PYCHOZOON geckos: or Gliding Geckos, have evolved webbed feet, skin flaps along the flanks and highly modified tails which allow them to glide between trees. They are mainly nocturnal, but may be spotted by day clinging to tree trunks. Some species are to be found on buildings adjacent to forest. There are 8 species described, of which 7 occur within Southeast Asia.
Ptychozoon is a genus of arboreal geckos, endemic to Southeast Asia, known as flying geckos or parachute geckos. They are characterized by cryptic coloration and elaborate webs surrounding the neck, limbs, trunk, and tail. These membranes help to conceal the gecko against trees. When the gecko leaps into the air, the flaps are used to generate lift and allow the gecko to control its fall. It can fly up to 200 feet (60 meters). Also it does a swoop at the end of its flight to land softly. A similar adaptation is found in geckos of the genus Cosymbotus. There are eight described species in the genus Ptychozoon. They are often kept as pets.
Kuhl & van Hasselt, 1822
The following species are recognized as being valid.
Ptychozoon horsfieldii Gray, 1827 – Horsfield's flying gecko
Ptychozoon intermedium Taylor, 1915 – intermediate flying gecko, Philippine parachute gecko
Ptychozoon kaengkrachanense Sumontha, Pauwels, Kunya, Limlikhitaksorn, Ruksue, Taokratok, Ansermet, & Chanhome, 2012 – Kaeng Krachan parachute gecko
Ptychozoon kuhli Stejneger, 1902 – Kuhl's flying gecko
Ptychozoon lionotum (Annandale, 1905) – smooth-backed gliding gecko
Ptychozoon nicobarensis Das & Vijayakumar, 2009
Ptychozoon rhacophorus Boulenger, 1899 – Sabah flying gecko
Ptychozoon trinotaterra R.M. Brown, 1999 – three-banded parachute gecko
For the external links , refrences click here to read the full wikipedia article
research by visiting scholar Xianguang Guo and collaborators is using phylogenomic sequence data to address problematic phylogenetic issues in a remarkable group of Asian geckos.
The flap-legged and parachute geckos (or flying geckos) of the genera Luperosaurus and Ptychozoon are some of Southeast Asia’s most rare and enigmatic land vertebrates. The phylogenetic relationships of Luperosaurus, Ptychozoon, and related genera such as Lepidodactylus and Gekko remain unclear. In particular, the phylogenetic placement of the morphologically intermediate taxa Ptychozoon rhacophorus, Luperosaurus iskandari, and L. gulat are complicated and confusing. Previous results based on mtDNA and one nuclear locus demonstrated that Luperosaurusis more closely related to Lepidodactylus and Pseudogekko than it is to Gekko but that some species currently classified as Luperosaurus are nested within Gekko.
Xianguang and collaborators are attempting to resolve a stubborn polytomy consisting of several clades assigned to the genus Ptychozoonusing target capture with ultraconserved elements (UCEs) and Illumina sequencing. Xianguang's work also focuses on determining the phylogenetic placements of key enigmatic taxa:L. gulag L. iskandari and P. rhacophorus. Recently, ultraconserved elements (UCEs) have been used successfully to resolve challenging phylogenetic relationships among basal avian and mammalian groups, to determine the phylogenetic position of turtles among reptiles, and to understand the relationships among ray-finned fishes.
Examples of Flying Geckos :
1- Kuhl's Gliding Gecko ( Ptychozoon kuhli )
Family : GEKKONIDAE
Species : Ptychozoon kuhli
Size (snout to vent) : 11 cm
Size (total length) : ~ 22 cm
Kuhl's Gliding Gecko, or 'Kuhl's Parachute Gecko', is one of the most widespread and adaptable of gliding geckos, occurring in lowland primary and secondary forests up to 800 metres elevation. In Peninsular Malaysia it has also been found in a variety of coastal habitats on small islands (Grismer, 2011). The species can also be found on buildings adjacent to suitable habitat.
It is nocturnal in habits, but may sometimes be glimpsed by day clinging to tree trunks. It's colour and patterning can vary greatly depending upon the colour and texture of the substrate on which it lives : this serves as excellent camouflage making the species hard to locate unless it is being specifically searched for.
