Fig 2 : The same specimen in habitat context - an area of primary forest on a steep slope.
Fig 3 : The typical posture of this lizard is for the front legs to be raised, thus elevating the belly from the tree trunk. The head always points upwards.
Fig 1 : Specimen from Pulau Pinang, Penang, at the base of Penang Hill at an elevation of 50 metres. It was found resting on a tree trunk 2.5 metres from the forest floor, in a humid stream gully.
The Peninsular Horned Tree Lizard inhabits forested hills up to around 800 metres elevation, as well as lowland peatswamp forest. It is less common in disturbed habitats, but may survive in forest edge settings.
The species reportedly feeds on forest floor invertebrates, including earthworms, though sightings of these lizards on the ground are uncommon. Typically adults are encountered clinging to sturdy tree trunks.
The species exhibits the typical body form and spiny appearance which define agamid lizards. The body is thick and robust, the head short and angular, and the limbs moderately thick. There is a long curved spine behind each eye socket, and a row of spines of diminishing length along the back, starting at the neck and ending around the base of the tail. There is an expandable throat pouch which can be inflated when displaying (perhaps for courtship or territorial purposes).
Patterning typical comprises scattered oval or elongate lighter markings on a darker background. Colouration can be highly variable, ranging from reddish to brown to buff to various shades of green. Darkening of colour may occur when the lizard is stressed. The tail is banded.
According to Grismer (2011) this species occurs in southern Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia (including islands lying off the west and east coasts), Sumatra and Pulau Siantan (one of the Anambas Islands in the southern South China Sea). In Singapore, Baker & Lim (2008) categorise the species as 'doubtful', meaning that historical records of the species may be inaccurate, and there have been no recent, verifiable records.
Peninsular Horned Tree Lizard:
Family : AGAMIDAE
Species : Acanthosaura armata
Size (snout to vent) : males 14.4 cm, females 13.8 cm
Size (total length) : up to 22 cm
Species as a pet :
1- Peninsular Horned Tree Lizard ( Acanthosaura armata ) :
4- Acanthosaura capra :
Care Written By: Jesper Cederlund
Last updated: 2016-11-29 14:52
Acanthosaura armata  is a species of agamid lizard commonly known as the armored pricklenape or peninsular horned tree lizard. A. armata can be found in China (Hainan), Myanmar, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia (Sumatra).[3
Agama armata - Gray in Hardwicke 1827 (non Agama armata W. Peters 1854)
Lophyurus armatus - A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron 1837: 413
Gonyocephalus (Acanthosaurus) armatus - Fitzinger 1843
Acanthosaura armata - Gray 1845
Acanthosaura armata - Günther 1864
Acanthosaura armata - Boulenger 1885: 301
Acanthosaura armata - De Rooij 1915: 125
Goniocephalus armatus armatus - M.A. Smith 1935: 158
Acanthosaura armata - Taylor 1963: 866
Goniocephalus armatus - Hendrickson 1966: 64
Acanthosaura armata - Wermuth 1967: 1
Acanthosaura armata - Manthey & Grossmann 1997: 154
Acanthosaura armata - Cox et al. 1998: 92
Acanthosaura armata - Manthey & Schuster 1999: 17
Acanthosaura armata - Grismer 2011
For the external links , refrences click here to read the full wikipedia article
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2- The mountain horned dragon (Acanthosaura capra ) :
Acanthosaura capra is a species of Agamid lizards: commonly known as the mountain horned dragon, it is also called the Indo-Chinese spiny lizard or the green pricklenape.
A. capra can be found in the tropical forests of Cambodia (Mondolkiri) and southern Vietnam (Dong Nai, Khánh Hòa and Lâm Đồng provinces); reports of their presence in Laos are probably inaccurate. They are diurnal and mostly arboreal and can be found in Cát Tiên National Park, where they can be distinguished from the commonly encountered A. coronata by their considerably more pronounces dorsal spines and nuchal crest. Sexual dimorphism is not pronounced, with males having a slimmer and slightly tapered body than the females, which are broader-bodied.
