3- OOPHAGA SYLVATICA
courtesy to : May 12, 2015by ivaldisergio1960
OOPHAGA SYLVATICA Ophaga
sylvatica , also known as the Spanish name of Diablito, is a kind of frog of the Dendrobatidaefamily .
Species O. sylvatica
Oophaga sylvatica (Funkhouser, 1956)
Dendrobates histrionicus sylvaticus (Funkhouser, 1956)
Dendrobates sylvaticus (Funkhouser, 1956)
Si trova nel sud-ovest della Colombia (Dipartimenti di Cauca e Narino) e nel nord-ovest dell’Ecuador (nelle provincie di Pichincha, Esmeraldas, Imbabura e Los Rios) . Si tratta di una rana molto comune in Colombia, ma è scomparsa da gran parte della sua gamma ecuadoriana. Si verifica dal livello del mare fino a 1000 metri di altitudine.
Its natural habitat is the low foothill rainforest; however, it can survive in moderately degraded areas, at least in the humidest parts of its range.
Eggs are deposited on the ground and the chickens are transported into blemishes from the females.
It is threatened by the loss of habitat (deforestation) and agricultural pollution, the cultivation of illegal crops, mining activities and human settlements. Occasionally occurring in the international trade of these animals.
Oophaga sylvatica 'durango'
Oophaga sylvatica 'durango'
Oophaga Sylvatica 'Puerto Quito' - photo by Carlos Alonso
Oophaga Sylvatica 'Puerto Quito' - photo by Carlos Alonso
Oophaga Sylvatica White Foot
Oophaga sylvatica "Paru" :
The Oophaga sylvatica 'Paru' come from the Otokiki reserve in Ecuador. The Otokiki Reserve is located on the Pacific side of the Andes near Alto Tambo in the province of Esmeraldas of the Chocoan region. The reserve is located in a high-risk region due to a number of factors, including: the presence of unbalanced forces from Colombia (FARC), as well as other paramilitary forces; the presence and development of the gold mines that are devastating the forest and destroying and contaminating streams of current rivers; the presence of drug trafficking activities that destroy the forest for illegal harvesting; the ongoing deforestation caused by the wood and agriculture industry, including the expansion of African palm trees.
Enriched habitat at the Otokiki Reserve
Some news on this morph in English.
There has been much speculation within the dartfrog hobby about the different color and pattern range of the Paru morph.
The founding stock of our 'Paru' originates from the Otokiki Reserve in Ecuador via WIKIRI. The Otokiki Reserve is located on the Pacific side of the Andes near Alto Tambo in the Esmeraldas province of the Chocoan region. The reserve is located in a high risk region due to a number of factors including: the presence of trespassing forces from Colombia (FARC), as well as other paramilitary forces; the current presence and development of gold mining that is devastating the forest and destroying and contaminating the river courses; the presence of drug trafficking activities that destroy the forest for illegal harvesting; the continual deforestation caused by the wood industry and agriculture including the expansion of African palm monocultures.
Here is some information provided by Mark Pepper of Understory Enterprises.
This represents years of work and a monumental effort by WIKIRI and some pretty world-renowned Ecuadorian biologists to make this happen.
Historically the whole of the Ecuadorian Choco would have enjoyed sylvatica distribution, with one population naturally running into another in many places, probably a slow transition from morph to morph throughout most of Esmeraldas, Imabaru, Carachi and Colombia.
Geographically, Alto Tambo and the Otokiki Reserve where these "Paru" frogs originate is located between Lita which is located in the south east and San Lorenzo to North West. The hobby is long familiar with both frogs from near Lita, and those from near San Lorenzo. These Paru frogs, naturally are variable and express some morphological traits from both of these aforementioned neighboring populations. This is to be expected as there is no major natural geography to isolate these populations. Resource extraction, in many forms, has resulted in the isolation and reduction of many pupules and ranges, but this is a rather recent phenomenon.
Most of these frogs are red / orange to caramel base color with some hints of yellow spotting on the dorsum. Some lack the spotting and are more uniform in color, while others have more pronounced spotting. The situation here is not different from what is often seen with pumilio from Isla Bastimentos, the Red and Blue Escudo situation, or variation that is naturally present in many Dendrobatid populations. These are not hybrids between two distinct species as is the case with lehmanii and hysteria hybrids.
WIKIRI is working on a much more detailed information release, which will in much more detail summarize their work, conservation, research, and educational work that will benefit from the export of these frogs. As soon as that is ready, we will publish it online.
