3- The western basilisk, or red-headed basilisk (Basiliscus galeritus) :
The western basilisk, or red-headed basilisk (Basiliscus galeritus), is a large species of corytophanid lizard from northwestern South America
The head of a western basilisk.
Scientific classification :
Binomial name :
A.M.C. Duméril & A. Duméril, 1851
Geographic range :
It inhabits forests at altitudes of 0–1,600 m (0–5,249 ft) in western Colombia and western Ecuador in South America. Earlier reports from Central America are mistaken and actually refer to young of the closely related common basilisk. The western basilisk is common and not threatened.
Males reach a length up to about 77.5 cm (30.5 in), while females reach about 63.5 cm (25.0 in). Its body color is olive-green with a reddish-brown underbelly. The throat is white to yellow. On the back it has a small crest similar to that of young individuals of the common basilisk. It has narrow white stripes on the sides. It has no back flap. The adult males bear a round head flap/crest.
Invasive species :
The western basilisk has been introduced to Gorgona Island, Colombia. This species is not native to the island, and thus, is endangering native species that reside on the island, such as the endemic blue anole (Anolis gorgonae).
For the external links , refrences click here to read the full wikipedia article
Red Headed Basilisk. (Basiliscus galeritus)
Very rare and hard to find - Very little information about keeping them ..
Basiliscus galeritus - Ecuadorian basilisk
Poland Name : Basilisk Ecuadorian
English name : The Western Basilisk, Red-headed Basilisk
German Name : Der Ecuadorbasilisk
Czech name : Bazilišek kohoutí
Bazyliszek Ecuadorian ( Basiliscus galeritus Duméril, 1851) reaches a length of 70 cm (excluding the tail 19 cm).
Length of life :
No data. In a terrarium presumably like other species of basilisks or about 15 years. In nature, much shorter.
The back is olive-green, the ventral side of the body red-brown. On the back and limbs red-brown stripes. Jowl white or yellow. Males have a distinctive rounded petals on the head. No comb on the body and tail. Instead, along the ridge are slightly larger, triangular discs separated by 2-4 smaller. The tail usually 3 times longer than the rest of the body.
Along the Pacific coast of Colombia and Ecuador.
Special features :
Basilisk when threats have the ability to run on the DWO ch hind legs, both on land and on water. A suitable construction of scales on the edges of the fingers causes the rear resistance at the time of the hitting surface. A blast of air under the foot is formed in the shape of the pocket, which prevents the contact with water. This feature contributed to confer even bazyliszkom local name: lizard Jesus Christ. In the conditions of the terrarium the gear on two legs it is possible to observe only in very large terrarium.
Day. Like other species of basilisks at night it is very alert and easily wakes up.
It inhabits humid rainforest.
Damp and heavily overgrown with vegetation. As the substrate is recommended to mix potting soil, and peat moss. The necessary water pool. Particularly advantageous would be a greenhouse with a tropical humid microclimate strongly overgrown and provided with a large pool. Due to the ability of climbing basilisks in terrarium should branches, numerous and quite resistant plants (eg. Philodendron, Monster, Maranta Scindapsus, Ficus, Bromeliaceae). The walls can be covered with cork, bark. Live plants have a beneficial effect on the microclimate terrarium , contributing to increasing humidity. Should not miss the dark corners and dense vegetation, where basilisks can hide. Large and easy to clean the pool is necessary. Bazyliszkom water is used for drinking, swimming, putting excrement. The pool is not a fish-heat heater, heating, if necessary, put into a pool.
The size of the terrarium :
The minimum dimensions are 90/90/120 cm, height terrarium for arboreal these animals is of great importance.
12-14 hour cycle. Recommended to use the bulb Osram Ultravitalux-(300 W) irradiation after every 20 minutes from a distance of 1 m.
From 28 to 30 ° C, under a radiant heat temperature can be up to 40 ° C, the water in the pool 24-28 ° C, the night temperature should be maintained at 20-25 ° C. It should be emphasized that the temperature above 40 ° C can be fatal.
Humidity 70-90% on the day, at night 90-100%. During the rainy season (May to November) it is advisable to spray a terrarium 2-3 times a day for the remainder of the year, 3-4 times a week. In young adolescent females indicated a modification of humidity (50-60% reduction) in order to prevent premature laying eggs.
