Martinique's anole - Anolis roquet :
Martinique's anole (Anolis roquet), also called savannah anole, is a species of anole lizard. It is endemic to the island of Martinique, located in the Caribbean Lesser Antilles.
It varies in body size, shape, scalation, and coloration. Its dorsal surface ranges from green to gray-green, brown, or gray brown, with some populations also having areas of blue-green color. Its ventral and dewlap colors also vary. Its markings include dark marbling, spots, and chevrons; and light markings including flank stripes.
It is unusual among anoles in having a voice; it can make a squeaking noise when it is caught.
Scientific classification :
Binomial name :
Lacerta roquet Lacépède, 1788
Anolis martinicensis Suckow, 1798
Anolis cepedii Merrem, 1820
Anolis goudotiiA.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1837
Anolis alligatorA.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1837
Dactyloa goudotii – Fitzinger, 1843 (fide Boulenger, 1885)
Ptychonotus fasciatus Fitzinger, 1843 (fide Boulenger, 1885)
Anolis roquet – Ruthven, 1923
The subspecies are:
Anolis roquet roquet (Lacépède, 1788)
Anolis roquet caracoli Lazell, 1972
Anolis roquet majolgris Lazell, 1972
Anolis roquet salinei Lazell, 1972
Anolis roquet summus Lazell, 1972
Anolis roquet zebrilus Lazell, 1972
The Barbados anole (A. extremus) was formerly included here as another subspecies.
For the external links , refrences click here to read the full wikipedia article
Anolis roquet summus droht
Other websites :
Care & General articles :
1- Anolis pug (BONNATERRE 1789) - the Anole of Martinique.
courtesy to : tiliqua.wifeo.com/anolis-roquet.php
Named "Zandoli" in the French West Indies, Anolis roquet originated in Martinique even though it was introduced on many other Caribbean islands where it quickly flourished. With the gecko of houses ( Hemidactylus mabouia ), it is the most common lizard on the island, frequently found in gardens and houses.
The genus Anolis is very large, with nearly 380 species (according to the reptile database). The maintenance of such a vast genus is nevertheless debated, some species previously affiliated to this genus have been reclassified into other genus as the genus Chamaeleolis or Norops . The Anolis are members of the Dactyloid family. The Anolis are Iguanians and close relatives of the Iguanidae, a family in which they were included for a long time before it erupted in the late 1980s. The Anolis genus was recently revised and split, and A. roquet was placed in The genus Dactyloa , but this classification proposed by Nicholson et al. (2012), was reversed some time later by Poe (2013). In 2012, I wrote an article for Reptil'mag on this species. Sent under Anolis pug , the editor contacted me and told me that the name had changed because the article by Nicholson et al. Had just come out ... I adapt and modify the names of genre ... but now that at press time, so too late to recover anything, Poe's article appears, challenging Dactyloa pug and revalidating Anolis pug ... Morality: always wait and not take a study for cash as soon as it is published!
The anoles are widespread from the southeastern United States to the center of South America with wide diversity throughout the Caribbean: Mahorta & Thorpe (1999) contains more than 150 species, most of which live only On an island or group of nearby islands. The Lesser Antilles form a chain of islands in the shape of an arc of a circle situated in the southeast of the Caribbean Sea. They are small volcanic islands that began to emerge from the Atlantic Ocean 23 million years ago. The two French departments, Guadeloupe and Martinique, form part of it.
Anolis roquet was first described by Lacépède in 1788, but he did not use the binomial nomenclature * of Linné, the original valid description is to be credited to Pierre Joseph Bonnaterre the following year under Lacerta roquet . This name of "pug", according to Lacépède, would have been given by travelers observing this lizard which when it is too hot opens the mouth and seems to gasp like a dog ... a pug! On reading Lacépède's description of the "pug", there seems to be confusion with other species of lizards, notably Leiocephalus herminieri , a species now extinct.
