กิ้งก่าเขาสูง Pseudocalotes microlepis
Pseudocalotes is a genus of agamid lizards endemic to Southeast Asia.
Nota bene: A binomial authority in parentheses indicates that the species was originally described in a genus other than Pseudocalotes.
Taxonomy and description
Pseudocalotes was disassociated from the genus Calotes by Moody (1980). Pseudocalotes is distinguished from Calotes in having weak limbs, as may be noted in one of the species named brevipes. It is distinguished from the C. versicolor group in having mixed orientation of dorsal scales, and lacking spines on the head. It is distinguished from Bronchocela in lacking a cheek skin fold, and in having short weak limbs. Pseudocalotes species do not have any enlarged compressed set of scales behind the orbit.
Pseudocalotes does not occur west of Sumatra and might occur in the Isthmus of Kra and Myanmar. A specimen was reported from N.E. India in the past though never verified.
Species of genus Pseudocalotes
The Indochinese group :
Pseudocalotes andamanensis (Boulenger, 1891) – Andaman Islands
Pseudocalotes austeniana (Annandale, 1908)
Pseudocalotes brevipes (F. Werner, 1904) – northern Vietnam
Pseudocalotes floweri (Boulenger, 1912) – eastern Thailand and Cambodia
Pseudocalotes kakhienensis (J. Anderson, 1879)
Pseudocalotes khaonanensis Chan-ard, Cota, Makchai & Laoteow, 2008 – Nakhon Si Thammarat, peninsular Thailand
Pseudocalotes kingdonwardi (M.A. Smith, 1935)
Pseudocalotes microlepis (Boulenger, 1888) – northern Tenasserim, Burma, northern and western Thailand, northern Laos, and southern China
Pseudocalotes poilani (Bourret, 1939) – southern Laos
Pseudocalotes ziegleri Hallermann, Truong, Orlov & Ananjeva, 2010 – Vietnam
The Sundaland group :
Pseudocalotes cybelidermus Harvey et al., 2014 – southern Sumatra
Pseudocalotes dringi Hallermann & Böhme, 2000 – peninsular Malaysia
Pseudocalotes drogon (L.L. Grismer, 2016) – Fraser’s Hill, Pahang
Pseudocalotes flavigula (M.A. Smith, 1924) – peninsular Malaysia
Pseudocalotes guttalineatus Harvey et al., 2014 – southern Sumatra
Pseudocalotes larutensis Hallermann & McGuire, 2001 – peninsular Malaysia
Pseudocalotes rhaegal (L.L. Grismer, 2016) – Cameron Highlands, Pahang
Pseudocalotes rhammanotus Harvey et al., 2014 – southern Sumatra
Pseudocalotes saravacensis Inger & Stuebing, 1994 – Sarawak, eastern Malaysia
Pseudocalotes sumatrana (Hubrecht, 1879) – Sumatra and Java, Indonesia
Pseudocalotes tympanistriga (Gray, 1831) – lesser tree agama – Java, Indonesia
Pseudocalotes viserion (L.L. Grismer, 2016) – Genting Highlands, Pahang
For the external links , refrences click here to read the full wikipedia article
- Pseudocalotes tympanistriga ( INDONESIAN FALSE BLOODSUCKER ) :
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For a period of time, this taxon included the species now reclassified as Calotes aurantolabium  The description given here is from the most recent publication, rather than the one of by Ishwar and Das (1998).
- Pseudocalotes andamanensis ( The Andaman Canopy Agama )
The Andaman Canopy Agama (Pseudocalotes andamanensis) is an agamid lizard endemic to the Andaman Islands. It is also known as the Andaman Green Calotes. This species is an almost exclusive canopy dweller, and is rarely seen.
The holotype of the Andaman Canopy Agama is an adult male from Andaman Islands, India; collected by Frederick Adolph de Roepstorff (1842-1896) on 7 January 1882. It was recently rediscovered from the Andaman Islands.
