3- Oophaga histrionica - Berthold, 1845 - The harlequin poison frog :
The harlequin poison frog, also known as harlequin poison-dart frog (Oophaga histrionica), is a species of poison dart frog endemic to the El Chocó region of western Colombia. The frog is normally found on the ground of tropical rain forests, among fallen limbs or leaf litter.
Harlequin poison frog
Conservation status :
Least Concern (IUCN 3.1)
Scientific classification :
Dendrobates histrionicus Berthold, 1845
The harlequin poison frog has a variety of color morphs, which differ from one valley to the next in its native range. The base color is a bright orange, with a webbing of black over the entire body. Of the color morphs, the base color may be of clear to dull orange, yellow, red, white, or blue. The web pattern varies from small lines to big lines or speckled, incomplete lines, or a completely black frog with just a few spots. The various color morphs can be found in surprisingly close proximity, with different populations on adjacent hillsides. The Bilsa Biological Station (operated by the Jatun Sacha Foundation) boasts three color morphs—red, yellow, and orange—within their 3000-ha protected area located within Ecuador's Mache and Chindul coastal mountain ranges.
Life history :
The harlequin poison frog lives on the forest floor. The male calls from a low perch to advertise his presence and the female lays eggs among the leaf litter. When the eggs hatch, a parent transports the newly hatched tadpoles to a tiny water reservoir (often in the axil of a bromeliad). The mother returns periodically and lays unfertilized eggs, on which the tadpoles feed until ready to metamorphose and exit the water. The larva is an obligate egg-feeder and will starve without this form of nutrition.
This rearing behavior makes harlequins among the most difficult poison dart frogs to raise in captivity. As a result, they are not widely found on the domestic pet market, and those available may be illegally smuggled imports rather than legally bred domestic animals. Wild-caught dart frogs are often stressed, require more care, have a much higher fatality rate, and may also be toxic and dangerous to handle. A few domestically bred animals are nevertheless available, and are highly sought-after in the pet trade.
O. histrionica, along with O. speciosa, produces cardiotoxins known as histrionicotoxins. These moderate to highly toxic compounds act as potent noncompetitive antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, binding to a regulatory site on the delta subunit of the ion channel complex. They also have some affinity for sodium and potassium channels, although they are much less potent for these targets. The synthesis of histrionicotoxins and various homologues is synthetically challenging and has been the subject of many different attempts.
The IUCN has listed this species as being of "Least Concern" because its range is large and it is a relatively common and adaptable species, able to live in disturbed habitats. Nevertheless, there is ongoing destruction of its rainforest habitat and its numbers seem to be declining but this seems to be at a level unlikely to be fast enough to justify listing it in a more threatened category.
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Oophaga histrionica "Red Head" Ruf
Care Articles :
1- Oophaga histrionica (B ERTHOLD , 1845)
courtesy to : www.dendrobase.de/index.php
The epithethistrionica * comes from the Latin word "histrio" (= actor). It refers to the colorful coloring reminiscent of the costume of a clown (Harlequin) (see also CITES name).
* Due to the female stem of the genus, a new combination with Oophaga (f) also resulted in some changes regarding the gender-determining suffixes from -us (m) to -a (f) in the original species names. From Dendroates histrionicus (m) the taxon was Oophaga histrionica (f)
Oophaga histrionica (G RANT , F ROST , C ALDWELL , G AGLIARDO , H ADDAD , K OK , M EANS , N OONAN , S CHARGEL & HEELER , 2006)
Oophaga histrionica (B AUER , 1994)
Dendrobates histrionica (D UNN , 1944)
Dendrobates tinctorius histrionicus (L AURENT , 1942)
Dendrobates tinctorius witte (L AURENT , 1942)
Dendrobates tinctorius cocteaui (BOULENGER , 1914)
Dendrobates tinctorius var. Coctaei (B OULENGER , 1914)
Dendrobates tinctorius var. Cocteani (S TEINDACHNER , 1864)
Dendrobates histrionicus (B ERTHOLD , 1845)
Hylaplesia de Cocteau (D UMÈRIL & B IBRON , 1841)
sensu F ROST ( 2007) modified to L ÖTTERS ET Al . (1999)
English name: Harlequin Poison Frog, Red-and-black Poison Frog (CITES)
German name: Dotted poison dart frog
Amphibia-> Anura-> Dendrobatoidea-> Dendrobatidae-> Dendrobatinae-> Oophaga -> Oophaga histrionica (B ERTHOLD , 1845)
The genus Oophaga B AUER 1994 corresponds to the former Histrionicus group in the sense of M YERS (1984) or the classification of S ILVERSTONE (1975) in Pumilio and Histrionicus group.
