then sheds two to three weeks after ovulation, in what is known as a postovulation shed which lasts another 2–3 weeks, which is longer than a normal shed. The gestation period, which is counted from the postovulation shed, is around 100–120 days. The female then gives birth to young that average 15–20 in (38–51 cm) in length. The litter size varies between females, but can be between 10 and 65 young, with an average of 25, although some of the young may be stillborn or unfertilized eggs known as "slugs". The young are independent at birth and grow rapidly for the first few years, shedding regularly (once every one to two months). At 3–4 years, boa constrictors become sexually mature and reach the adult size of 6–10 feet (1.8–3.0 m), although they continue to grow at a slow rate for the rest of their lives. At this point, they shed less frequently, about every 2–4 months.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The boa constrictor (Boa constrictor), also called red-tailed boa, is a species of large, heavy-bodiedsnake. It is a member of the family Boidae found in North, Central, and South America, as well as some islands in the Caribbean. A staple of private collections and public displays, its color pattern is highly variable yet distinctive. Ten subspecies are currently recognized, although some of these are controversial. This article focuses on the species Boa constrictor as a whole, but also specifically on the nominate subspecies B. c. constrictor.
[Boa] Constrictor Linnaeus, 1758
[Boa] Orophias Linnaeus, 1758
Constrictor formosissimusLaurenti, 1768
Constrictor rex serpentumLaurenti, 1768
Constrictor auspex Laurenti, 1768
Constrictor diviniloquusLaurenti, 1768
Constrictor orophias – Laurenti, 1768
[Boa] constrictrix – Schneider, 1801
Boa diviniloqua– A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1844
Boa constrictor – Boulenger, 1893
Boa diviniloqua – Boulenger, 1893
Constrictor constrictor – Griffin, 1916
Constrictor constrictor constrictor– Stull, 1935
Boa constrictor constrictor– Forcart, 1951
Though all boids are constrictors, only this species is properly referred to as a "boa constrictor" - a rare instance of an animal having the same common English name and scientific binomial name.
All subspecies are referred to as "boa constrictors", while the nominate subspecies, B. c. constrictor, is often referred to specifically as the "red-tailed boa". Within the exotic pet trade, it is also known as a "BCC", an abbreviation of its scientific name, to distinguish it from other boa constrictor subspecies such as B. c. imperator, which is also regularly, and erroneously, referred to as a "red-tailed boa" or "common boa".
Other common names include chij-chan (Mayan), jiboia (Latin American), and macajuel(Trinidadian).
Physical description and anatomy
Size and weight
The boa constrictor is a large snake, although it is only modestly sized in comparison to other large snakes, such as thereticulated python and Burmese python, and can reach lengths from 3–13 ft (0.91–3.96 m) depending on the locality and the availability of suitable prey. Clear sexual dimorphism is seen in the species, with females generally being larger in both length and girth than males. As such, the usual size of mature female boas is between 7 and 10 ft (2.1 and 3.0 m), and 6 and 8 ft (1.8 and 2.4 m) for the males. Females commonly exceed 10 ft (3.0 m), particularly in captivity, where lengths up to 12 ft (3.7 m) or even 14 ft (4.3 m) can be seen. A report of a boa constrictor growing up to 18.5 ft (5.6 m) was later found to be a misidentified green anaconda.
The boa constrictor is a heavy-bodied snake, and large specimens can weigh up to 27 kg (60 lb). Females, the larger sex, more commonly weigh 10 to 15 kg (22 to 33 lb). Some specimens of this species can reach or possibly exceed 45 kg (100 lb), although this is not usual.
The size and weight of a boa constrictor depends on subspecies, locale, and the availability of suitable prey. Several populations of boa constrictors are known as "dwarf boas", such as the population of B. c. imperator on Hog Island. These smaller subspecies are generally insularpopulations. B. c. constrictor reaches, and occasionally tops, the averages given above, as it is one of the relatively large subspecies of Boa constrictor.
Other examples of sexual dimorphism in the species include males generally having longer tails to contain the hemipenes and also longer pelvic spurs, which are used to grip and stimulate the female during copulation. Pelvic spurs are the only external sign of the rudimentary hind legs and pelvis, seen in all boas and pythons.