Insight into the natural variation of the frogs of the Paru morph Oophaga sylvatica (Anura: Dendrobatidae)
Individuals of the Paru morph of Oophaga sylvatica exported by Wikiri are the offspring of a parental population from the Otokiki reserve (143 acres of tropical rainforests of northwestern Ecuador). Otokiki Reserve is located in the Alto Tambo region (Esmeraldas province) at an altitude of about 700 meters above sea level.
The amount of color pattern variation within this Otokiki population, which occurs naturally, is perplexing. See figures depicting variation of wild-caught adult individuals at one of the study sites in Otokiki. All individuals found in a preliminary sampling are included, but additional sampling may reveal more individuals and variations.
At Otokiki, similar large variation in colors and patterns is Represented in quadrats under management by Wikiri (three-enriched habitats semiclosed enclosures, one enriched open square bow), and in one control (not enriched) quadrat. Also, we have documented a great amount of variation intrapopulation at other sites in the provinces of Esmeraldas, for example, towards the east of Alto Tambo at Guadal (near Lita, Esmeraldas provinces). Less color pattern variations are seen in lowland populations at Durango and Playón de San Francisco, which display more uniform colors.
How to interpret this variation and what are its causes?
The underlying causes of this intrapopulation variation of the Paru morph are largely unknown and are currently a matter of speculation. For now, we are reluctant to interpret this variation as a result of hybridization-a phenomenon that can occur between species as a result of primary or secondary contact (after a period of isolation). The underlying factors behind the observed variation probably lie in the evolutionary history of this population. The historical human intervention in the area could have played a role as well, but the variation is not a consequence of Wikiri manipulation.
Understanding the mechanisms that promote intrapopulation divergence and interpopulation divergence (such as one among the populations of O. sylvatica in the Pacific Lowlands of Ecuador and Colombia), and ultimately speciation, is one of the most challenging and intriguing tasks in evolutionary biology. Geographic barriers, ecological gradients, genetic drift, and sexual selection are the main mechanisms (currently speculative for O. sylvatica populations, as mentioned before) invoked to explain these processes, which are shaping the observed variation.
Jambatu Center has started a research program and study projects on the evolution of coloration, morphology and behavior within and among populations of Oophaga sylvatica. The program is a cooperative effort between Ecuadorian and USA researchers. We will be doing field, molecular, and experimental work. The Otokiki population will be critical for our understanding of coloration evolution due to its huge variation.
For a better understanding of this variation and its evolution, we need to conduct fine-tuned studies including morphological descriptions in relation to behavior, geography, and molecular population genetic structure. Also, we need to conduct lab controlled experiments to see the consequences of color variation. We will need to set up crosses between color morphs in order to identify color specific SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) and then examine the expression bias of parental alleles in the offspring. We will study behavioral issues and we will address questions of color determination.
Finally, we think that the hobbyists industry and people who love these frogs should appreciate the unique opportunity and monumental effort made by Wikiri in providing farm and captive raised frogs from a population that displays such a great intrapopulation variation, which include dull and bright colored individuals , spotted and non-spotted frogs, orange, red, yellow and brown. Hopefully this variation can be preserved at the site (Otokiki) and region of Alto Tambo. Backup populations under the care of hobbyists are also important as an ex situ tool integrating conservation strategies.
Center for Investigation and Conservation of Anfibios
"As the temperatures are rising beyond the thaw around much of the Northern Hemisphere we thought it was time to release a brand new- and for the FIRST TIME EVER 100% LEGAL form of Oophaga sylvatica.
This stunning morph is one of the largest forms found here in Ecuador and is a stunning mix of orange mottled with black milky white feet.
We call this the "Pata Blanca" form, which in Spanish refers to the white on the limbs.
We are aware that there has been illegal trade in a form called "White Foot" but please be aware that these are from a completely new region discovered by researchers at WIKIRI, and we strongly encourage you to maintain the name "Pata Blanca."
Unfortunately, this morph has not been one of the most productive populations; So now, and for the foreseeable future, our supplies will be VERY LOW.
We here at WIKIRI want to ensure our frogs thrive in the hands of their new owners and we are constantly trying to improve our practices to ensure this.
As a result we are offering these frogs at a generous 3-5cm (> 1 "- 2") size which also contributes to the severely limited availability.
Please preorder immediately with one of our distributors to be added to the list.
As always we thank you for your continued support "
photo Bobby Zahradnik
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Oophaga Genus :
Oophaga Genus :