Acanthosaura capra, Cat Tien National Park
For the external links , refrences click here to read the full wikipedia article
Care Articles :
1- MOUNTAIN HORNED DRAGON
Adult Size: 10 to 12 inches
Range: Southeast Asia
Habitat: Very arboreal, preferring the higher parts of forest trees
Captive Lifespan: 5 to 8 Years
Care Level: Intermediate
This is a lizard from deep rain forests where living in high humidity is an absolute must. This is tricky to simulate in captivity without creating a dank, moldy environment, so extra care must be made to mist daily while also providing ventilation to evaporate the moisture constantly. Keep a mist bottle of clean water next to the cage and use it nearly every time you view the mountain horned dragons. Failure to do so may result in skin shedding problems and dehydration because this is the main way mountain horned dragons drink.
Feeding is much simpler and straight-forward mountain horned dragons eat almost any kind of insect offered. Small types like half-grown crickets, regular mealworms and waxworms are perfect, but remember that variety beyond the ‘standard’ pet shop types is always beneficial for trace minerals. Mountain horned dragons eat during daylight hours.
Give mountain horned dragons of the genus Acanthosaura plenty of branches to climb upon, especially vertically-oriented ones to simulate the tall trees they usually live in. At the top on one end, aim a small heat lamp so they have access to a hot spot for basking. Soil or mulch makes a good substrate, and a live potted plant adds color and a place to lick droplets when they’re sprayed.
2- Mountain Horned Dragon
courtesy to : www.reptiletalk.net/mountain-horned-dragon/
Acanthosaura capra are in a class of their own when it comes to prehistoric-looking, yet readily available saurian companions. Their arboreal nature dictates that the tail length is often equal or greater to snout-to-vent (SVL) length.
Acanthosaura capra generally have a grey background colour with orange/red markings, others tend to be more yellow. Each individual animal varies in colour. They have large orange/red eyes, large noticeable spines present on the nape (back of the neck) with smaller spines running along their back towards the tail.
Scientific name : Acanthosaura capra
Distribution : Cambodia (Mondolkiri), Southern Vietnam
Average Size : 0.25 m (0.8 ft)
Life Span : 5 years or more
Difficulty : Intermediate
Image Credit : Mickael Leger Photographie
Depending on the species requirements can change slightly. However using A. capra (most common species) as a basis requirements.
Minimal requirements for an adult are 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.9 meters (2 x 2 x 3 feet) (L x W x H). However larger is always better specially when adding in water features, plants, branches, etc.
Baby/Juvenile Mountain Horned Dragons can start in this size enclosure without issue as they will naturally hunt on the ground or insects will typically climb to within there reach.
A mixture of mulch, coconut fibre, peat moss and fertilizer frees soil (black earth) provide a good mixture that will retain moisture and help with humidity.
It is recommended to use a layered approach to substrate with clay balls as a base, weed control fabric and then the above mixture. This allows water to drain naturally. TIP Place a small hose sticking up from the bottom layer to allow water to evaporate and air flow in the substrate to prevent a musty smell.
Additionally adding spring tails, isopods and red wigglers will help to aerate the soil as well as remove waste to keep your enclosure clean with minimal effort. When using this method mix in some leaves (from a pesticide-free source) for the bugs to eat.
Lighting – Heating :
Mountain Horned Dragons require a 5.0 or 6% UVB light. This can be achieved with either a florescent tube light (T5 or T8), coil, or low wattage Mercury Vapor Bulb.
Heating should be minimal with no requirement for a basking spot but one can be provided for additional lighting.
Temperatures should NEVER exceed 28 °C (84 °F) in the warmest part of the enclosure. Providing a heat granulate (warm at the top, cool at the bottom) is key.
Overnight drops to 18 °C (65 °F). In areas where enclosure temperatures may fall below this, use a ceramic heater or heat emitter. DO NOT use a red light bulb as these can cause damage to eye sight and interferes with natural sleeping patterns.
MHDs require 80% humidity, while allowing the enclosure to dry to prevent mold build up. This can be achieved by misting 3-4 times a day, or by using a misting system.
Hide box :
No typical hide is required, though some dragons do prefer to hide behind plants or logs and these should be provided to prevent stress specially when first purchased.