The example shown here, from Sungai Sedim, Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia exhibits fairly typical patterning. This gecko is best distinguished in the field from other species of Ptychozoon by the presence of completely webbed feet, and a tail in which the terminal portion comprises a rounded, elongated flap which constitutes around 25% of the total tail length (the extreme tip of the tail is pale). In addition there is typically a broad, dark stripe behind the eye, and a marking on the top of the rostrum or snout which resembles a forward-pointing arrowhead (see Fig. 2).
The species makes use of communal nesting sites: its eggs are laid in pairs on the trunks of large trees in a similar manner to the Spotted House Gecko Gekko monarchus. For those individuals which inhabit manmade structures, it appears likely that eggs may also be laid in roof spaces or other such crevices.
Kuhl's Gliding Gecko occurs in India, southern Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore (Pulau Tekong), Sumatra, the Natuna Islands, Java and Borneo. In 2014 it was found on the island of Bintan, in the Riau Archipelago, Indonesia (Law & Law, 2016).
Figs 1 and 2 : Example from Sungai Sedim, Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia. By day it remained concealed in a crevice of a riverside building, but by night would emerge to feed on moths attracted from the nearby forest to the building's lights.
Law, I. S.. & Law, I. T. (2016). Kuhl's Gliding Gecko Ptychozoon kuhli on Pulau Bintan, Riau Islands, Indonesia. Southeast Asia Vertebrate Records.
2016: 97-98. [pdf]
Ptychozoon kuhli, commonly known as Kuhl's flying gecko or the common flying gecko, is a species of Asian gecko.
Faltengeckos (Ptychozoon kuhli )
Ptychozoon kuhli, Kuhl's flying gecko
Not evaluated (IUCN 3.1)
The specific name, kuhli, is in honor of German zoologist Heinrich Kuhl.
P. kuhli has adaptations to its skin, including flaps on either side of its body, webbed feet, and a flattened tail to allow it to glide over short distances. These geckos have a remarkable camouflage. The flaps of skin along their sides help them blend with tree bark. Often, the eyes are the only way to see them.
Flying geckos, like many other gecko species, have evolved intricate toe pads with microscopic hairs that can adhere to nearly any surface, including glass.
The underside of Kuhl's flying gecko Ptychozoon kuhli. Note the gliding adaptations: flaps of skin on the legs, feet, sides of the body, and on the sides of the head.
Geographic range :
P. kuhli is found in Southern Thailand (Nakhon Si Thammarat, Satun, Pattani), Myanmar, northeastern India, Malaysian Peninsula (incl. Pulau Tioman, Johor: Pulau Besar), Nicobar Islands, Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Simalur), and Singapore.
Flying geckos require among other things a 15-20 gallon terrarium and careful handling. They should be handled as little as possible, due to possible damage to their skin. Flying geckos are insectivorous. In captivity, they feed on crickets, mealworms, superworms and waxworms.
For the external links , refrences click here to read the full wikipedia article
Malayan and Kuhl’s Flying Geckos – Breeding and Care
1- Flying Geckos Care Guide :
courtesy to : www.reptilesncritters.com/care-guide-flying-gecko.
The Flying Gecko (Ptychozoon kuhli) is not all that common, but with the right care they are outstanding creatures to own. They spend their lives up in trees in tropical rainforests and use their tail to glide from branch to branch. This species of gecko can be found mostly in Indonesia and the surrounding area. Flying geckos are not meant to be handled as much as crested geckos because they are very jumpy and have thin skin that can rip easily.
A flying gecko will reach 6-8 inches in length. They are covered in brown, black and tan blotches to help them blend into their environment. Their toes are webbed and they have a flat, rudder-like tail that they use when leaping from tree to tree. They don’t really fly, they fall with style. Unfortunately in captivity there is not enough room for them to exhibit this behavior so those flaps that have formed after decades of evolution will never be used.
These geckos can be skittish and will attempt to leap away from your hand. They are very fast and are hard to catch. They are not recommended as a children’s pet, but they are beautiful geckos that you can show off to your friends.
Being insectivores, flying geckos will readily take crickets as their main food source. They will also take worms like mealworms, silk worms, phoenix worms and cut up earthworms. Young geckos should be fed 5-10 food items a day or until they get full. Adults can be fed 15 food items every three days or so. Be sure to dust all the insects with calcium to keep your flying gecko’s bones strong. It is also good to gut load the worms and crickets with either commercially sold food designed for them or pieces of lettuce or other vegetables.