A. roquet gave its name to a group of species from the south of the Lesser Antilles, among which are A. luciae (Saint Lucia), A griseus (St. Vincent), A. Extremus (Barbados) ... These species are very close to each other and constitute a wave of colonization in a north-south route from the islands off Venezuela To Martinique. Anolis marmoratus , living in Guadeloupe, is part of the group A. bimaculatus which left the north of the Caribbean arc and descended to the south to Dominica, the island that lies between Martinique and Guadeloupe. The canal between Martinique and Dominica marks the boundary between these two groups.
A complex species:
Historically, A. pug is endemic to Martinique, But it was introduced by Man on many other islands. Flower pots, and therefore the trade in amenity or agricultural plants, are very likely the means of dissemination of the species because they tend to lay their eggs there (Breuil, 2004). However, considering the small size and abundance of this lizard, the involuntary transport of adult specimens by other means is quite possible.
On the island of Martinique alone, there are 6 subspecies described by Lazell in 1972 on the basis of morphological and color differences, however, these distinctions are not unanimous among herpetologists. Each subspecies a specific territory, also showing patterns or a typical coloration in relation to the habitat and the climatic conditions that prevail there. The differences are quite significant and when traveling across the island, you really think you are dealing with several distinct species.
List of subspecies according to Lazell (1972):
A. r. Zebrilus (Photo taken with carbet): we see that the coloring is adapted to the environment!
A. r. Caracoli eating an insect (Orthoptera).
Various phylogenetic studies conducted in particular by Thorpe et al. Over the last ten years, several populations have been identified with strong genetic divergences:
- a large population in the center,
- a second in the northwest on the Caribbean coast,
- another in the south near Sainte-Anne,
and A fourth to the southwest in the Trois-ilets region.
These divergences between populations of A. roquet are explained by the fact that between 6 and 8 million years ago, Martinique was made up of three small separate islands and that the central part did not leave the ocean Which much later. Separated from each other for a very long time, each population has derived genetically and also acquired its own traits related to the " Ecosystem of ancestral islands. Some populations of A. Roquet show more genetic differences between them than with neighboring species such as A. bimaculatus which are not of the same lineage. However, Anolis pug remains a species in its own right because no reproductive barrier has been established. These genetic characteristics have been maintained because there are few crosses between specimens of different populations, but these crosses still exist. These discoveries show mechanisms of speciation different from the classical theories which start from the principle that " A long geographical separation (allopathy) generates a strong genetic divergence and results in the establishment of a reproductive barrier, which is not the case in A. roquet . This species is therefore an ideal subject of study on three speciation processes: sexual selection, natural selection and allopathy (Thorpe et al., 2008).
"Looks like he is listening to what you say" ... here a female on a low wall.
Anolis pug is a small lizard, males, larger than females, can reach 20 cm in total length. The muzzle-cloaca length varies between 6 and 8 cm depending on the sex and subspecies. In the males, a very slight, non-serrated ridge extends from the back of the skull to the tail, which is seen mostly when the male is on parade or wants to intimidate another male. They are also distinguished by the presence of a relatively large rectangular gular baffle. Deployed, it is bright yellow in color and circular in shape.
It is a brightly colored lizard: the background coloring goes from light gray to bright green, see blue. Depending on the subspecies, the body is marked with brown to black bars ( A. zebrilus and A. r. Salinei ) or white ocelli ( A. r. Summus ). Some specimens shoot towards red-orange with complex brown, red or blue patterns ( A. r. Caracoli ). There is therefore no "standard" coloring but different products linked to the geographical origin. The coloring of the males is classically more acute than that of the females, the latter being green to brown, a line of a lighter or darker color usually runs across the back. Like most Anolis, this lizard can change color, its livery becomes brighter or darker. At night, for example, the Anolis practice homochromia, the color usually tarnishes to be confused with the color of a branch. Males during mating, Especially if a female is in sight, accentuate the contrasts of their livery. The coloring also changes according to the temperature and humidity, as well as according to the stress and state of health of the animal. These changes are very fast as in chameleons.