Moving water is key. They will not drink from a standing water dish. Providing a water fall, drip system (typically onto leaves etc) is recommended. As a bare minimum use an air store and air pump to create a moving effect in a bowl of water. Use your imagination to design something that is both functional and looks great to meet these needs.
It is recommended to clean bowls or store bought waterfalls weekly to prevent bacteria build up. Water should be replaced with dirty or every few days.
If using a natural setup as described above with the use of isopods, springtails and red wigglers cleanup will be minimal. If not used than cleaning every other day is recommended. If using a removable water feature be sure to clean it weekly. Fresh water should be provided in any water features every few days. (Actual drinking water can be provided via daily misting.)
They are 100% insectivores. Feeding every 2 days is recommended, if using a natural substrate (especially one with leaves/plant matter) insects left in the enclosure wil not bit the lizard but will instead eat any items in the enclosure and provide a meal on the off days. A bowl of worms can also be left in the enclosure, however with daily misting its best to avoid spraying the bowl or worms will drown. A regular diet should include crickets, roaches (where legal), super worms, soldier fly larvae. Other bugs like hornworms, buterworms, waxworms can be added on a weekly/monthly basis but should not be a staple. Mealworms are not recommended.
All insects items should be dusted with quality Calcium supplement that includes D3 when feeding as well as a dusting of a reptile vitamins once a week. Full size adults, especially egg laying females can be offered a small pinky, but this is only recommend during laying season as they are high in calcium. Tossing crickets into an enclosure (without hand/tong feeding) will give you a great exposure to the hunting techniques of these arboreal hunters.
With proper humidity and bathing area in the enclosure shedding shouldn’t be an issue. If stuck shed is noticed, a quick shower or humid bath (use a plastic shoe box, fill with luke warm water and place lid on top (not closed tightly) to help loosen stuck shed.) DO NOT pull on stuck shed as this can cause damage to knew scales.
Handling is very much dragon specific. Some dragons will tolerate handling while others are very hands off. Starting to handle at a younger age will benefit you in the adult stages. Adults can be worked with to tolerate handling but do not try to force handling as this will stress your dragon.
Potential Health Problems :
Unless purchasing from a breeder, most dragons are wild caught. They almost always carry some parasites as these are naturally occurring in the wild. However the stress of a new home may cause them to flair up. Taking a fecal sample to your local exotic vet can identify any present parasites and they can recommend treatment if needed. If you observe worms in the stools, decreased appetite, lethargy, weight loss, take a sample to the vet to ensure these parasites have not flared up again. Following the recommendations in this guide should keep you from further vet visits, but if you are concerned with your dragons health it is always best to seek a exotic vets opinion.
3- Mountain Horned Dragon
Mountain Horned Dragons are full of character and can easily be tamed down with a little time and patience. These beautiful creatures make an extremely good species for the novice and also the more experienced keeper.
What does a Mountain Horned Dragon look like?
The Mountain Horned Dragon is a medium sized lizard, adults reach a size around 300mm (12") snout to vent. They generally have a grey background colour with orange/red markings, others tend to be more yellow. Each individual animal varies in colour. They have large orange/red eyes, large noticeable spines present on the nape (back of the neck) with smaller spines running along their back towards the tail.
Where are Mountain Horned Dragons from?
Found in humid forests, these tree dwelling species range from Burma, Thailand, Northern Malaysian Peninsula, Cambodia and Southern Vietnam.
How do you keep Mountain Horned Dragons?
Being an arboreal lizard (tree dwelling), the vivarium should be tall rather then long. Provide a minimum height of 3-4ft, length 3ft and width of 1.5-2ft. As with most reptiles, the larger the vivarium, the happier the animal/s will be. If you are planning on keeping more than one, ensure you calculate the size accordingly.
The best substrate to use has to be the compressed coconut bedding - when water is added this swells and holds moisture in. This is excellent to keep the humidity levels high, as Mountain Horned Dragons require humidity at 70-80%. Misting twice a day can also help achieve the required levels. Another affective method is the use of a fogger. Place this on a timer to become active an hour before the lights turn on and an hour before they go off. It gives a very nice effect within the vivarium.
