5- Phyllobates aurotaenia :
Phyllobates aurotaenia is a member of the frog family Dendrobatidae, which are found in the tropical environments of Central and South America. First described by zoologist George Albert Boulenger in 1913, P. aurotaenia is known for being one of the most poisonous frogs in the world. It is the smallest of the poison dart frogs in the Phyllobates genus and is endemic to the Pacific coast of Colombia.
Wild specimens store batrachotoxin in glands in their skin, which can be fatal to humans in doses as small as 100 µg. The unique lethality of their poison is a trait often exploited by certain Native American peoples of Colombia for hunting. The members of this species are characterized by: black dorsums, sometimes covered by orange suffusions; green, yellow, orange, or brownish gold dorsolateral stripes; and black abdomens with blue or green dots. The name Phyllobates aurotaenia is currently applied to two forms: a smaller, large-stripe form and a larger, small-stripe form. These forms are separated by a ravine yet retain the ability to interbreed. The number and range of P. aurotaenia is declining, primarily due to loss of habitat, and is currently classified as Least Concern by the IUCN.
Conservation status :
Least Concern (IUCN 3.1)
Scientific classification :
Binomial name :
Dendrobates aurotaenia Boulenger, 1913
Range and habitat :
P. aurotaenia is found in the wet forests of the Choco region of Colombia, west of the Andes, in the Atrato and San Juan drainages. It lives on the ground of humid lowland and submontane forests, typically between altitudes of 60 and 520 meters, and is found in primary and secondary forest but not in degraded areas.
As a vivarium subject, this frog is an active animal that will make use of vertical space. Kokoe dart frogs are highly social frogs that require high humidity, cool temperatures, and larger prey items than many dart frogs.
P. aurotaenia usually performs mating calls while concealed beneath fallen leaves or logs, but occasionally while sitting on top of leaf litter.Their calls have been described as a loud, bird-like whirring Twitter that consists of rapidly repeated notes, repeated at irregular intervals of several seconds and lasting up to 45 seconds.
These frogs do not engage in wrestling behavior among each other as do many other dart frogs. Males vying for a female will face off, calling loudly until one backs down. Unlike the other Phyllobates species, these frogs will not breed in coconut shells; they prefer to lay their eggs inside a narrow tube (small film canisters or nut pods) on the ground. Female P. aurotaenia lay their clutch of eggs, averaging 15-20, in leaf-litter and the male takes the tadpoles to slow-flowing water after the eggs hatch.
P. aurotaenia is one of the most lethal species of the poison dart frogs, which is attributed to their storage and release of batrachotoxin from cutaneous granular glands scattered throughout the frogs’ bodies. This extremely potent toxin is a steroidal alkaloid which, in mammals, acts by irreversibly binding to and permanently opening sodium ion channelswithin nerve and muscle cells. This prevents repolarization of the cell membrane and halts further signaling, resulting in paralysis and often death as any affected muscle becomes locked in the contracted state. In order to avoid self-intoxication the frogs have developed modified sodium channels to prevent the binding of batrachotoxin.
Although wild frogs are extremely deadly, frogs raised in captivity are generally non-toxic. It has therefore been proposed that the frogs do not synthesize batrachotoxinthemselves, but it is instead obtained from their environment. Evidence suggests that the frogs accumulate this toxin through their diet of various beetles (ex: Melyrid beetle), millipedes, and flies as well as the unique composition of leaf litter on the forest floor.
P. aurotaenia is one of three species known to be used for poisoning darts; the others being P. terribilis and P. bicolor. The Chocó Native Americans of the upper San Juandrainage region of Colombia attract and capture these species by imitating their calls. Because they release their poison only under stress, the poison is extracted by piercing the frogs through the mouth with a wooden skewer and holding them over a fire. The Chocóan people then coat their darts by rubbing the darts across the backs of the frogs.
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Male Phyllobates aurotaenia calling
Care articles :
1- Scientific. Name: Phyllobates aurotaenia (B OULENGER , 1913)
courtesy to : www.dendrobase.de/index.php
The generic name Phyllobates comes from the Greek words "fyllo" (= leaf) and "bates" (= runners). The combination "Blattläufer" (Blatteiger) refers to more ground-oriented habitat of the species in the Krautschicht of the rainforest. The epithet aurotaenia is composed of the Latin words "aureum" (= gold) and "taenia" (band) and refers to the golden yellow body bands (dorsolateral ligaments) of the animals.