Anolis pole therefore climbs with great agility on all surfaces. Like the other anoles, it has adhesive fingers similar to those of geckos, too often called "suckers". However, these are not because these enlarged fingers do not create a depression of air by bearing on a support. They are actually covered with lamellae and setae , hairs that allow adhesion. Thus, the Anoles can climb on surfaces as smooth as a glass plate even held vertically or inverted,
Portrait of a male.
The head upside down, a typical position ...
Behavior and activity cycle in nature:
Martinique, like all the islands of the West Indies, is subject to two seasons: the wintering period, from December to June, with a drier weather (except on the heights of the mountain Where it is constantly wet) and slightly warmer temperatures (24-26 ° C); And the rainy, warm (30-32 ° C) and rainy season which takes place from July to November with a peak of humidity and the arrival of cyclones in autumn. Anolis pug is present in all biotopes up to an altitude of 920 m (Thorpe & Stenson 2003). It is often more abundant on the littoral and becomes rare or even absent in crops such as sugar cane fields that are regularly burned (Breuil 2004). It is active throughout the year, however, The breeding season occurs mainly during the rainy season (summer-autumn).
Essentially arboreal, it occupies the lower to middle part of the vegetation (between 1 and 3 m) moving very little on the ground except to pass from one tree to another or to catch prey. It remains active even in the hottest hours of the afternoon. At night it is generally sheltered on a branch or leaf. The males are very territorial and only accept females on their territory.
It is an insectivorous hunter who catches the insects that come within range, spotting them mainly through a good view and capturing them by projecting his short sticky tongue forward. The tongue also has a taste function to test the edibility of a prey. Very agile, The Anolis can jump on a prey located several tens of centimeters from them.
This lizard is not at all afraid of the Man; on the contrary, he delights in the gardens, and delights in the habitations. Vivid, always on the lookout, he observes all that is happening and "one would think that he listens to what one says" as Lacépède wrote. It is a very easy species to observe: when one approaches him, he first runs away, but it is enough to remain motionless for a few minutes so that it reappears and returns to its occupations without worrying about your presence , Capable of approaching within two meters of the observer. It is even sometimes seen lizards galloping on a person taking a nap. One can then observe the males surveying their territory,
Showing their gular dewlap with a few nods at the sight of the neighboring male or a female, chasing a rival, leaping on an insect, mating ... Males woo all the females that enter their territory. The nuptial parade is short, the male is adorned with its most beautiful colors, stands on its front legs and unfurls its gular dewlap while nodding head up and down. Then he gets closer and starts nodding again. If the female stays there, she tries to mate by passing on her side, grabbing her back with her mouth and trying to grab her basin with her hind legs.
There are several eggs per year, each comprising two eggs and spaced two weeks apart. The species practices the retention of sperm, A new coupling between each laying, however, the couplings between two layers are frequent. Females can mate with different males passing from one territory to another, so within a same series of different male mating laying have been identified.
In the wild the sexual maturity is reached during the wintering that follows. The lifetime of the natural environment does not exceed two years (Breuil 2003), in captivity it would be 4 to 5 years. In the wild the sexual maturity is reached during the wintering that follows. The lifetime of the natural environment does not exceed two years (Breuil 2003), in captivity it would be 4 to 5 years. In the wild the sexual maturity is reached during the wintering that follows. The lifetime of the natural environment does not exceed two years (Breuil 2003), in captivity it would be 4 to 5 years.
This species is protected, its capture and its destruction are prohibited. Livestock is subject to a certificate of competency and an authorization to open a breeding establishment, the specimens acquired must be either originating in another island or an overseas department, or born in captivity in a Countries of the European Union, with supporting evidence.
And in breeding?
Most of the subjects available - usually in other European countries than France - are either born in captivity or from the non-French islands where it was introduced (sometimes the precision of the breeders as regards the subspecies leaves Assumed that they were unfortunately captured in Martinique illegally).