This species needs to be kept cool and the ideal daytime temperature should range between 25C (78F) to 27C (81F). Provide basking areas above branches, but never allow the temperature to exceed 30C (86F) throughout the vivarium. Allow a nighttime temperature of 21C (70F). To help control the temperature within the Vivarium use a Thermostat. The use of a UV light is very important, this helps your Mountain Horned Dragon produce the vitamin D3 it requires. Although these are a forest dwelling species, we would recommend the use of a 5% UV light.
Water should be provided in a large water dish/container so that they may have a soak if required. It is important that the water is moving, as they do not recognize still water. You can achieve this by using an air stone attached to a pump or for a better affect, build a small waterfall inside the large water container. Dehydration is a big issue with these lizards, but if you take these steps you shouldn't have any problems.
For décor, provide large thick branches with live or artificial plants. The latter is cheaper, but real plants make the vivarium look natural and I’m sure your Mountain Horned Dragon will appreciate this more. The best plants to use are Orchids, Tilandsia, Ferns, Bromeliads, Pothos, Philodendrons, Peperomias, Palms, and many others. Ensure you do not place any poisonous plants in the enclosure. Although the Dragon will not eat the plants, insects may! Stronger plants are better as these will be climb on.
These lizards are Insectivores; feed them on Crickets, Locusts, Mealworms, Wax Worms and the other insects you may find like small spiders. Mountain Horned Dragons love earthworms! These are high in calcium and nutrients and are very cheap to purchase from bait shops if you cannot find them in your garden. You can offer the worms every day with the odd cricket/locust to keep them actively hunting for live foods, you must be careful not to over feed them.
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Scientific name: Acanthosaura Capra
Swedish name: -
Family: Agamidae (agamids)
Life: 5-8 years
Origin: Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam,
Grown Size: 30-38 cm
Active: even during the day
habitat: Arboreal, Rainforest
Acanthosaura Capra is an arboreal lizard from Asia with a spread from Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam. They are medium-sized and reaches a maximum length of about 38 cm, tail included.
Unfortunately, most of Horna gamer commercially farmed why it is important to ensure that they are buying comes from a breeder.
In addition Acanthosaura Capra as are species acanthosaura crucigera if in the hobby, but this species are smaller in size.
Acanthosaura Capra was first described in 1861 by German-born, British Herpetologist Albert Günter.
Appearance and behavior :
Acanthosaura Capra has two horns behind the eye and lacks the second set of tags on the occiput found in other lizards in the genus. The upper neck tags are separated in the lower neck from the tags back. Both consist of lanceolate tags (with the mold as a lance tip specially tapered at each end). The dominant colors are olive or brown. Color can change your mood, for example, they get a more yellow color when they sleep, while they get very dark when they feel stressed. Although arousal can cause color changes in the lizard. Acanthosaura Capra has a large throat pouch that has streaks of rust red and yellow when it is extended.
As juveniles, their colors vary widely, but are generally more colorful than in adult animals. Adults show accents of their youth colors.
As juveniles, their colors vary widely, but are generally more colorful than in adult animals. Adults show accents of their youth colors.
Acanthosaura Capra has a dark spot around the eye that covers most of the upper surface with a lighter stripe along the bottom edge of the upper jaw. The spot extends back to the upper crown of the head. The eye is surrounded by jets of alternating colors.
Horna Gamer is relatively tolerant to be handled. At first management makes short and friendly try not to rush up your animal. If the lizard becomes stressed and trying to jump or run away from you, you should put the lizard back in the cage and try again another day. Horna Vulture is a fairly inactive and quiet lizard. It is not uncommon to find them lying on a branch with all four legs hanging completely limp and relaxed. The activity is usually limited to courtship, feeding, feces, and when visiting the water. Originally, new Horna gamer that is expected to spend most of the time sitting and will probably run and hide as you approach, but when Horna gamer is acclimated they will dare to show themselves and be calm, pleasant and manageable lizards. Young Horna gamer tend to be more volatile and aggressive than older animals, but winds down over time.