Phyllobates aurotaenia (D UNN , 1957)
Dendrobates aurotaenia (B OULENGER , 1914)
English name: Kokoe Poison Frog
German name: Goldstreifen Blattsteiger
Amphibian-> Anura-> Dendrobatoidea-> Dendrobatidae -> -> Phyllobates -> Phyllobates aurotaenia(B OULENGER , 1913)
Fig .: Dorsal and ventral view Phyllobates aurotaenia
The skin poison of P. aurotaenia is composed of batrachotoxin, homobatrachotoxin and batrachotoxinin-A.
Typefundort of the first description
"Peña Lisa, Condoto, 300 feet, Departamento Chocó, Colombia" sensu F ROST (2006).
Colombia, Chocó and Valle del Cauca at heights of 100--1000 meters
Structural biotope of Phyllobates aurotaenia at Bahia Solano, Departamento Chocó, Colombia.
As call stations, males of Phyllobates aurotaenia like to increase elevated structures like rotting tree trunks.
Climate chart Cali / Alfonso Bonillaaragon, Colombia, height 961 m.
Attitude in the terrarium :
Terrarium / Facility:
Rainforest terrarium from 50x50x50cm, rain system recommended
23-25 ° C, night reduction 5-6 ° C
Minimum annual temperature fluctuation (1-2 ° C)
70-80%, at noon to 70%, in the morning and in the evening 100% (fog)
Usual small and medium-sized animal animals
Drosophila, Micro-Heimchen (also somewhat larger), jumping tails, meadow plankton
Fringing P.aurotaenia Day 12
2- Phyllobates Aurotaenia
Difficulty: Intermediate - due to difficulty with breeding
Location & History
Found in Colombia at the Atrato and San Juan drainages (1) . Officially named in 1957 by Dunn.
Descriptions & Behavior:
P. Aurotaenia is one of the smaller members of the genus Phyllobates at 24 and 34 mm long. They typically have a U-shaped band on the animal's back of varying width. On some adults, the band has joined into a solid patch of color. This band can be orange, green or gold. The body is black with white or sky blue spots. Despite their size, they are very bold frogs with a loud call. In the US hobby there are currently three morphs:
Note: These morphs represent unique subpopulations in the wild that share general physical characterisitics, and for that reason different morphs should not be mixed.
Green - By far the most common of the auros, and often mistaken for the only morph of this species, they have a bright green "horseshoe" marking on their backs, and may have green spotting on the back as well.
Narrow Banded - One of two yellow/gold morphs in the hobby, they have a narrow horseshoe yellow/gold marking on the back, with some individuals showing yellow/gold flecking on the back. These were imported with greens at the time, and some were accidently crossed, so beware of green x narrow hybrids that are still floating around the hobby.
Wide Banded - Similar looking to narrow banded as juveniles, the yellow/gold horseshoe marking gradually fills in as the animals mature, similar to P. terribilis/P.bicolor, leaving the back almost completely solid colored, while the legs remain black with blue flecking.
Orange/red animals have been reported in the wild but are not in captivity.
Aurotaenia require temps to be at the low to mid 70's and high humidity of at least 70%. These frogs are susceptible to heat stress.
P. Aurotaenia climb more often than other phyllobates and should be provided some vertical space. They are easily kept in groups. Aurotaenia consume larger prey than similarly sized frogs and can consume medium sized crickets. Bromeliads should be provided as some individuals prefer to lay eggs on the leaves. The forest in which they live in the wild has mossy areas and vined plants on the forest floor and tree stumps. Aurotaenia seem to enjoy sleeping in dark, enclosed areas such as coco huts bromeliad axils, dead leaves, or cork bark tubes.
Breeding & tadpole Care:
P. Aurotaenia breeds easily in a highly humid vivarium. They tend to lay eggs inside a petri dish/cocohut combination or in horizontal film canistersduring periods of high humidity. Females can lay anywhere between 15 to 28 eggs. Froglets are aggressive feeders and feed on springtails, Drosophila melanogaster, or hydei when young.
Young Narrow Banded (side view)
Young Wide Banded
Adult Narrow Banded
Young Narrow Banded
Madagascar Dart frogs
South America Dart Frogs - Species
Phyllobates genus :
Phyllobates genus :