If everything is in order, her breeding is not very complicated. A terrarium of at least 80 cm high is required on 60 cm base, at best, a terrarium 120 cm long by 120 cm high will be chosen, allowing the lizards to evolve at their ease and observe Their social behavior.However, only one male per terrarium. The decoration will be made of branches of different calibres and tropical plants. A temperature of 28-30 ° C is required with a hot spot - irradiated by a conventional spot or HQI type for reptile (bright sun or raptor 35 or 50 W) under which the temperature will be around 35 ° C. The humidity will be between 60 and 90%. Its feeding will consist of small insects distributed at least two days: flies, crickets, beehive moths, silkworms, occasionally flour worms.
* : In 2005,
BREUIL M. 2003. Reptiles and amphibians of the French West Indies. Editiosn PLB
FLÄSCHENDRÄGER A. & WIJFFELS L. 2009 Anolis. Natur und Tier Verlag (in German)
GREER DA, DE QUEIROZ K. JACKMANN TR, LOSOS JB and LARSON A. 2001. Systematics of the Anolis rocks series of the southern lesser Antilles. Journal of Herpetology 35 (3).
LAZELL, JD 1972. The anoles (Sauria: Iguanidae) of the Lesser Antilles. Bull. Mus. comp. Zool. Harvard 143 (1): 1-115
MALHORTA A. & THORPE RS 1999. Reptiles & Amphibians of the eastern Carribean. Macmillan Publications.
Nicholson, Crother, Guyer & Savage, 2012: It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa, n o 3477, p.
1-108 SCHWARTZ A. & HENDERSON R. 1991. Amphibians and reptiles of West Indies. University Press of Florida
POE, 2013: 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted . Zootaxa, No. 3626, p. 295-299
THORPE, RS, SURGET-GROBA Y., JOHANSSON, H. 2008. The relative importance of ecology and geographic isolation for speciation in Anoles. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 363. Texts and photos Vincent NOËL - SURGET-GROBA Y., JOHANSSON, H. 2008. The relative importance of ecology and geographic isolation for speciation in Anoles. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 363. Texts and photos Vincent NOËL - SURGET-GROBA Y., JOHANSSON, H. 2008. The relative importance of ecology and geographic isolation for speciation in Anoles. Phil. Trans. R. Soc.
B 363. Texts and photos Vincent NOËL -
2- Le Tour de Martinique, Anolis Version :
By : December 12, 2015 Chris Anderson
I’ve just returned from a trip to Martinique collecting data for a project I’m working on. In the process of collecting data and animals to bring back for work in the lab, I was able to travel all over to see Anolis roquet across the island, and photograph the different ecotypes/subspecies and their habitats. I was extremely impressed with how variable the island and the Anolis were, and I thought I’d share some of those images with everyone here.
As a bit of background, Martinique is formed from five separate geological regions that each were represented historically as their own precursor islands that joined together to form the current island (Thorpe et al. 2008). As a result of this process, A. roquet on the island is represented by four modal haplotype lineages, with their distribution strongly correlating with the boundaries of those geological regions, except for one modal haplotype lineage being shared between two (Thorpe et al. 2003). Anolis roquet lives across the island in a wide range of habitat types. Their occurrence in disparate habitat types has yielded a number of ecotypes with highly variable coloration and patterning (Thorpe et al. 2012). This variation was significant enough that six subspecies of A. roquet were described by Lazell (1972), all of which are pictured below.
While in Martinique, we were staying in an area called Gros-Morne, which is in the north-central part of the island. This area is part of the central geologic region and the Anolis in this area are from the mesic/transitional ecotype, which is the most widespread form and is what has been considered to be the nominate subspecies, Anolis roquet roquet. This particular portion of the central geological region, however is toward the montane area, so here the animals are more toward that end of the spectrum than the xeric form. Here are a couple photos of animals from this area, as well as a couple shots of the garden and area they were collected:
Species : - click here for Wikipedia list of Anoles
The popular Anolis :
Click ! :
Species : - click here for Wikipedia list of Anoles
The popular Anolis :