3- Phyllobates vittatus - The Golfodulcean poison frog or Golfodulcean poison-arrow frog :
The Golfodulcean poison frog or Golfodulcean poison-arrow frog (Phyllobates vittatus) is a species of frog in the family Dendrobatidaeendemic to Costa Rica.
Golfodulcean poison frog
Conservation status :
Endangered (IUCN 3.1)
Scientific classification :
Binomial name :
Dendrobates tinctorius vittatusCope, 1893
Like all members of the genus Phyllobates, Golfodulcean poison frogs have highly potent neurotoxic alkaloid poisons in their skin. While it is only the fourth-most toxic of the genus, the Golfodulcean poison frog is still a highly toxic animal. Its poison causes severe pain, followed by tonic-clonic seizures and paralysis if a large enough dose of the toxin is administered. The frog, for protection, advertises its toxin with its multi-coloured body. Because it is of comparatively large size for a poison dart frog, the Golfodulcean poison frog can store a large amount of poison in its skin. Captive examples lack the toxin, which suggests they do not manufacture the poison themselves, but instead acquire it from a species of insect or other small invertebrate on which they feed.
Scientists have not determined the batrachotoxin source for any species of the genus Phyllobates, although toxic birds from New Guinea likely get batrachotoxin from a small beetle of the family Melyridae.
P. vittatus is a fairly large poison frog, reaching a length of 3.5 cm in adulthood, with females typically being larger than males. They are more smooth-bodied than other species of the genus, having almost perfectly sloping backs. Unlike the related P. bicolor and P. terribilis, their shoulder blades are usually not visible beneath their skin, giving the frogs the appearance of being overweight. The frog's color is black, but it may appear to glitter due to chemical pigments in the skin. Its legs are mottled blue, and the sides often have a marble pattern of blue or green. One of the most distinctive features of P. vittatus are the two stripes running down its back for which it was named. These stripes are usually fire orange, but they may also be golden, yellow, or green, and extend from just above the cloaca to the end of the frog's nose.
Its natural habitats are primary lowland moist and wet forests at elevations of 20–550 m (66–1,804 ft) above sea level. It is diurnal and terrestrial species associated with streams. Eggs are usually laid on leaves above the ground. The hatching tadpoles are transported by males to forest streams where they complete the larval development.
As pets :
Golfodulcean poison frogs are communal animals, and have recently become available in the pet trade. They can be kept in a vivarium measuring about 100x60x60 cm, to grant the frogs both space to move around on the ground and space to climb. A clean, mossy substrate should be provided and, optionally, a carpet of leaves. However, care must be taken to ensure that the leaves are completely unblemished, as many parasitic fungi are lethal to amphibians. Phyllobates frogs climb by sticking to leaves with their adhesive toe pads, in a similar manner to geckos, and the climbing space must be smooth and vertical. Phyllobates frogs are more than capable of climbing out of unsecured vivaria, so their vivaria must be completely sealed.
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Phyllobates vittatus calling
Care articles :
1- Scientific. Name: Phyllobates vittatus (C OPE , 1893)
courtesy to : www.dendrobase.de/index.php
The generic name Phyllobates comes from the Greek words "fyllo" (= leaf) and "bates" (= runners). The combination "Blattläufer" (Blatteiger) refers to more ground-oriented habitat of the species in the Krautschicht of the rainforest. The epithet vittatus is derived from the Latin vitta (= head) and refers to the surrounding longitudinal body (dorsolateral ligament).
English name: Golfodulcean Poison Frog
German name: Striped parchment
Dutch name: gestreepte pijlgifkikker
Amphibian-> Anura-> Dendrobatoidea-> Dendrobatidae -> -> Phyllobates -> Phyllobates vittatus (C OPE , 1893)
Black base color with 2 yellow-orange longitudinal strips on the back and a yellow-white, often interrupted stripe in the middle. Belly bright. Legs bright basic color with fine black pattern.