B. c. constrictor
The coloring of boa constrictors can vary greatly depending on the locality. However, they are generally a brown, grey, or cream base color, patterned with brown or reddish-brown "saddles" that become more pronounced towards the tail. This coloring gives B. c. constrictor the common name of "red-tailed boa", as it typically has more red saddles than other B. constrictor subspecies. The coloring works as very effective camouflage in the jungles and forests of its natural range.
Head shape of B. c. imperator
Also, some individuals exhibit pigmentary disorders, such as albinism. Although these individuals are rare in the wild, they are common in captivity, where they are often selectively bred to make a variety of different color "morphs". Boa constrictors have an arrow-shaped head with very distinctive
stripes on it: One runs dorsally from the snout to the back of the head; the others run from the snout to the eyes and then from the eyes to the jaw.
Boa constrictors can sense heat via cells in their lips, though they lack the labial pits surrounding these receptors seen in many members of the Boidae family. Boa constrictors also have twolungs, a smaller (nonfunctional) left and an enlarged (functional) right lung to better fit their elongated shape, unlike many colubrid snakes, which have completely lost the left lung.
Juvenile South American boa constrictor
Geographic range :
Depending on subspecies, Boa constrictor can be found through Central America (Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama) to South America north of 35°S (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Suriname,French Guiana, Brazil, Bolivia, Uruguay, and Argentina), and in the Lesser Antilles (Dominica and St. Lucia), on San Andrés, Providencia and many other islands along the coasts of Mexico and Central and South America. An introduced populations exists in extreme southern Florida, and a small population on St. Croix in the US Virgin Islands now appears to be reproducing in the wild. The type locality given is "Indiis" – a mistake, according to Peters and Orejas-Miranda (1970).
B. constrictor flourishes in a wide variety of environmental conditions, from tropical rainforests to aridsemidesert country. However, it prefers to live in rainforest due to the humidity and temperature, natural cover from predators, and vast amount of potential prey. It is commonly found in or along rivers and streams, as it is a very capable swimmer. Boa constrictors also occupy theburrows of medium-sized mammals, where they can hide from potential predators.
A boa constrictor in Belize
Boa constrictors generally live on their own, and do not interact with any other snakes unless they want to mate. They are nocturnal, but they may bask during the day when night-time temperatures are too low. As semi-arboreal snakes, young boa constrictors may climb into trees and shrubs to forage; however, they become mostly terrestrial as they become older and heavier. Boa constrictors strike when they perceive a threat. Their bite can be painful, especially from large snakes, but is rarely dangerous to humans. Specimens from Central America are more irascible, hissing loudly and striking repeatedly when disturbed, while those from South America tame down more readily. Like all snakes, boa constrictors in a shed cycle are more unpredictable, because the substance that lubricates between the old skin and the new makes their eyes appear milky, blue, or opaque, so that the snake cannot see very well, causing it to be more defensive than it might be otherwise.
A juvenile female boa constrictor in a shed cycle, note the blue "opaque" eyes
Hunting and diet
Prey includes a wide variety of small to medium-sized mammals and birds. The bulk of their diet consists of rodents, but larger lizards and mammals as big as ocelots are also reported to have been consumed. Young boa constrictors eat small mice, birds, bats, lizards, and amphibians. The size of the prey item increases as they get older and larger.
Boa constrictors are ambush predators, so often lie in wait for an appropriate prey to come along, when they attack. However, they have also been known to actively hunt, particularly in regions with a low concentration of suitable prey, and this behaviour generally occurs at night. The boa first strikes at the prey, grabbing it with its teeth; it then proceeds to constrict the prey until death before consuming it whole. Unconsciousness and death likely result from shutting off vital blood flow to theheart and brain, rather than suffocation as was previously believed; constriction can interfere withblood flow and overwhelm the prey's usual blood pressure and circulation. This would lead to unconsciousness and death very quickly.Their teeth also help force the animal down the throat while muscles then move it toward the stomach. It takes the snake about 4–6 days to fully digest the food, depending on the size of the prey and the local temperature. After this, the snake may not eat for a week to several months, due to its slow metabolism.