up to 9 years
Young males (variants Baudó and Red Head) can already start to call at 4-5 months, first fertilized eggs were detected at 12 months. (CARL, personal comm.)
-Brood care behavior:
Fig .: Female of the variant "Bahia Solano" during the transport of bats
Fig .: Landgoer Oophaga histrionica "Bahia Solano" in Bromeliachaché
Type find location of the first description
'New Granada .... Popayan Province' after Böhme (1841)
By Myers et al. (1996) clarified as: '' Pacific side of northwestern Colombia, probably upper Río San Juan river system, today's Departmento de Risaralda ''
The species is distributed in northwestern Colombia (Departamentos Choco, Risaralda, Valle de Cauca and Cauca) and occurs there at altitudes of 0 - 800 m.
Along rivers there are the biotopes of the so-called "redhead" variant of O. histrionica. Departamento Valle de Cauca.
In the untouched primary forest of the Choco, indigenous populations of O. histrionica can be found along indio-paths . Department of Chocó, Colombia.
Typical biotopes of Oophaga histrionica are always strongly structured. Department of Chocó, Colombia
Oophaga histrionica in the biotope of Bahia Solano. Despite the striking coloring, the animals in the structured habitat are not easy to spot. Department of Chocó, Colombia.
Males of Oophaga histrionica in the biotope like to use higher-lying habitat structures as call places.
Department of Chocó, Colombia
Biotope section of the habitat of the "red-headed" variant of O. histrionica: In the landscape, which is often deforested on a large scale, only such microhabitats still provide the required climatic conditions. Departamento Valle de Cauca.
Attitude in the terrarium
Terrarium / Facility:
Rainforest terrarim from 50x50x50 cm Sprinkler
system and mists recommended
The basin should be planted with as many as possible large bromeliads (diameter 35cm) in order to provide various waterholes for the tadpoles.
24-26 ° C,
night reduction by 5-6 ° C
annual temperature fluctuation minimal (1-2 ° C)
70-80%, at noon to 70%, morning and evening 100% (fog)
Usual small and medium feed animals
Drosophila, micro-crickets (also somewhat larger), springtails, meadow plankton
Tips for breeding:
The breed is very difficult. Only a very small number of kittens get older than 6 months!
The reproductive behavior is similar to that of D. lehmanni or D. speciousus.
The burbot need Nähreier. Unfortunately, other substitute foods such as fish food or eggs from eg D. auratus are not suitable. They are eaten, but the tadpoles do not come to metamorphosis.
lay 9 to 12 eggs every 2 weeks (s. Robert L. Melancon)
4 to 20 eggs (National Aquarium in Baltimore, 1999)
Filing on leaves, but photodiodes are preferred.
Female guarding the clutch. Zeitigung eggs: 10 days
Temporal tadpoles: 3 months
Tadpoles are individually brought by the female to waterholes (preferably bromeliads). Females lay near-eggs at regular intervals. Varied nutrition of the mother animals important to increase the quality of the nursery eggs!
The cubs are very small. They can only be raised with springtails, with a more varied diet would probably increase the chance of survival.
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Oophaga histrionica Buenaventura / red Head
Madagascar Dart frogs
South America Dart Frogs - Species
Oophaga Genus :
Oophaga Genus :