2- Oophaga pumilio:
Oophaga pumilio (O. Schmidt 1857)
17-24mm. Small and most famous poison frog with very different colors. The binoculars are different in color, drawing and size, depending on the population. The smallest shape will be up to 18mm in size with the largest variants of up to 25mm in size. The color of the frogs varies from green, blue, yellow, orange, red, black to cream white uniform colored to a combination of these colors in varied patterns. Patterns consist of a slow gradient gradient of a color combination, dash, spot pattern or highly dotted appearance. The legs may be strongly different in color from the back. The belly side is usually uniformly colored with some dull drawing or black spots. In some variants there is a black throat in the males. The skin on the back is smooth, but can have very little warts. The ear (tympanum) is clearly visible and half the size of the eye.
The typical Costa Rica lowland variant, either real strawberry frog, with red or orange base color and small black spots on the back is the most famous form. Other variants in Costa Rica have the same pattern in red without the black spots and have blue (northern populations) or black paws (southern populations). On the mainland of Panama and Nicaragua, there are orange-brown variants with black dots. More exceptional populations on the land in Panama, around the Bocas del Toro archipelago, are yellow and have a dash of black spots and blue legs. Further eastwards towards Chiriqui, greener variants are found. Far away, most variation is found on the different islands of the Bocas del Toro archipelago. The islands of Isla Colon and Sheppard Island have small green variants with blue, orange or brown legs. On Isla Solarte (Nancy) there are orange variants, some populations have a drawing on the legs here. At Bastimentos, varied colors are found in yellow, orange, red, cream to self-cream green with different sizes of black spots. Other islands are home to frogs with blue and red drawings and some populations on the mainland are black with white colored.
Call: A long persistent repetition of chirp calls either buzzing noise
The southeast of Nicaragua, the lowland of Costa Rica to the Laguna de Chiriqui in northwest Panama, including most of the islands of the Bocas del Toro to 1000 meters above sea level.
The strawberry pickle is one of the most common day-to-day frogs in middle America. They inhabit the forest bottom of primary, secondary rainforest and highly disturbed cultivated areas. Here the frogs are more commonly found around bromelias, Dieffenbachia or Heliconia plants, in which little water is present in the leaf coats. The binoculars mostly eat ants that they find between the fallen leaf. Males defend small territories from which they actively call. The bone particles consist of 4 to 8 eggs, which are handled by the males. The females, however, move the fried frogfish to small pools in plant leafy chunks and return regularly to turn off unfertilized eggs. The chickpeas are fully dependent on these food features.
For a couple or trio one can take a bowl of 70 x 50 x 70 cm. Two males in a terrarium need significantly more space. Very well, an arrangement is being arranged, housing several pairs in pairs in smaller terraria (50 x 50 x 50 cm) next to each other. The side walls of the terrarium are then covered by half. The trick of this is that the males can hear and see each other and fight out their (shiny) territorial fights of behind glass. The terrariums should be fitted with moisture-absorbing material on walls and soils, pieces of wood and branches and possibly many bromeliads. In addition, it is advisable to place a number of black tubes of slide and photo films slanted (!) Into the terrarium as a shelter and place to feed the larvae.
The temperature in the terrarium should be around 25 ° C.
Groupwise / pairwise:
Males of O. pumilio are very territorial and mutually aggressive. Females are less aggressive. If one places a strange female in a group, she is chased by the women already present and clipped, but after a few days this behavior disappears. It is best to accommodate this species by couple or per trio.
A childhood consists of 3 to 10 eggs of 1.5 mm or slightly smaller.
Other breeding information:
As food, they take all sorts of small insects: fruitflies, mites, jumping sticks, etc. In their natural biotope they eat large numbers of small prey animals, including many ants and mites, as well as other types of arthropods. Spray the food in the terrarium environment regularly with a good lime and vitamin preparation, as we can never offer the variety as they can get in their natural biotope and they can use these extra nutrients well. Often these preparations are the difference between the animals that are doing well and the animals that are also responsible for nakweek. The reproductive biology is described in detail by Weygoldt (1984): As an introduction to the mating, the male calls for a female in the vicinity. When the female approaches, quits the male and "dances" with short shocking movements of the female, turns back and calls again. Following the female, this movement repeats and one or more outlets are inspected. Preferred places are caves under stones, wood or other plant material. In the terrarium, they like to take half coconut shells with a petri dish underneath or dark plastic tubes. The male takes care of the eggs that come out after a little two weeks. For this he regularly returns to the leg and moisturizes the eggs. Two to three layups can be deposited in a short period of time. The larvae are usually brought to the water by the female. This can be a water-filled armpit of a bromeliad leaf, as well as other small amounts of water. In the natural biotopes, they often climb up to many meters. In the terrarium, plastic tubes and tubes can also be used which are suspended obliquely to facilitate accessibility. In the time that follows, the female takes care of the larvae. She returns to the larvae for a few days to bring them so-called foodstuffs. The female can handle up to 5-7 larvae. She will then produce no further fertile legends with a male. The number of foods that a female sells to the larvae depends on the number of larvae to care for: two eggs in two or three larvae, up to five to seven eggs in two larvae. Normally a female visits every larf about once a day. The development of the larva to young frog takes about two months. The body shape of the larvae is quite flattened, seen from above, guitar-shaped and with a relatively short tail. The eyes are small and lie on the head. The spiraculus is on the left with a small opening. The body is heavily pigmented and evenly dark in color, as well as the tail. The small mouth opening is on the belly side almost at the bottom of the head. The mouthpieces ofD.pumilio are quite different from those of other poison frog species: reduced number of rows of teeth and the sturdy sawn snow. Growing the young binoculars into mature animals is not easy. In the past, many growers have always suffered a lot of waste. But with a good variety of foods and the right conditions, it is good to do that.
3- Oophaga pumilio - photos in the Vivariums :
courtesy to : www.dendrobase.de/index.php
Calling male Oophaga pumilio "Basitmentos
Oophaga pumilio "Bribri" Puerto Viejo de Talamanca
Ophaaga pumilio "colon bocas del drago"
O. pumilio calling Bastimentos
Oophaga pumilio "Cristóbal"
Oophaga pumilio Loma Partida
O. pumilio "Cristobal"
O. pumilio "Cristobal"
O. pumilio Cristobal Offspring 2013
Oophaga pumilio (Bastimentos)
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Oophaga Genus :
Oophaga Genus :