Lack of data on food in nature. In the terrarium feeds like other species of basilisks all invertebrates and small vertebrates. Plant food is a dietary supplement, mainly adults. Basilisks are not active hunters; usually still they observe the environment and attack only when we prey. Often after catching prey return to their observation post there and only consume the sacrifice. In breeding, among others they eat crickets, locusts, moths wax Zophobas (ie. Zophobas Morio), mealworms (used with caution because of the possibility of intestinal obstruction by the casing chitin and fatness), earthworms, juveniles also eat flies. Probably less likely than other species of basilisks eat plant food. You can, however, try giving them a blend of fruit (bananas, pears, melons, raspberries, apples, plums, grapes, etc.), vegetables (carrot tart, herb garden), flowers . In addition, the diet should be enriched in vertebrates , it might be the newborn mouse, frog, fish . Eating different types of food has a very individual character. Sometimes it is a one-time feeding "by force", an adult male after such administration newborn mouse began eating alone this type of food.
Cockatrices all species have high water demand. They drink it every day, or the swimming pool, or dewy drops flowing from the plant .
Adult basilisks should be fed 4-5 times a week. When feeding, the daily risk of obesity.
The young are fed daily. According to some young Basiliscus galeritus they are particularly skittish and often do not eat if nearby there is a man. Extremely important is the addition of vitamins and calcium. With the vitamins you need to be careful, however, an overdose of vitamins A and D can be just as dangerous as the lack of them. Various authors recommend 50 to 3 000 international units (IE) vit. D 3 per kg of body weight per week. Kohler recommends, among others, Multimuslin preparations, Multibionta, Crescovit. Especially dangerous is the deficiency of calcium, it causes death, especially in young and pregnant females. It is proposed to use both two ways of administration: sprinkling food (including enrobing insect s) and feeding insect that prior to bazyliszkom food particularly rich in calcium and vitamins (Visit mixed - paste consisting of vegetables, meat, and a large part of the calcium and vitamins and administration of the insects). Within two days of feeding insect that a suitable mixture of calcium-phosphorus ratio may change from the negative 0.1-1 (such a ratio is generally in the body crickets) for a preferred 1.5: 1. With proper "power" animals with vitamins and calcium, it is possible to keep them in good health. However, the regular UV light has a positive effect on the vitality and color reproduction .
sexual dimorphism :
In adults hassle free. In males, there is a petal on your head, and also extended base of the tail, where there is a copulatory organ, hemipenes. In young for 6-7 months no sexual dimorphism.
Species rare in cultivation. Presumably, it is quite easy under proper conditions. Data on breeding originating from a farm in the US say that consists of 5-10 eggs once a length of 19-23 mm. Eggs are submitted several times from June to November. When incubated at 28 ° C the young hatch after 69-88 days. They have a total length of approx. 175 mm (45 mm without the tail).
During the mating season the males especially often shake their heads. Sometimes copulation occurs very quickly, without the initial attempts by the male. During mating the male holds the female mouth in the neck, the act itself takes only 20-60 seconds. Effective, single copulation lasts for several consecutive assemblies fertilization of eggs. The female is no capacity to collect seed (the phenomenon amphigonia retardata). The period from mating to lay eggs is very different and ranges from 10 to 65 days. This is usually 40-45 days. Perhaps an extension is associated with the ability of the female to hold semen. Throughout the whole period of pregnancy the female accepts food. During this time you should be careful for the administration of vitamins and calcium. The female during pregnancy often becomes aggressive towards other individuals.
At the place where the females choose often damp ground in the ground or in pots suspended high in the terrarium . In large terrarium to find the egg is not easy, therefore, recommended to insert before a large container with a slightly damp sand in a dark corner of the terrarium , and the female is likely to choose it to lay eggs. Most females consists of eggsin the morning and at night. Initially, attempts to dig female mink in various places of the terrarium . The search for a suitable place usually last 2-3 days. The female lays another egg at intervals of about 5 seconds. The female buries mink. The whole operation usually takes 2-3 hours. More than a week searching for a place to lay eggs is pathological and leads to death due to stop female egg (Ger. Legenot). In such a situation, even if there are additional symptoms of the disease should be given oxytocin and calcium. Stopping the eggs is the most common cause of death for females in the terrarium . Especially females, who joined too early to stop the festivities suffer from egg ending most often death. In the case of the ineffectiveness of oxytocin remains a last resort surgery. Single eggs scattered terrariums also may indicate disease. Then you need to do your research or single eggs are left in the fallopian tubes.