However, one should keep in mind that the reptiles are always doing the best in his terrarium with proper habitat. The females will also be more aggressive when they are pregnant, often hissing, kicking with their hind legs, whipping his tail and turns his head to turn on you. Horna Gamer is arboreal and will want to find high places to relax. Do not be surprised if your hornagam climb / jump to the top of your head. I would not make it a habit to "wear" your hornagam when you go on around then it may be too stressful for the lizard, but when they're used to being handled, they can sit on your shoulder for long periods without moving on you.
Often when it's time to replace Horna vulture in his cage so it will try to run up along your arm instead. The reason may simply be that horna vulture trying to find the highest place, then you are higher than their highest point in their terrarium. I have found that if I put my hand to Horna vulture on a branch and then lowers his hand so Horna vulture to take hold of the branch and climb it instead.
Always make sure that you wash your hands thoroughly before handling your hornagam and always remember to thoroughly clean your hands after handling any reptile to avoid transmission of bacteria that can be unhealthy for humans!
The terrarium should be at least 100x50x80 but the bigger the better! If you plan to stay more than a hornagam this should be increased to allow all the lizards to create their own territory. Horna Gamer requires a leafy rainforest setup with running / dripping water. Have thick vertical and horizontal branches and plenty of leaves to make them feel comfortable. Because they are territorial animals, you should not keep more than one male per terrarium. Several females can be kept with each male as long as there is enough vertical / vertical branches so that everyone can find their own branch, and enough floor space to accommodate them. The terrarium should have a wide range of moving water where they can drink and bathe. They will not pay attention to water if it does not move, why should there be a pump / filter combination, a waterfall, or at least an air stone to keep the water moving. A waterfall system or power is the best type of "water bowl" for Horna gamer but require more maintenance than a simple air stone. Humidity should be 70-80%. Water and humidity moisture is extremely important for this lizard to feel good and happy. There are several methods that will help to get the right humidity. You can use a fogger set on a timer to produce fog for half an hour at dawn and an hour at dusk. A rain system that is set up with the help of a second timer on different shower times during the day is also a good option to increase humidity. Keep the lizards in the right humidity, they have less problems with shedding and reduces the risk of other complications.
Spraying with a spray bottle a day is a cheaper alternative to increase humidity and facilitate moulting. Many Horna gamer never drink from a water bowl but they prefer to drink drops from leaves and walls in his terrarium. Please use the plants as they will help maintain the humidity, providing hiding places and can accumulate water droplets that lizards can drink from. Try to select hardy plants that thrive in humidity and hornagamerna can climb in. Some good choices are palms, ficus, ferns, bromeliads, orchids and other epiphytic plants.
There are several good types of bottom substrates such as "Plantation soil" (coconut humus) is excellent as it holds moisture well, but to get it muddy or too humid and it does not get angry when they are kept constantly moist. Some keepers have used the bark with good results, but it is more difficult for hornagamerna to dig in. If you use potting soil to see which is no perlite, foam pellets and fertilizers, and remember that this will turn into mud if you hold it too wet . hornagamernar love to dig, and these types of soil / peat helps to increase humidity. A good test of moisture is to squeeze a small handful of the substrate. If it clumps, it is moist enough but if the water dripping from it, it's too wet.
Please see that there is a layer of hydro granules or similar in the bottom of the terrarium to ensure that moisture can drain on the bottom substrate is too wet.
Lighting and heating :
Hornagamerna need a daytime temperature of between 21-30 degrees. The ideal seems to be 26 degrees that day's temperature. And a night temperature of approximately 22 degrees. The temperature should never exceed 29 degrees and should not fall too far below 21 degrees. If you choose to daze your Horna gamer, you can lower the temperature to around 15 degrees without damage. Keep in mind that they will not be active and will not eat at this temperature.
Any bright light is not necessary because hornagamerna live in the forest and would only receive filtered light in nature. There has been some debate between some keepers of the need for a UVB lamp because the lizards live protected from strong sunlight.
Personally, I think a UVB light should be used to ensure that they can produce the necessary vitamin D3. Remember that even if we try to recreate an environment that simulates their homes in the wild, it is not the same environments and the animals need some changes in terrariums against nature because of the artificial environment.