SNAKE KILLS RAT! BOA CONSTRICTOR FEEDING PART 2 SerpentSityExotics
Reproduction and development
Boa constrictors are ovoviviparous, giving birth to live young. They generally breed in the dry season—between April and August—and are polygynous, thus males may mate with multiple females. Half of all females breed in a given year, and a larger percentage of males actively attempt to locate a mate. Due to their polygynous nature, many of these males will be unsuccessful. As such, female boas in inadequate physical condition are unlikely to attempt to mate, or to produce viable young if they do mate. Reproduction in boas is almost exclusively sexual. Males ordinarily have a ZZ pair of sex determining chromosomes, and females a ZW pair. In 2010, a boa constrictor was shown to have reproduced asexually via parthenogenesis. The Colombian Rainbow boa, Epicrates maurus was found to reproduce by facultative parthenogenesis resulting in production of WW female progeny. The WW females were likely produced by terminal automixis (see Figure), a type of parthenogenesis in which two terminal haploid products of meiosis fuse to form a zygote, which then develops into a daughter progeny. This is only the third genetically confirmed case of consecutive virgin births of viable offspring from a single female within any vertebrate lineage.
During the breeding season, the female boa emits a scent from her cloaca to attract males, which may then wrestle for the right to breed with her. During breeding, the male curls his tail around the female's and the hemipenes (or, male reproductive organs) are inserted. Copulation can last from a few minutes to several hours, and may occur several times over a few-week period. After this period, ovulation may not occur immediately, but the female can hold the sperm inside her for up to one year. When the female ovulates, a midbody swell can be noticed that appears similar to the snake having eaten a large meal. The female
The effects of central fusion and terminal fusion on heterozygosity
This species does well in captivity, usually becoming quite tame. It is a common sight in both zoos and private reptile collections. Though still exported from their native South America in significant numbers, they are widely bred in captivity. When kept in captivity, they are fed mice, rats,rabbits, chickens, and chicks depending on the size and age of the individual. Captive life expectancy is 20 to 30 years, with rare accounts over 40 years, making them a long-term commitment as a pet. Proper animal husbandry is the most significant factor in captive lifespan; this includes providing adequate space, correct temperatures and humidity, and suitable food items.
Boa constrictors are very popular within the exotic pet trade, and have been both captured in the wild and bred in captivity. Today, most captive boa constrictors are captive-bred, but between 1977 and 1983, 113,000 live boa constrictors were imported into the United States. These huge numbers of wild-caught snakes have put considerable pressure on some wild populations. Boa constrictors have also been harvested for their meat and skins, and are a common sight at markets within their geographic range. After the reticulated python,
Ten subspecies of Boa constrictor are described, but many of these are poorly differentiated and further research may redefine many of them. Some appear to be based more on location than biological differences, such as B. c. orophias (the St. Lucia boa).
How to Breed Boa Constrictors and the Life of a Boa Breeder
All boa constrictors fall under CITES and are listed under CITES Appendix II, except B.c.occidentalis, which is listed in CITES Appendix I.
In some regions, boa constrictor numbers have been severely hit by predation from humans and other animals, and over collection for the exotic and snakeskin trades. Most populations, though, are not under threat of immediate extinction, thus they are within Appendix II rather than Appendix I.
Boa constrictors may be an invasive species in Florida.[27 ]
boa constrictors are the snake most commonly killed for snakeskin products, such as shoes, bags, and other items of clothing. In some areas, they have an important role in regulating the opossum populations, preventing the potential transmission ofleishmaniasis to humans. In other areas, they are often let loose within the communities to control the rodent populations.
illustration Boa constrictor eques(Eydoux & Souleyet 1842), synonymized into B. c. imperator
Several other subspecies have been described at different times, but currently these are no longer considered to be subspecies by manyherpetologists and taxonomists. These include:
B. c. mexicana (Jan 1863): This was described from a single specimen which had 55 dorsal scale rows, but otherwise appeared the same as a B. c. imperator. Since then, B. c. mexicana has been included within the B. c. imperator subspecies by most authors, as Smith (1963) commented that no Mexican boas have been proven to have 55 dorsal scale rows. However, controversy still exists as Andrew (1937) reported four Mexican specimens with dorsal scale rows between 56 and 62.
B. c. eques (Eydoux & Souleyet, 1842): Based on a single specimen from Peru that had one large orbital scale, no other such specimens have been found and the snake was probably an aberrant B. c. imperator.
