3- Hyloxalus azureiventris:
courtesy to : www.dendroboard.com/ -hyloxalus-azureiventris-novice
The frogs are 25-30mm wide with the main difference is found between the sexes. Females few millimeters larger than the males. The animals all have a blue colored belly with a black spot pattern. The hind legs are green, blue or green-blue. The animals have a lining that from the hind legs, runs along above the eyes to the nose where the lines of both sides together. This lining is the most variable color, and be found in green, yellow, orange and red. From the groin is a line halfway to present the side of the animal. This line is often lighter in color than above, with a real red color is not found. On the upper arms has in many instances also have a yellow spot to take war. Not all animals have this spot. Sometimes there is in the middle of the back spots a pattern in the yellow or orange color and very rare to bluish green.
There are no real variations of this species known. Within the known populations, the color and pattern vary greatly. In the hobby of animals are sometimes sold as such a specific color. This is only based on commercial gain as the orange or red animals are more popular and people can ask a higher price. These animals will be just as easily produce offspring in all colors.
Call: A vibrator that about 40 seconds and can last even longer. The call is a bit like that of the Dendrobates leucomelas, but the tone is a little higher.
The north of San Martin, Peru, near Tarapoto. These species are found in the lowlands to about 1100 meter altitude.
H. azurieventris is a real bottom dweller who is in the nature of love among the leaves, stalks and often in burrows among rocks. In nature they are also often difficult to find. Larvae in this habitat are deposited in small pools in tree trunks and leaves. These pools contain than 1 or 2 at most larvae per pool.
Hyloxalus azureiventris should be kept in a so-called jungle terrarium. 50x50x50 cm is large enough for a couple. For a group of 4 or 5 animals, think of a tank of 100x50x50 cm minimum, preferably larger. Furnish water-absorbent material on the walls (eg fern root) and a houtstronkje. Some plants such as bromeliads, etc. Marantaceae complete the installation. One part water, the larvae go where they can bring is also recommended. And everything moist. Differ are not demanding animals.
The temperature may fall between 22 and 25 ° C during the day. At night the temperature may drop several degrees. Preferably not below 18 ° C. Long time temperatures above 28 ° C are to be avoided.
Group / pairs:
Pairwise is recommended because these animals are free from aggressive peers. Females will eat each other's eggs, that is if they put the first place to come. When several men held together mostly unsuccessful mating means that no eggs are deposited.
For some, the successful breeding in groups, but the numbers of offspring than much lower. In flocks they are extremely productive.
The clutch consists of 10-17 eggs, which develop in 10 days and is fanatically guarded by the male. The eggs are light in color, the jelly is often opaque. The eggs after laying often look as if they are bad. Within 24 hours you can develop however you perceive. Do not be too premature to Hide clutches that look bad.
Other breeding information:
If food they take fruit flies, but also young crickets and many other types of small insects (meadow plankton). If the males to their 40 sec. constant, audible sound heard mating calls are coming clutches. Once there, the male these clutches are almost constantly monitor. During this time the male will not call. Get your four-six road you can often within 48 hours expect a new clutch. Only to have them here because you can be exhausting the female. The clutches are also getting smaller because fewer mature eggs available to the female.
The eggs are both bromeliad leaves and in holes, like a petri dish under a half coconut shell, disposed. The larvae are the male brought to the water and can be reared together. Sometimes the male will not all larvae in the same piece of water off. Possibly this has to do with the amount of water. It is therefore sometimes necessary to provide multiple outlets ponds. Males and larvae on the back keep walking around until they die are indeed observed. This is best avoided so.
The larvae are on a diet of nettle leaves or spinach and visvoerers opgroeien.Na a quick six weeks the larvae metamorphose into small frogs over one cm. The young frogs grow very quickly into adult frogs. Some 3 months after metamorphosis can go all males begin calling. Females make sure 2 times as long to be juveniles.
Sexes in adult animals quite well to distinguish when you look at the size and build. The women are few millimeters are usually much larger and more robust in the bul
1- Hyloxalus azureiventris - The sky-blue poison frog
Kneller and Henle, 1985
The sky-blue poison frog (Hyloxalus azureiventris) is a species of poison dart frog. It is endemic to Peru and known from the lower eastern versant of the Andes in the upper Amazon basin of the San Martín Region.
Sky-blue Poison Frog
Conservation status :
Endangered (IUCN 3.1)
Scientific classification :
Binomial name :
(Kneller and Henle, 1985)
Phyllobates azureiventris Kneller and Henle, 1985
Dendrobates azureiventris (Kneller and Henle, 1985)
Epipedobates azureiventris (Kneller and Henle, 1985)
Cryptophyllobates azureiventris(Kneller and Henle, 1985)
Ameerega azureiventris (Kneller and Henle, 1985)
The species has been placed in numerous genera, including the new genus Cryptophyllobates erected for it. However, it is now placed in Hyloxalus; although Hyloxalus azureiventris represents a distinct clade within Hyloxalus, recognizing it formally would render the rest of Hyloxalus paraphyletic.