Andaman Canopy Agama
Male, Andaman canopy agama, Pseudocalotes andamanensis
Binomial name :
The Andaman canopy agama has been noted as having enlarged keeled scales on caudal surface of thigh, obtusely keeled scales over head, smooth dorsal body scales (uppers six rows directed posterodorsally, remainder posteroventrally). It lacks body crest, antehumeral pit present. The Andaman canopy agama has 67 scales around its midbody. Its third toe is shorter than its fourth toe. This species is distinguished from Calotes aurantolabium, a southern Indian species with which it was confused for over a decade in having relatively long head (HW:HL = 0.59); 56-67 longitudinal scale rows around midbody; dorsals and laterals smooth, sometimes weakly keeled near the sacral region; ventrals strongly keeled; dorsals of 4-7 paravertebral longitudinal rows larger than laterals, of irregular shape, pointing posterodorsally; laterals pointing posteroventrally; laterals and ventrals of similar size; ventrals slightly irregular; a row of enlarged scales between supralabials and orbit, bordered by one or two smaller scale rows; gular scales smaller than ventrals, weakly keeled; gular pouch
present in males; antehumeral fold/pit weakly developed; nuchal crest composed of 11-15 lanceolate spines; dorsal crest a denticulate ridge; enlarged conical lamellae under the leading edge of third toe; 27- 30 lamellae under fourth toe; hind limb length 70-75 % of SVL; tail length 238-265 % of SVL, slightly compressed at the base. dorsal head scales obtusely keeled; parietal ridge raised; enlarged scale between nuchal crest and tympanum; antehumeral pit present; toe-IV longer than III; stretched hindlimb reaches eye. From P. tympanistriga, P. andamanensis differs in having a wider head (HW/HL = 0.59 in P. andamanensis, 0.52 in P. tympanistriga), longer hind limbs (70-75 % of SVL in P. andamanensis, 68% in P. tympanistriga), 9-10 supralabials and 9-12 infralabials (10-13 supralabials and 9-11 infralabials in P. tympanistriga). In having enlarged triangular lamellae on the leading edge of the third toe, this species is similar to the Indo-Chinese species group of Pseudocalotes. Distinguished from Calotes versicolor and Calotes liocephalus groups and C. rouxi and C. ellioti in presence of enlarged keeled scales on caudal surface of thigh. Distinguished from Calotes versicolor group lizards in scale orientation – distinguished from Calotes versicolor in having an antehumeral pit; distinguished from C. nemoricola and C. grandisquamis in having equal size dorsal and ventral scales, toe-IV longer than III, scales around midbody 67 (36-43 and 27-35 respectively); distinguished from C. calotes in lacking flattened spines above tympanum. Distinguished from C. ellioti and C. rouxi in having an antehumeral pit and in lacking spines. It is distinguished from the species Calotes liocephalus and similar lizards (C. ceylonensis, C. desilvai, C. liolepis, C. nigrilabris) in lacking spines on the head. It is distinguished from C. liocephalus by midbody scale count and body crest.
For the external links , refrences click here to read the full wikipedia article
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General article :
Pseudocalotes: small tree agama Southeast Asia
courtesy to : vitawater.ru/terra/auth-mat/pseudocalotes.shtml
Rhode Pseudocalotes (psevdokaloty) includes 14 species of small tropical Agamas, found in Southeast Asia. This is a very interesting and promising for the content of a group of lizards, which has undeniable advantages over other kinds of tropical Agamas, such as, for example, Acanthosaura , Calotes , Japalura , c whom I also worked, due to their small size (body length from 55 to 130 mm ) and calm disposition. Currently, as far as I know, no one in Russia has no psevdokalotov, although some species, such as, more or less well-known Pseudocalotes tympanistriga , offers some western commercial dealers, along with other small and secretive tropical lizards type Phoxophrys .
Tribal affiliation of certain types psevdokalotov constantly reviewed regularly describe new species, while others on the contrary are reduced to synonyms. In this work, I rely on the book Manteo Ulrich (Ulrich Manthey) by Agam tropical Asia and the information from the site http://reptile-database.reptarium.cz/search.php .
By geographical distribution psevdokalotov can be grouped into the following groups (Hallermann et al, 2010..):
Mainland Southeast Asia :
The largest group includes more than half the kind of volume - eight species found in India, Myanmar, Thailand, China, Laos, Vietnam and Cambodia:
Pseudocalotes austeniana (Annandale, 1908)
Pseudocalotes brevipes (by Werner, 1904)
Pseudocalotes floweri (Boulenger, 1912)
Pseudocalotes kakhienensis (Anderson, 1878)
Pseudocalotes kingdonwardi (Smith, 1935)
Pseudocalotes microlepis (Boulenger, 1888)
Pseudocalotes poilani (Bourret, 1939)
Pseudocalotes ziegleri Hallermann, Truong, Orlov and Ananjeva, 2010
Last year, members of the Zoological described a new species of this group -Pseudocalotes ziegleri (Hallermann et al, 2010..). In the same 2010 Mahoney (Mahony, 2010) was introduced into the Pseudocalotes three species previously attributed to the genera Calotes , Mictopholis and Salea . Now this of P. austeniana , of P. kakhienensis and of P. kingdonwardi .