B. c. diviniloqua (Duméril & Bibron, 1844): Now known to be synonymous with B. c. orophias
B. c. sigma (Smith 1943): A very controversial possible subspecies from the Tres Marias Islands, Mexico, it appears like a B. c. imperator, but has a higher number of ventral scales than B. c. imperator. A slightly different climate may have caused such a change, but this could then undermine the other insular subspecies such as B. c. orophias and B. c. nebulosa.
B. c. isthmica (Garman 1883): Considered synonymous with B. c. imperator, it is from Panama.
For the external links , refrences click here to read the full wikipedia article
Boa Constrictor The Easiest Pet!
Colombian Boa Constrictor Care Sheet
BY PHIL GOSS
Colombian boa constrictor
This care sheet applies specifically to the Colombian boa constrictor, but can be applied to all localities and subspecies of Boa constrictor. Please conduct further research if keeping other subspecies.
Boa Constrictor (Boa constrictor imperator)
The Colombian boa constrictor is the most widely kept boa constrictor in the pet industry (there are nine accepted subspecies of Boa constrictor, and many localities of some subspecies). Other common names include the common boa and red-tailed boa, although the true red-tailed boa is Boa constrictor constrictor, which is larger and found in countries including Suriname, Guyana, Peru and Brazil. There may be B. c. constrictor in southeastern Colombia, but these are rarely seen in the reptile world. Colombian boas have become popular due to being docile and having more “personality,” in that they seem to be more curious about their surroundings than some other snakes. Colombian boa constrictors make great pets, and they are available in a vast array of appealing color and pattern morphs. Proper care can be provided even by beginner hobbyists, but due to their potentially large size and lengthy life span, boas are best suited for moderate- and advanced-level keepers.
Boa Constrictor Availability :
Boa constrictors are readily available in the pet industry, and many breeders specialize in Colombian boa morphs. They have been bred in captivity for decades, and litters are born nearly all year. The majority of boa litters occur from May through August, so late summer and fall see the highest availability of babies.
Prices vary greatly, depending on the type of boa constrictor you want, and where you purchase it. Wild-phase or normal-colored boas can sometimes be purchased for $60 to $75 at reptile shows, or $150 to $200 in retail stores. Low-color hypomelanistic (reduced black pigment) boas may be as low as $75 at reptile shows, but new and “designer” morphs can cost in excess of $5,000.
Be sure to purchase your boa from a reputable source. Look for active snakes lacking any retained shed skin, possible respiratory infection (auditory breathing can be a sign of this) or spinal kinks or deformities. Check for snake mites, which are small, black, parasites that resemble ticks.
Boa Constrictor Size :
Female Colombian boa constrictors may reach 10 feet in length, though this is rare for B. c. imperator, and the average adult size for females is usually 6 to 8 feet. Males are smaller, usually 5 to 7 feet in length. Some Central American boa constrictors remain much smaller—if you would like a smaller boa constrictor, look into Central American locality types, such as those from Belize, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. Smaller subspecies include Boa c. longicauda and B. c. sabogae, though keep in mind that these localities and subspecies have not been bred in captivity as long as the Colombian boa, so they may not be as docile and could require extra attention to calm them down.
Boa Constrictor Life Span :
Boas are very long-lived reptiles. There are documented cases of captive boas living longer than 40 years; however, the average captive life span is 20 to 30 years. Please consider this carefully before bringing a boa home.
Boa Constrictor Housing :
Many caging options are available for boa constrictors. Aquariums can be used, but reptile-specific plastic enclosures made from high-quality plastics that maintain proper humidity are much more suitable for boas than anything else. A rack system is something to consider should you advance into breeding boas, or if you plan to have many boas living with you. Custom enclosures are another option.
Young boa constrictors have simple needs; a large, beautifully decorated cage is not the best choice for them. While a new boa is acclimating, simple housing is preferred, and the enclosure should be prepared prior to your new boa’s arrival home. An appropriate first cage for a baby boa would be no larger than 30 inches long by 12 inches wide, in which it will feel very secure.
Naturally, as the young boa grows, a larger cage will be required. Boa constrictors are terrestrial and floor space is more important than height. Young boas may climb, but do so much less as they grow. Typical full-grown adult boas should be housed in cages no smaller than 4 feet long by 2 feet wide (with larger-than-average snakes in larger enclosures).