Fig .: Dorsal and ventral view of Phyllobates vittatus
gelborange or rotorange strips
Animals at the age of 25 are known
ground fish feed and / or dried mosquito larvae
Behavior (Ethology) :
Typefundort of the first description
"Buenos Ayres, (= Buenos Aires, Canton de Buenos Aires, Provincia de Puntarenas), Costa Rica". By S AVAGE , 1974 established since not specified in the original description, sensu F ROST (2006)
Costa Rica, Golfo Dulce region, in deeper locations at 30-70 m
Attitude in the terrarium :
Terrarium / Facility:
Rainforestarium from 50x50x50,
rain system and Nebler recommended
Plenty of planting eg with bromeliad
water (with stream)
24-28 ° C, night reduction by 5 ° C
Annual temperature fluctuation minimum (1-2 ° C)
85-95%, at lunch time up to 80%
Usual small and medium-sized animal animals
Drosophila, Micro-Heimchen (also somewhat larger), jumping tails, meadow plankton
Tips for breeding:
10-25 eggs, up to 2 times a week
egg deposit in Petrischalen etc.
The male guards the
laying of the eggs about 18 days
The male transports the burbot to a water point
Bugs can be grown in groups. However, only one size per container. Small burbots would otherwise be eaten.
Temporary burbot about 2 months
Fig .: A couple Phyllobates vittatus during balancing
Males with tadpoles
Phyllobates vittatus female
Phyllobates vittatus female
Phyllobates vittatus male
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2- PHYLLOBATES VITTATUS CARE SHEET
courtesy to : zbrinks ,July 19, 2012
Phyllobates vittatus is a fairly common poison dart frog in captivity. Vittatus are known for their loud, trilling call, large egg clutches, and sometimes retiring nature.
Phyllobates vittatus is commonly known as the Golfodolcean Poison Frog, named for the region it inhabits in the wild. Phyllobates vittatus is typically referred to as ‘Vittatus‘ by people in the poison dart frog hobby.
Family & Scientific Name
Dendrobatidae; Phyllobates vittatus
Range & Origin
Costa Rica, from the lowlands of the Golfo Dulce region.
Adult female Vittatus are typically about 1.5” long, with males slightly smaller.
Captive life span of Phyllobates vittatus is estimated to be 10-20 years, with individual instances of Vittatus living over 20 years reported.
Generally, poison dart frogs are kept in naturalistic vivaria with live plants and little to no ventilation. Phyllobates vittatus hails from humid tropical rainforests, so replicating that habitat in captivity is ideal. Live plants should be used, and actually help to keep the environment clean. Provide 10 gallons or more of space per frog when adult. Vittatus appreciate a water feature.
With naturalistic vivaria, substrate typically consists of a 2” base layer of hydroton, followed by substrate barrier, then a well-draining substrate such as ABG mix in a 2” layer. On top of this, long fiber sphagnum is placed in a thin layer, followed by a hearty coating of leaf litter. The substrate can be seeded with various species of microfauna, including springtails and isopods, which are cultured and sold specifically for such applications.
For the most part, Phyllobates vittatus need to be kept above 60F and below 80F, with an ideal temperature in the mid to low70sF. Although they can tolerate brief cold spells, poison dart frogs are very sensitive to heat. Monitoring temperature is very important – we recommend using a digital thermometer.
Social Structure :
Phyllobates vittatus does fine in groups or pairs.
Like most Poison Dart Frogs, Vittatus prefer smaller foods less than 1/8” long. Flightless Fruit Fliesare an ideal staple food, as they are easy and inexpensive to culture, and available from several online stores, including www.JoshsFrogs.com. Other common prey items include pinhead or 1/8″ crickets, bean beetles, springtails, isopods, aphids, rice flour beetles, lesser wax moth larvae, and phoenix worms. It is important to dust each prey item with a vitamin/mineral supplement.
If housed in a naturalistic vivarium, cleaning is kept to a minimum. As long as water does not saturate the ABG substrate (it will smell like rotten eggs if it does), the substrate needs to be replaced only every 3-5 years. New leaf litter should be added every 6 months or so, as the old leaf litter breaks down. Plants will need to be trimmed to keep them from outgrowing the vivarium, and the front glass can be wiped down with a paper towel to remove any algae or debris that collects there. All of the inside surfaces of the vivarium (ie plant leaves, wood, glass) should be sprayed down with a hand mister once to twice a month.
Poison Dart Frogs should not be handled except when they are being moved to or from a vivarium. They are harmless and non toxic in captivity, but household chemicals and oils on your skin can easily harm them.
Phyllobates vittatus is a very neat species of poison dart frog that does well in groups, has a loud call, and appreciates plenty of cover and a water feature in the vivarium. Vittatus lay large egg clutches and can be a prolific breeder.
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Phyllobates genus :
Phyllobates genus :