Pseudocalotes brevipes, male (photo N.L.Orlova)
Pseudocalotes microlepis, male (photo J.Moore of Manthey, 2010)
Pseudocalotes microlepis, female (photo PP van Dijk from Manthey, 2010)
Pseudocalotes ziegleri, male (photo N.L.Orlova)
Pseudocalotes floweri, male (photo LLGrismer of Manthey, 2010)
Pseudocalotes ziegleri, female (photo N.L.Orlova)
Pseudocalotes dringi Hallermann and Boehme, 2000
Pseudocalotes flavigula (Smith is, in 1924)
Pseudocalotes larutensis Hallermann and by McGuire, 2001
These three species inhabit the mountainous regions of the western (peninsular) Malaysia, with elevations ranging from 1500 to 2200 m asl - Bukit Larut, Cameron, Gunung Tahan:
Pseudocalotes flavigula, female (photo Leong Tzi Ming of Manthey, 2010)
Sumatra and Java
Pseudocalotes tympanistriga (Gray Gray, 1831)
Very interesting, bright and one of the largest species, inhabit the mountainous regions of western Sumatra and the western and central Java. Due to the large number of bright color and it has the best prospects in the terrarium.
Pseudocalotes tympanistriga, male (photo S.Wilson of Manthey, 2010)
Pseudocalotes tympanistriga, female (photo S.Wilson of Manthey, 2010)
Pseudocalotes saravacensis Inger and Stuebing, 1994.
Known only from the sample area - Eastern (island), Malaysia - Borneo, Sarawak.
Pseudocalotes saravacensis (photo RBStuebing of Manthey, 2010)
Pseudocalotes khaonanensis the Chan-ard, Cota, Makchai and Laoteow, 2008
More recently described species may be attributed to the continental species group.
Perhaps for this same group is the recently described from southern Vietnam second species of the genus Pseudocophotis - P. kontumensis Ananjeva, Orlov, Nazarov and Nguyen, 2007, which is characterized by similar morphology and behavioral features, such as grasping tail. The only known until recently the species of this genus - Pseudocophotis sumatranus was found in Sumatra. The views of experts on family ties Pseudocalotes and Pseudocophotis diverge, and phylogenetic analysis of these groups has not yet been conducted.
Pseudocophotis kontumensis, male (photo N.L.Orlova)
Except Pseudocalotes tympanistriga , all kinds psevdokalotov extremely rare, many known only from type specimens. They lead a very private life. Typically, they are found during night excursions, like most other tropical animals. However, in some places (eg province. Cao Bang in the northern Vietnam) are more "conventional" types like P. brevipes can be found during the day.
They sleep in a very characteristic pose - stretched along the thin branches, usually head to the trunk, with a very strong hold, in contrast to, for example, and the more akantozavrov fizignatusov that even with a slight shake immediately jump to their nocturnal "roosts".
Young Pseudocalotes brevipes sleeps in a very characteristic pose on a branch.
Night tour of Vietnam, Cao Bang, 2010
Extremely secretive, females are much rarer because taking a more secluded and different from the "boards for males" places for overnight stays. It seems that live in pairs. According to observations in Cao Bang, lizards, a couple can spend the night almost on the same twig. Sit at a height of 1.5 meters (hedge) to 5 meters (branches of large trees).
Sexual dimorphism in coloration throat pouch. So males Pseudocalotes brevipes throat painted in bright green-yellow color with a purple tip, bluish in the female base. In addition, the color of the neck of the bag is an important diagnostic feature different kinds psevdokalotov
As stated above, many types of psevdokalotov known only from type specimens, and I think its a great success acquainted with three of them (one at the time of dating is not even yet been described).
Transporting tropical Agamas in net cages during the move to the new camp. Vietnam, prov. Thanh Hoa, September-October 2010
I have worked with psevdokalotami during expeditions N.L.Orlova Vietnam: May-June 2006 - South Vietnam, prov. Kon Tum - of P. ziegleri ; April-May 2009 - South Vietnam, prov. Dac Lac - of P. microlepis ; September-October 2010 - North Vietnam, prov. Cao Bang - of P. brevipes. Group P. brevipes contained in captivity at the moment.
The spread of continental psevdokalotov (from Manthey, 2010, as amended) and the venue for original research in Vietnam (red squares). Northern Vietnam areas inhabited by P. brevipes (red dots), the southern - P. microlepis (green dots), and from the province. Cohn described Tum P. ziegleri (yellow triangle). The other species: blue - P. floweri, purple - P. kakhienensis, pink - P. poilani. Triangles marked sample areas.
Psevdokaloty in the terrarium
Psevdokaloty proved to be extremely interesting for keeping lizards in a terrarium, no way inferior to all the favorite chameleon.
Male and female P. brevipes of living collections of the author
Beckons ( "Bobbing") male Pseudocalotes brevipes straightened with guttural pouch.