Horna Gamer are carnivores and will eat most of the ubiquitous insects and beetles. For adults, one can inter alia give earthworms, rosenbaggslarver, crickets, cockroaches, silkworms / pupae and moths. Silkworms / pupae and earthworms seem to belong to their favorites. I feed mine with dubiakackerlackor, zophobaslarver and sometimes even meal worms. They even crickets / grasshoppers and during spring and summer usually they even get earthworms I dug up. It is important that you dig in a place far from exhausts and poisons so no lizards ingest this. You can also buy earthworms in bait shops.
All feed powder I with Miner-All 1. Incorporating multi-mineral preparation + vitamin D3.
In the wild, males tend to be interested in females during the month of July, in the terrarium environment this may vary depending on the temperature.
If you have a male with females you will see the courting behavior around this time. Both males and females will show its expanded dewlap, males raises / lowers his head and shoulders up and down while providing a hissing. The male will chase the female around through the interior of the cage until she accepts him. Like most other lizards, there are some biting involved and it is not unusual for females to lose antlers or tags on the neck / back.
If the hammer is too aggressive, it is best to separate them. No special breeding cycle or other preparation is necessary to encourage breeding. As long as you give the right care and the environment, and are sure that you have a male and a female who is sexually mature.
Horna Gamer become sexually mature at 18 months and at 10-12 cm snout to vent in length. It is not uncommon to hornagamerna imported pregnant so it is important to ensure that your Horna vulture getting enough calcium when you get it home.
At a temperature of 21-24 degrees, the eggs hatch in about 169-175 days. Do not turn the eggs as they tend to birds, reptile must be on the same page until they hatch. The eggs are easiest in a plastic container with moist vermiculite in the hole in the top and sides for air circulation. The vermiculite should be moist but not wet. If you can squeeze water out of it, it's too wet. If you have a scale that weighs in grams, is the best way to mix the vermiculite is equal weights of vermiculite and water. You just want to have enough vermiculite to keep the eggs from the bottom of the container and at the same time cover half the eggs. Make indentations in the substrate with the thumb of each egg and place them there. Be very careful when you'll check the moisture in äggburken when you remove the cover, keep in mind that the eggs do not get moving.
You should open the box on each egg containers to get fresh air and to check if the eggs are moldy or failure eggs. If the eggs are not fertile, they will sink in, get slimy surfaces and appear dark. If they are fertile, it takes about three months to be able to see the development of the young in the eggs when you lit them and you can see it move inside the egg. Just before the eggs hatch, they will start to sweat, tapering in the middle. It is important to follow at this time, because the kid will have lots of oxygen at hatching. Do not leave the new kid in äggboxen long as it would suffocate.
Take care of the kids :
Incubation can take everything 140-190 days depending on the temperature of incubation. When chicks are hatched, they will be 5-8 cm long and weighing only 1 to 2 grams. Move them then to a clean container that is high and contains something to climb on. Please use damp paper towels as substrate. This helps both to keep clean, but also for you to see that they eat, and gives off the stool as they should. I think that a can with dimensions of 30x30x40cm with holes in the lid works well the first time. I would keep them in this accommodation until the yolk sac is absorbed completely. After you have seen that they are eating properly, you can decorate the bottom with a layer of 2-3 cm coir fiber. Plant also some plants, for example, manioc palms or similar establish plants for the kids to climb on. Just as with adults, you should also give some small vertical klättervänliga pieces of a branch or liana. I recommend that you take a shower enclosure as you encourage kids to drink water from terrariets pages or water droplets on the leaves of the plants.
A suitable water place for kids can be a flat plate with a rough surface for their water so that they can easily climb in and out. A dripper over the water bowl will create movement and lure them there. In no time, the kids to splash and drink in the bowl. Offer children small insects, crickets, small mealworms, small Dubia and small earthworms. You can also try the maggots that you usually buy for feeding aquarium fish. These are perfect for children and does not require cool temperatures common earthworms so that they can be added to the substrate where kids can dig and catch them at will.
Also note that feed the animals should be well fed with good nutrition so they are called "gutloadade" with a lot of energy to the kids. Dust also feed the animals with minerals and D3, such Miner-All.
- ASIA Species :
- ASIA Species :