A 15-20 gallon tank will be adequate for 1 or 2 adult flying geckos. Two males should never be kept together because they will fight. Never keep a male and a female together unless you plan to breed them. Younger flying geckos can stay in 10 gallon enclosures, and can be housed together until they reach about 6-8 months of age. When you are choosing a cage to use, height is more important than length because they will spend little time on the ground.
Since flying geckos are arboreal creatures from a tropical rainforest the only shelter you need to provide is fairly dense foliage throughout the cage. Either live or fake plants can accomplish this. Other things like rocks can be added to make the cage attracting. Make sure you have plenty of hiding spots among the foliage on both sides of the tank so it can choose where it wants to hide.
Substrate for this species can be simply a couple layers of paper towel that get replaced when soiled. You can also use more natural substrates like bed-a-beast or non-fertilized potting soil. These substrates are more natural and they hold in the humidity better than substrates like sand or reptile carpet.
Since flying geckos spend most of their time off of the ground, the need a lot of live and fake plants in the cage. Hides on the ground are not needed. Provide multiple places for your gecko to hide on both sides of the tank so it can choose.
These geckos like temperatures around 95F for basking in and the rest of the cage can remain unheated. The easiest way to achieve 95F is with a basking light. There are lights specifically made for heating purposes that are sold at most pet stores. An 80-100 watt bulb usually works but you may need to adjust depending on the temperature of your house.
To maintain the humidity needs of a flying gecko, you should spray down the entire enclosure very well every night before you go to bed and when you wake up. The humidity should be 80% at night, and must not be below 60% during the day. A water bowl is not needed because if they become thirsty they will lick water droplets.
Remember to replace the substrate as needed. Take out any uneaten food items so they do not annoy your gecko. Mist the cage twice a day and spot clean as needed.
There is little information on this species when it comes to breeding. Most are wild caught, and they require very specific environments this care sheet does not get into.
Hatchling flying geckos are small and very delicate creatures. They will need a 10 gallon tank to live in with plenty of vines and plants. They will eat crickets after about a week and their cage needs to be misted once or twice a day. Give them the same temperature as adults and use paper towel as a substrate.
Flying geckos are wonderful, unique pets to own. They come from the tropical rain forests of Indonesia and have specific requirements. Flying geckos are not a good first reptile, but they add a lot to reptile keeper’s collection. Remember, do your research before buying any pet so that it can live happily and healthily.
2- Malayan and Kuhl’s Flying Geckos – Breeding and Care
Posted by: Frank Indiviglio
Like most lizard enthusiasts, I was mesmerized by Flying Geckos at first glance. Early on, both Malayan and Kuhl’s Flying Geckos (Ptychozoon lionotum and P. Kuhli) were rare in the trade, but by the early 1980’s I found them readily available and integrated both into a Southeast Asian exhibit I maintained at the Bronx Zoo. I had some breeding success, but today’s stock remains largely wild caught. Because they are both inexpensive and bizarre, Flying Geckos are often purchased by relatively inexperienced keepers. But while they can be hardy, prolific breeders, Flying Gecko ownership requires some forethought; hopefully the following information will prepare you.
The 7 Flying Geckos in the genus Ptychozoon are among the most unique of the world’s 900+ gecko species. Both the Malayan and Kuhl’s reach 6-8 inches in length and are distinguished by skin folds (along the head, flanks and toes) that enable them to glide through the air. A heavily-serrated tail assists in breaking up their outline. In overall appearance, I can best describe them as “amazingly bark-like”.
Their color varies through a wide range of tans, grays and browns, and the skin is marked with an array of blotches and stripes. Malayan and Kuhl’s Flying Geckos are difficult to differentiate by eye; the Kuhl’s tongue is often tipped in black, but I cannot say whether this always holds true.
Range and Habitat :
The Malayan Flying Gecko inhabits Myanmar, Thailand, India, Malaysia and neighboring islands. The range of Kuhl’s Flying Gecko extends from southern Thailand through Java, Sumatra, Malaysia, Borneo and Sulawesi, and overlaps that of its cousin extensively. Whether or not they hybridize, or utilize different niches within the same range, has not been researched. Other geckos are, however, known to partition habitats in species-rich areas; this article describes an interesting study carried out on Borneo.