Its main distinguishing feature is dorsolateral stripes that run down the back and end on the posterior.
For the external links , refrences click here to read the full wikipedia article
Care articles :
1- Hyloxalus azureiventris (K NELLER & H ENLE , 1985)
courtesy to :
The epithet azureiventris comes from the Latin words "azzurum" (= deep blue) and "venter" (= belly). It refers to the bruising or marbling of the underside of the body (throat, limbs and abdomen).
Hyloxalus azureiventris (G RANT , F ROST , C ALDWELL , G AGLIARDO , H ADDAD , K OK , M EANS , N OONAN , S CHARGEL & W HEELER , 2006)
Ameerega azureiventris (F ROST et al. , 2006)
Cryptophyllobates azureiventris (L ÖTTERS , J UNGFER & W IDMER , 2000)
Phyllobates (Pseudendrobates) azureiventris (B AUER , 1988)
Epipedobates azureiventris (M.YERS , 1987)
Dendrobates azureiventris (M. YERS & B URROWES , 1987)
Phyllobates azureiventris (K NELLER & H ENLE , 1985)
English name: Sky-Blue Poison Frog
German name: Blaubauch-Blattsteiger
Amphibia-> Anura-> Dendrobatoidea-> Dendrobatidae-> Hyloxalinae-> Hyloxalus -> Hyloxalus azureiventris (K NELLER & H ENLE , 1985)
threat status :
Classified as threatened (EN = endagered) in the Red List. The division was due to the small-scale
distribution area of less than 5000 km 2 . The species is known from less than 5 localities (populations) and does not occur in protected areas. The habitats along the road from Tarapoto to Yurimaguas are increasingly shrinking due to slash-and-burn and logging (IUCN, 2006). The population trend is rated as decreasing. The data are not considered to be secure because the species lives extremely hidden in the field and therefore can rarely be observed (B ROWN & T WOMEY, 2007). However, it is probably not a cultural successor and should be threatened by the loss of habitat not insignificant.
Due to the taxonomic renaming the species (despite the threat status ) is currently listed neither as Hyloxalus azureiventris , nor as Cryptophyllobates azureiventris in CITES (2006). As Epipedobates azureiventris , however, the species was listed under CITES and was also traded several times. As part of the INIBICO project by R. Schulte, animals from Peru were legally exported in 2005.
Annex II of the WA (CITES). Annex B of the EUArtschVO. Notifiable according to BArtSchVO.
(as Epipedobates azureiventris )
Medium sized poison dart frog species with one KRLfrom 25-28 mm.
Black ground color, yellow lateral stripes, which run over the eyes to the tip of the snout, and connect there. The legs are also black with green pattern
Dorsal and ventral view of Hyloxalus azureiventris
Brood care behavior:
♂ during transport of the larvae.
For 40 seconds
San Martín, Peru, 700m altitude
Distribution area Hyloxalus azureiventris
Attitude in the terrarium
Terrarium / Facility:
Rainforest terrarium from 50x50x50cm
recommended automatic irrigation and mist system
of water supply for the necessary Quappenaufzucht
24-26 ° C, drop by 3-4 ° C at night
Annual variation: keep drier in winter
The humidity should not be permanently below values of 70-80%. Noon reduction to 70%, morning and evening 100% by fog or rain.
Usual small and medium feed animals like springtails . Small fruit fly . Big fruit fly Micro grilling or crickets up to 5 mm in size (remove legs), Small waxmead n, barklice , and sifted meadow plankton , For juveniles, springtails are indispensable in the first two weeks. Only frogs that are metamorphosed from very large larvae can sometimes cope with the small fruit fly. Foradulti Feeding animals such as crickets and fruit flies should be dusted regularly 1-2 times a week with a good vitamin preparation (eg Amivit A after the original B IRKHAHN-Rezeptur). Feed animals for young animals should be pollinated daily for the first 4 weeks. Store opened vitamin supplements in the fridge. Fruit flies can be well fed before feeding with liquid vitamin preparations (eg Sanostol, Multibionta) and thus enhance nutritional physiology. Even young crickets can be well enriched with nutrients and vitamins by feeding green fodder (meadow herbs). Pollinated food animals should be offered in the terrarium on exchangeable trays. Residual vitamin powder residues can not form a bacterial focus on the terrarium floor. Fruit pieces designed in small bowls in the terrarium (eg banana slices) are good places for fruit flies and are soon accepted by the frogs as feeding places. For a sufficient vitamin supply of the feed animals by these Lockstellen the residence time of the feed animals, however, should be too low, so that should be additionally vitaminized. Offered food trays should be cleaned every 2-3 days for hygienic reasons. Springtails can be well focused on laid out Xaxim pieces by using them with small! Quantities of dry yeast sprinkled. Here, too, the frogs quickly learn the meaning of the feeding place.