Complex eggs should be transferred to an incubator. As a substrate for the incubation may be used vermiculite, perlite, peat or a mixture of peat and sand. The eggs in the middle should be buried in the substrate slightly damp and should not distract them during the incubation period. Infections Fungal usually occur in eggs damaged and dead. In the case of fungal attack on healthy eggs is recommended to use antifungal agents used in the treatment of fungal infections in humans (eg. Creams or Canesten Exoderil). Eggs dead are yellow or greenish. Incubated eggs should be monitored daily and, if necessary quickly isolate "suspicious" eggs to prevent the spread of infection. During the incubation the eggs are brownish and increase its volume by absorption of water from the substrate.
The most important for getting success in reproduction is :
-the optimum feeding of the parents (especially incorporate vitamins and calcium)
-suitable place incubation (prophylaxis stop eggs)
-good incubation conditions (in particular, not too high moisture content of the substrate)
Young pop shell eggs using caruncles, usually after exposure head stuck in that position for several hours. After getting out of the egg remains gallbladder protrude from the belly still usually for 1-2 days. If a significant portion of the bag remains on the outside (2-6 mm) Young for the first day should be kept in a sterile terrarium lined with moist paper at a temperature of egg incubation. When the remnants disappear, you can move them to a terrarium for the young. In the case of fluctuations in the temperature of egg incubation or genetic defects in young parents substantial part of the spinal column may be crooked or other distortion.
Rearing groups of young recommended terrarium with dimensions 100/60/100 cm. The conditions should be the same as in the terrarium for adults. It is important to maintain proper humidity (70-100%), daily spray and a large pool. Young often take food day after hatching. To be administered as appropriate to the size of the insects . For the first half of the year may stay young siblings in the group, but sometimes you have to separate the weaker individuals, dominated by the other. They are often smaller, they have symptoms of rickets. When placed in a separate terrarium should start intense feeding and supplying increased amounts of vitamins and calcium. Following the disclosure of the characteristics of sexual dimorphism (4-6 months of age should be separate male and female, to avoid too early godowania.
Presumably, as in other species basilisks in culture may be female die because of frequent successive pregnancies, whereby the exhaustion occurs, even administration of large amounts of calcium and vitamins. You need to consider periodic separating male from female. Too early pregnancy leads to a stop in the female egg, stunted growth and exhaustion. The females should accede to the earliest breeding at the age of 12, and even better 15 months. The big problem with this is related to the fact that many females also no contact with males become pregnant at a young age and, of course, consists of unfertilized eggs . A significant proportion of these females suffering from stopping eggs and dies. The first experiment in order to prevent this situation indicates that during a critical period, that is, between 6 and 12 months of age, females should be grown at a much drier environment (small container of water, spraying with rare and small terrarium ). Probably it can prevent egg laying, because the nature of mating period is strongly correlated with the rainy season. Data on mortality in females during pregnancy are based on the experiences of other breeding species of basilisks, they are likely to also refer to this species. They will be verified only when the species is more common in terrariums.
Genre timid, do not take it on hand. You can not grow a few males in a terrarium . The male non-incumbent gradually loses color, becomes darker, less them, staying at the bottom of the terrarium , and eventually dies. On the other hand, one male may fall 2-3 females. In no event should not be placed with the young adults, the former will be used by adults as food. A larger number of females is beneficial due to the fact that large male sexual needs then spread to many females. A common phenomenon in the culture is female die because of frequent successive pregnancies, whereby the exhaustion occurs, even administration of large amounts of calcium and vitamins. You need to consider periodic separating male from female.
You should not stick together different species of basilisks. There is a possibility of interspecific hybrids (so far known are hybrids between B. galeritus and B.basiliscus ). It is not recommended to combine basilisks with other species of reptile and amphibian that, due to their tendency to devour even large specimens of other species. Do not connect them with the turtles because of the possibility of infection Entamoeba invadens. Turtles are his frequent, asymptomatic carriers, au lizards infection usually ends in death.
Develop and sources of information
developed by Dr. Robert Maślak based on literature:
Kocan M. (1998): breeding and Agama . Polaris.
Köhler G. (1999): Basilisken, Helmleguane, Kronenbasilisken. Herpeton, second edition.
Vosjoli P. (1992): Green Water Dragons Lizards and Saifin Basilisks. Advanced Vivarium system.
Pugh FH, Andrews, RM, Cadle JE Crump ML, Savitzky AH Wells, KD (2001): Herpetology. Prentice Hall.
Other websites :
Basiliscus : Introduction , general care and further reading
Basiliscus Species :
Basiliscus : Introduction , general care and further reading
Basiliscus Species :