Vietnam, prov. Cao Bang, September-October 2010
Advantages compared, for example, with these Caloto (Calotes) - small size, calm nature (virtually hand, eat with tweezers), an interesting feature in the form of a prehensile tail. In addition, they are not alien and other features agamids such as demonstrative behavior, nodding his head ( "Bobbing") with spread brightly colored throat pouches, color change depending on the "mood".
Psevdokaloty kept in cages, shelves, wooden shelves fitted under the cages almost butt height to improve the efficiency of UV lamps.
General view of the rack for tropical Agamas
Standard cages for keeping psevdokalotov and other small tropical Agamas
A group of male, female and quite a few young coexist in a small container (eg, Curver Textile box deep, 33 liter capacity).
Female and young P. brevipes
Half the size of the lid occupies a metal mesh with yacheoy 2-3 mm. It is over it is necessary to have a UV source. Lighting - fixtures LPO 2/20, one of the lamps Hagen Exoterra Repti Glo 5.0 or equivalent. Heating is not required, it is enough room temperature, moreover, the upper lamps slightly heated cages.
Inside the layer moist mulch 3.2 cm, small ficus benjamina crown which extends through several branches branched 2-3 mm thick. A small pond with branches on which the animals will be able to get out of it (otherwise can drown, especially small). Drink drip water, convenient drink from the syringe, sending a trickle in the short twig or leaf plants, animals see the movement of water and go to drink themselves. Drink a little, in contrast to, for example, from akantozavrov, so it is necessary to water often, especially since animals are small sizes. Need regular spraying, you can periodically "to put a dropper" (through the mesh cover) to drip into the trough, for example.
Food - marble cockroaches (with tweezers), crickets (can be discharged directly into the tank) in the calcium powder Wardley Calcium Phos Free or similar. Feeding should begin with larger individuals, in order to avoid injury to the smaller ones. Liquid vitamins Namiba Liquid Vital, or the like once a month, 1 drop depending on the size.
Young P. brevipes eats marble cockroach
Stimulation of normal reproduction "tropical" - setback (my heated to + 10 ° C and even below), humidity and daylength on several winter months. After that adult lizards observed sexual behavior (just now watch), males spread their throat pouches, make nods toward the females and try to get a hold of their jaws behind the head with the further summarizing its cloaca cloaca for females and mating.
Polymorphism color Young P. brevipes
In conclusion, thank Ulrich mantle for permission to use the materials in the design of the article of his books and photos of the poster. I sincerely thank their leaders - and N.B.Ananevu N.L.Orlova, friend and colleague Roman Nazarov, co Ornithology and Herpetology Laboratory and the Laboratory of Molecular Systematics of ZIN for their help and support. Special thanks to Kate Rodchenkova that monitors lizards in my absence.
- Daniel Melnikov
Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences
- During an expedition in southern Vietnam, prov. Kon Tum, May 2006. (Photo R.A.Nazarova)
- Ananjeva NB, Orlov NL, Nguyen QT and Nazarov RA ( 2007). New species of A Pseudocophotis (Agamidae: Acortodonta: Lacertilia: Reptilia) from central Vietnam. Russ. J. Herpetol, 14 (2), 153 -. 160.
- Chan-ard T., M. Cota, Makchai S., and Laoteow S. (2008). New species of A the genus Pseudocalotes (Squamata: Agamidae) from peninsular Thailand. Thailand Nat. Hist. Mus. J., 3 (1), 25 - 31.
- Hallermann Bohme and J. W. (2000). Review of the A genus Pseudocalotes (Squamata: Agamidae), with description of a new species from West Malaysia. Amphibia - Reptilia, 21 (2), 193 - 210.
- Hallermann J., Nguyen QT, Orlov N., Ananjeva N. (2010). New species of A the genus Pseudocalotes (Squamata: Agamidae) from Vietnam. Russ. J. Herpetol, 14 (2), 153 - 160..
- Manthey U. Agamid Lizards of Southern Asia - Draconinae 1. Agamen des sudlichen Asien - Draconinae 1. TERRALOG Vol 7a: Frankfurt am Main / 2008 Rodgau: Edition Chimaira / Verlag ACS GmbH (AQUALOG).
- Manthey U. Agamid Lizards of Southern Asia - Draconinae 2, Leiolepidinae. Agamen des sudlichen Asien - Draconinae 2, Leiolepidinae. TERRALOG Vol 7b: Frankfurt am Main / Rodgau 2010: Edition Chimaira / Verlag ACS GmbH ( AQUALOG).
- S. 2010. Systematic Mahony and taxomonic revaluation of four little known agamid Asian species, Calotes kingdonwardi Smith, 1935, Japalura kaulbacki Smith, 1937, Salea kakhienensis Anderson, 1879 the monotypic genus and Mictopholis Smith, 1935 (Reptilia: Agamidae). Zootaxa 2514: 1 - 23
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