A hide box/shelter should be provided, which will allow the boa to feel safe and secure. There are many commercially manufactured types available. Offer two hides, one on the warm side of the enclosure and one on the cool side. A stressed baby boa may stay on one side of the cage if only one hide is provided, which may discourage the snake from thermoregulating properly.
You may also provide rocks, sticks or other structures, but be sure they are positioned securely and free of parasites.
Boa Constrictor Lighting and Temperature
Boas control their body temperature through thermoregulation, and the cage should have a warm side and a cool side. This is very important! Do not place the heat source in the center of the cage, place it at one end. Then if the boa gets too warm, it will move toward the cooler side, and if it is too cool, it will move to the warmer side. That’s thermoregulation!
The temperatures in the cool end your boa cage should not drop below 75 degrees Fahrenheit. The warm side should be 85 degrees, with a hot spot of 90 degrees provided by an under-cage heating device that will provide “belly heat.” Boa constrictors greatly prefer this, so they can coil over the rising heat.
Belly heat can be provided using various devices. Under-tank heaters are the most readily available. Heat cable and heat tape are other possibilities. Any heating device should be controlled with a proportional thermostat or rheostat. Some heat sources, especially heat tape, can get too hot for some enclosures, and they must be regulated not just for the boa’s safety, but yours, too. If using these devices, especially if you’re using a glass enclosure such as an aquarium, be sure some ventilation is provided around the heat source. If heat builds up, it can crack the bottom of a glass tank, or cause other caging materials to melt or overheat.
Overhead lighting is not usually needed. If an overhead bulb is used, it should be placed directly over the source of the belly heat. Be sure to check the temperature of your hot spot while the bulb is on. If the belly heat being provided from the under-enclosure device is not warm enough, overhead lighting will assist in maintaining a proper hot spot, but overhead lighting or an overhead heating device alone is not recommended for boas.
A low-wattage fluorescent bulb can be used to provide a photoperiod (day/night cycle) and to better observe your boa. Full-spectrum bulbs with UVB may provide physical and physiological benefits to boas, but this has not been proven. UVB lighting is not needed for the proper care of boas, and the vast majority of boa keepers do not use it. Still, it won’t harm your boa, so feel free to provide it just in case there is some benefit.
Boa Constrictor Substrate :
Boas can be kept on several types of substrate. Newspaper, aspen, white or brown butcher/wrapping paper, and cage carpet are the most often used substrates. Fir and cypress barks are also acceptable but not often used by breeders. If using cypress bark or mulch, be sure it does not become too damp as it holds humidity very well. When using aspen or carpet, the cage can be spot cleaned often, with a full change occurring as needed. If using paper, the entire substrate should be changed each time cage cleaning occurs.
Boa Constrictor Food :
It is very important to allow your new boa to acclimate to its new surroundings before feeding. Never attempt to feed a new boa for at least five days after you bring it home. I assure you your new boa will be fine without food during this time. If you feed it too soon, while it may still be stressed from the move to your home, the snake may regurgitate. If this occurs, be sure your temperatures are correct, and do not attempt to feed the boa again for two weeks. The most common causes of regurgitation are improper temperature and stress from being handled, so be sure you provide proper cage temperatures and do not excessively handle boas after meals.
Never feed a new boa constrictor a meal that is larger than the snake’s mid-body girth. It should never exhibit a bulge after eating. Especially in young boas, a meal that is too large may lead to regurgitation. An established boa will handle a meal resulting in a small bulge just fine.
Pet boa constrictors should be fed only quality mice or rats. They need no additional food or supplementation. Be sure you buy your rodents from a good source to prevent disease and mites. Boas 2 years old and younger should be fed one appropriately sized rodent every seven to 10 days. Excessive feeding may lead to regurgitation, improper growth, and even premature death. Once boas near adulthood, they will thrive while being fed every 10 to 14 days. It is okay to feed your boa more or less often, but be sure to monitor weight so the boa does not become obese or underweight.
Most boa constrictors available as pets will be eating frozen/thawed prey. If you purchase one that is eating live rodents, it will often take frozen/thawed prey that is presented from a pair of tongs. Pre-killed rodents are always best, whether they are frozen/thawed or freshly killed, because live rodents may harm your boa. If your snake does not kill its prey (boas will not eat if they are not hungry or are kept under improper conditions), the rodent may bite or even kill your boa. Even if the boa does constrict its prey, the rodent may bite before it is killed. Never leave your boa unattended with live rodents.