Group keeping only possible with young animals. Adult animals show each other a high aggressiveness. Females and males respond to same-sex partners with popping and staples. For successful breeding the animals should therefore only be kept in pairs.
Tips for breeding:
Oviposition on bromeliad leaves and under coconut shells
Place 10-17 eggs
Development time Eggs: 12 days, males guard the nest
2- Hyloxalus Azureiventris- Sky Blue Poison Dart Frog
Location & History:
Formerly known as Cryptophyllobates Azureiventris. Northern San Martin, Peru, near Tarapoto. This species ranges from the lowlands up to roughly 1100 meters elevation. This species was exported legally and sustainably in mid-2005 as part of the INIBICO project. Listed as Endangered- Red List.
Descriptions & Behavior:
In the wild this is a shy, terrestrial frog which prefers rocky piles and caves compared to open areas. In the vivarium it is a bold group frog. The Azureiventris is a medium size frog, growing to approximately an inch in length with the females larger than the males. They do not poses the body mass such as the Tinctorius species, and are a rather slim frog.
The males call is loud and bird like, comparable to that of D. Leucomelas.
H. Azureiventris has blue reticulated pattern on its belly. The animals are black with a line that runs from the hind legs, above the eyes to the nose where the lines meet. These stripes range from yellow, green, orange, red and even blue. Their front and hind legs are generally light blue with large black spots.
A pair of H. Azureiventris should be kept in a well planted 10 gallon horizontal vivarium. They require temperatures of 75-78 F during the day and can tolerate temperatures in the mid 60’s at night. They are voracious eaters, taking anything from large fruit flies to appropriately sized crickets.
There are no different color morphs within this species, color and pattern can vary greatly even with same color parents.
They prefer high humidity, around 90% for successful breeding.
Breeding and Tadpole Care:
Sexual maturity is reached in 3-4 months for males, 7-8 months for females. Keeping a pair together is best for breeding as there is no competition among males and no egg eating between females. They are prolific breeders, laying eggs under cocoa huts as well as on leaves. The female will normally lay between 10 and 15 eggs which will hatch around 10 days. The eggs have a “milky” appearance, this make the eggs look as if they are about to mold; however, the eggs are perfectly healthy. The male will guard his clutch and can transport the tads for upwards of 5 days. Tads can be raised communally and will morph into froglets in 45 days. They produce male heavy clutches. Tads should be “incubated” at cooler temperatures around 64 degrees Fahrenheit as temperature id hypothesized to have an influence on the sex ratio of tads. Tadpoles can be raised communally on a diet of tadpole bites and high quality fish food.
Populations of H. Azureiventris are not present in any protected areas and there is a need to encourage the protection of remaining lowland habitat as well as establish a conservation management plan for the trade of this species.
It is listed on CITES Appendix II (as Cryptophyllobates azureiventris).
Northern San Martin, Peru, near Tarapoto. This species ranges from the lowlands up to roughly 1100 meters elevation.
This frog is incredibly shy in the wild, preferring rock piles and small caves to open areas. While juveniles can sometimes be seen in the leaf litter, adults are rarely seen and usually only encountered at dusk when the males start to call from crevices in rock piles. Breeding takes place in dark recesses of these rock piles, where water temperatures may be a few degrees cooler than surrounding forest.
This species has a very small range and is therefore at risk of habitat loss through deforestation. Population size estimates are extremely difficult because adults are almost never encountered, though tadpoles are commonly found, suggesting that adult scarcity is a function of shyness and not rarity. This species was exported legally and sustainably in mid-2005 as part of the INIBICO project.
Despite spending nearly six months in the Cainarachi valley from 2004-2005, we had not seen or heard this species until Kyle Summers stumbled across a courting pair. After we had the call recorded, it was just a matter of crawling into a cave (face down in an ant nest) and grabbing a handful of leaf litter and dirt that luckily had a frog inside it.
Sister to Hyloxalus chlorocraspedus. Grant et al. (2006) suggested that these frogs be included in a much larger genus Hyloxalus which includes several of the former Colostethus species due to genetic similarities. However, as Grant notes, this placement in Hyloxalus may be only temporary, as the former Cryptophyllobates possess characteristics (e.g. aposematic coloration, skin toxins) that may warrant that they are considered a separate genus.
4- Hyloxalus azureiventris
Kneller and Henle, 1985.
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