retention of humidity, unrestricted observation of the snake, ample area for the snake to move and climb, and easy ability to clean.
In years past aquariums were the staple of snake caging, just because they were pretty much the only thing available. Aquariums are not the best housing, however, because having a top entry to a snake cage makes handling difficult and can also cause stress to the snake as many natural predators to snakes are coming from above. In addition, the glass of aquariums can absorb heat over extended periods of time and cause an extensive build up of heat.
Thus aquariums used as terrariums for snakes can have problematic temperature regulation, especially for small sizes. Nowadays there are many good options for caging that are constructed of plastic, polyethylene or PVC and built specifically for snakes. A large number of shapes and sizes are available, but in general these cages have solid, opaque sides, top and bottom, with the front access door made of transparent material such as acrylic plastic or glass.
The door can open either sideways or top to bottom, and this allows easy handling of the snake as well as easy cleaning. Having opaque sides and top seem to offer some security for pythons, and this is especially important for hatchlings. In regard to size, the length of the snake should not be greater than the sum of the length plus width of the cage. Carpet pythons do not need a lot of height, but are semi-arboreal and prefer some climbing room. For this reason the cage should have at least a shelf they can climb onto or some cage furniture that is off the floor of the cage. Carpet pythons must have a hide box or similar furniture that allows them to completely and tightly crawl under and be hidden from view. Hatchling carpet pythons do best in smaller, shoebox size cages often in rack systems.
Hatcling in a tub with water, a hide and a dowel for climbing.
Many carpet python owners have adult snakes in a 4’ long x 2’ deep x 1’ high cages. One foot of height is probably the minimal needed, because a hide box that is 5 inches high will still allow a space for the pythons to climb on top and have an arboreal perspective. A 3’ x 2’ x 2’ cage will suffice for smaller carpet pythons such as Irian Jaya and jungle carpet pythons. I have one large display cage (5’ x 3’ x 4’) in my home that I cycle my carpet pythons through periodically so they all have opportunities for exploration and exercise. I believe this helps combat cage stagnation and improves the overall health and breeding fitness of the python.
Lighting, Temperature, Humidity :
Carpet pythons do not have any specific lighting requirements. Having some form of lighting for the cages will allow for better visualization of the snake and easier examination of the cage for cleaning. Full spectrum lighting may be beneficial for breeding purposes such as seasonal light cycling, but is not necessary.
A temperature gradient should be provided within the cage so the snake can thermally regulate to either a cooler or warmer side of the cage. A gradient of 72 degrees F for the lower end up to 90 degrees F for the warmer end is optimal. Ceramic heat emitters or radiant heat panels can be mounted on the cage top, or flex-watt tape underneath may be used. The negative to using ceramic heat emitters is that they cause the air to dry out thus significantly lowering cage humidity. In my opinion radiant heat panels are preferable for larger enclosures, and should be temperature controlled using a thermostat or rheostat. For practical reasons, flex watt tape mounted underneath is usually used for the smaller cages (rack style).
Although carpet pythons are hardy and seem to thrive regardless of humidity level, I believe their health is better when there is decent humidity (around 50%) in the cage. This can be accomplished by using a water dish with large surface area in the cage, as well as by occasional misting of the habitat. Misting the cage more often when a carpet python is in ecdysis is beneficial. If misting is used, make certain to allow complete drying before the next misting, as otherwise the moist cage can become an environment for bacterial growth.
Carpet pythons do well on a wide variety of substrates. Newspaper works and is easy as well as cheap. Paper towels can work in rack systems and smaller cages. Care must be taken to remove wet or damp newspapers and paper towels, as these can cause skin infections in the python. Aspen or cypress wood are decent substrates and have the added benefits of looking more naturalistic as well as absorbing odors. I use a laboratory grade bleached hardwood pulp in many of my carpet python cages, and pine wood mulch in some of my naturalistic display cages.
Rats, rats, and more rats (frozen thawed) are the preferred food source for carpet pythons. Some carpet pythons that are started on a diet of mice as hatchlings develop a fussy preference for mice (“mousers”) and refuse to eat anything else. This is not a problem while the carpet python is small, but once it develops into a larger python it might require 10 mice at a time for a substantial meal.
There are a number of methods to convert mousers into rat eaters, the simplest being thawing a frozen small rat (slightly smaller than a mouse) in a zip lock bag along with a frozen mouse and adding a slight amount of water.
The picky carpet python will often accept such a mouse-scented rat without problem, eventually leading to eating rats without need for scenting measures. Chicks, quail and other rodents may be supplemented for the diet, but are not necessary.
Fresh water must be available at all times for carpet pythons. Larger water dishes are preferable, because they both raise humidity and are less susceptible to bacterial growth. Water dishes should be changed and washed at least weekly, and more often if soiled by the python. Water from the tap may be used without problem.
Handling and temperament :
Carpet pythons are picked up much easier from below than above. Support the bulkiest part of the snake with one hand from below, and use your other hand to support forward from that point. Hatchlings up to one year of age are nippy and defensive, which makes sense as they are mostly prey in the wild at this age. After about a year or two most carpet pythons will settle down and are then relatively calm when handled.
John Battaglia has been a reptile enthusiast for over 40 years, and over the past decade has focused his efforts on the selective breeding of carpet pythons and more recently on carpet python – green tree python hybridization. Website: Morelia Trophy Club - moreliatrophyclub.com
Other and recommended websites :
Videos on Care and breeding :
Carpet Python Care and Setup
Coastal carpet python care video
Basic Carpet Python Care
how i care for my carpet pythons
Jungle Carpet Python feeding - Nemesis
CARPET PYTHON VS CHICK LIVE FEEDING
Carpet Python Breeding- Tail Wagging
K Brothers Pythons episode one - Jaguar Carpet Pythons
Magic Carpet Python collection and breeding update
Further reading :
by Nick Mutton (Author), PhD Justin Julander (Author)
- Carpet Python. Carpet Pythons as Pets. Carpet Python Daily Care, Pro's and Cons, Cages, Costs, Diet, Biology and Health. Paperback – March 31, 2016
by Ben Team (Author)
by Lisa Strattin (Author)
Many books you can find in the Internet based libraries and bookshops like Amazon.com ( Click Here ) ..
But first look for the best prices at Book Finder.com