Boa Constrictor Water and Humidity
A water bowl is a necessity. This allows your boa a place to drink and helps provide the proper humidity for your boa. The humidity in the cage should be 60 to 70 percent; use a hygrometer (humidity gauge) to track the percentage.
Water must always be clean and should be changed as needed and the bowl cleaned. Some boa constrictors will defecate or urinate in the water, which must be cleaned immediately if this occurs. Be sure to scrub and rinse the bowl, using an antibacterial dish soap and hot water. Be sure to rinse thoroughly, and run the water bowl through your dishwasher monthly if possible. Disposable forms of water bowls, such as deli cups, are another option.
Young boas will often soak before or during a shed cycle. This aids in shedding their skin, but usually occurs only when proper cage humidity is not being met. A boa that is constantly in the water bowl usually indicates the humidity is too low, the temperature is too high, or the boa has mites.
After a shed, be sure to check the tip of your boa’s tail. Young boas will sometimes retain a small piece of shed skin there. If caught soon after the shed, this old skin is usually easy to remove by gently pulling the skin off. Always be careful when attempting this. If it’s sticking, usually a dip in warm water will make removal easy. This skin retention does not necessarily mean you have husbandry issues. Sometimes the skin simply tears before the shed is removed completely. If you notice retained skin on other areas of your boa’s body, you may need to adjust the humidity levels.
Shedding issues are usually a result of insufficient humidity. A soak or two during the shed cycle will greatly help if you are experiencing low-humidity issues. Place a quarter-inch of warm water in an appropriately sized plastic container, and place your boa inside with a secure lid in place. Then place the container in your boa’s cage, positioned so the inside of the container has a warm side and cool side. This will keep the water warm and the humidity high. Do not place it directly over the belly heat or under a basking bulb. A few holes in the lid or sides of the container will provide ventilation. Soak your boa in the container for up to an hour (two hours if you’re combating a particularly tough shed) and repeat as necessary. Be sure to check on your boa regularly, as they will often defecate while soaking. Change the water and clean the container if this occurs. At end of the shed cycle, remove the water and place a small towel in the container so your boa can rub on it to help shed its old skin.
Boa Constrictor Handling and Temperament
Boa constrictors are usually very docile and tolerate handling very well. They often seem to enjoy being held and will seek out an area on your arm or shoulders and enjoy your body warmth. They may crawl around for a few minutes before hunkering down to grab some heat.
If your boa seems to have a bad attitude, check its enclosure temperatures, humidity levels and overall husbandry. Most boas calm quickly after repeated sessions of being handled.
The boa constrictor makes a great pet for reptile hobbyists of all levels, and it remains a cornerstone in the reptile community. Personally, I believe boa constrictors are as good as it gets in the snake world.
Phil Goss has been keeping boa constrictors since 1996. You can visit his website at www.GossReptiles.com.
Recommended and other websites :
How to care for a Boa Constrictor
Brian Gundy Reveals His Technique On How To Breed Boa Constrictors
How to Take Care of a Boa Constrictor | Pet Snakes
Boa Constrictor Care
BOA CONSTRICTOR BREEDING PLANS!!! (2015) SerpentSityExotics
How to Feed a Boa Constrictor | Pet Snakes
Boa Constrictor Feeding
Columbian Red-Tail Boa Constrictor eats chick (WARNING: Live Feeding)
Other general :
Snake Bytes TV - My Boa Constrictor Swears! :
Boa Constrictor Morphs :
Boa Morphs A - Z
Further reading :
by David Fogel (Author)
by Philippe De Vosjoli (Author), Roger Klingenberg (Author), Jeff Ronne(Author)
by Vincent Russo (Author)
by Marvin Murkett (Author), Ben Team (Author)
by Cede Jones (Author)
by James Martin (Author)
- Red-Tailed Boas: A Complete Guide to Boa Constrictor (Complete Herp Care) Paperback – August 1, 2006
by Ben Aller (Author), Mark K. Bayless (Author), Riley Campbell (Author)
Many books you can find in the Internet based libraries and bookshops like Amazon.com ( Click Here ) ..
But first look for the best prices at Book Finder.com