Flying Geckos favor rainforests and other humid, densely-foliated habitats. However, they have colonized farms and human habitations, and it is from such areas that most are collected.
Captive Care :
Malayan and Kuhl’s Flying Geckos may be kept and bred under similar conditions. As most in the trade are wild-caught, stress, mites and internal parasites are a major concern. As concerns medication, I’ve found them to be quite delicate; be sure that you use a well-experienced veterinarian to examine all new arrivals.
Although wild-caught females may initially produce eggs, sustained captive breeding is only possible if the appropriate environment and diet is provided. A spacious terrarium – a 20-30 gallon tank for a trio – is essential. “Tall” style aquariums are ideal. Flying Geckos spend most of their time on tree trunks, where their camouflage may be used to great advantage, and will be stressed if forced to use other resting sites. Corkbark or native tree bark must be available, and the cage should be densely-planted (live plants are best). Flying Geckos will not thrive in bare enclosures.
Temperature, Humidity and Light:
Humidity should be maintained at 75-80% for most of the year (see “Breeding”), with a temperature gradient of 75-85 F. Nighttime temperatures can dip to 70 F. A mix of sphagnum moss and a forest bedding, serves well as a substrate.
Although Flying Geckos are nocturnal, wild individuals often spend their days in open situations, on tree trunks, and may therefore be exposed to UVB. Low doses of UVB, as provided by a ZooMed 2.0 bulb, are likely beneficial. Overly-bright environments should be avoided, so choose plants that do well in low light (pothos, snake and cast iron plants). Incandescent heat bulbs can be used to maintain temperatures; red/black night bulbs (which will assist in nighttime observations) or ceramic heater-emitters can be used after dark.
Flying Geckos specialize in hunting flying and arboreal insects, and will not fare well on crickets alone. Housefly cultures, silkworms, roaches, moths and other insects are essential to their well-being. The comments in this article on Red-Eyed Treefrog Diets are largely applicable; please write in if you have any questions on this critical aspect of husbandry.
Mature males may be distinguished from females by their pre-anal pores and the two scaly skin-folds that outline the cloaca.
Males fight savagely, and cannot be housed together. A single male may be kept with multiple females. Gecko skin is delicate, and bite injuries may occur during courtship and copulation; check also for dominance battles among females.
Stimulating Reproduction :
In the wild, breeding likely extends through much or all of the rainy season (March to May through October, depending upon locale). Increasing the frequency and duration of daily misting in the spring will encourage captives to come into breeding condition. Novel food items and increased dietary variety should also be introduced at this time. Some have reported that removing and re-introducing a male will stimulate interest.
Lowering temperature and humidity slightly during the fall and winter may also be useful, but is not critical (please write in for details).
The Eggs :
Gravid female swell noticeably, and their 2 eggs will be visible through the skin in time. A well-fed female may produce 3, or possibly more, clutches of 2 eggs each. I’ve recorded inter-clutch intervals of 2-3 weeks, but this time period is likely affected by many factors.
Eggs are affixed to bark, glass or stout plant leaves. Be sure to provide ample nesting sites that can be removed for incubation, as the eggs are often broken during attempts to peel them from the deposition surface. Corkbark slabs are ideal, as they can be cut to fit incubators if need be.
Suitably-sized plastic terrariums, with the ventilation ports sealed, make ideal incubators. Eggs under my care generally hatched in 60-80 days at 82-85 F, but temperatures of 70-90 F, and incubation times of 30-90 days, have been reported.
Eggs deposited on glass are difficult to remove; I’ve incubated House and Day Gecko eggs on glass by affixing a cup containing damp sphagnum moss over the eggs, but this is not an ideal situation.
The Young :
Hatchlings average a bit over 2 inches in length and may be reared on fruit and other flies, small crickets and roaches, silkworms, moths, termites and similar insects (please see diet comments above).
Other websites :
Gecko Guy Introducing the Flying Gecko! (Ptychozoon kuhli)
My Ptychozoon kuhli
Ptychozoon kuhli - young
Ptychozoon kuhli mating (2012)
Ptychozoon kuhli mating call
FLYING/GLIDING GECKO PTYCHOZOON .
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