2- Epipedobates tricolor - The phantasmal poison frog or phantasmal poison-arrow frog
The phantasmal poison frog or phantasmal poison-arrow frog (Epipedobates tricolor) is a species of poison dart frog. It is endemic to Ecuador and known from the Andean slopes of the central Ecuador in Bolívar Province. They have radiant colors. This species is endangered, and there are only a few locations in the wild where they are known to live.
Phantasmal poison frog
Conservation status :
Endangered (IUCN 3.1)
Scientific classification :
Binomial name :
Prostherapis tricolor Boulenger, 1899
Phyllobates tricolor (Boulenger, 1899)
Dendrobates tricolor (Boulenger, 1899)
Ameerega tricolor (Boulenger, 1899)
Colostethus paradoxus Rivero, 1991
The phantasmal poison frog has a snout-to-vent length of about 22.6 mm (0.9 in). It has a wide head and truncated snout and the skin is smooth. The first finger is longer than the second, and all the digits are partially webbed. The dorsal surface is usually green or yellow and there are longitudinal stripes.
Distribution and habitat :
The phantasmal poison frog is known only from a number of locations in central Ecuador on the Andean slopes of Bolívar Province, at heights of between 319 and 1,769 m (1,047 and 5,804 ft) above sea level. Its natural habitat is the leaf litter on the floor of the tropical forest, especially near streams, and in wetlands.
The species inhabits the Chocoan tropical and subtropical rain forest. Habitats include deforested areas as well as natural forests. They are found in banana and cacao plantations, and pastures near streams. The males carry the tadpoles to sites with running water. The frogs secrete epibatidine, a chemical of pharmacological interest.
The phantasmal poison frog is listed as "Endangered" by the IUCN. This is because of its limited range, estimated to be less than 5,000 square kilometres (1,900 sq mi) and the apparent decline in numbers of this species.
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Epipedobates tricolor ,Phyllobates tricolor ,Dendrobates tricolor CALLING MALE
Care Articles :
Vivarium set up , general care and breeding are same as epipedobates anthonyi
1- Epipedobates tricolor (B OULENGER , 1899)
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The epithet tricolor comes from the Latin words tria (= three) and color (= color) and refers to the three-colored abdomen of the type. This shows on a marbling in white and dark brown additional red signal spots.
Epipedobates bicolor [misspelling] (R IVERO & A LMENDÀRIZ , 1992 "1991")
Epipedobates tricolor (M yers , 1987)
Dendrobates tricolor (M yers , D ALY & M ALKIN , 1978)
Phyllobates tricolor (B ARBOR & N Oble , 1920)
Prostherapis tricolor (B OULENGER , 1899)
Phantasmal Poison Frog (W ALLS , 1994)
Phantasmal Poison arrow Frog (A NANJEVA , B ORKIN , DAREVSKY & O RLOV , 1988)
German name: Dreifarbiger Baumsteiger
Dutch name: Driekleurige gifkikker
Amphibia-> Anura-> Dendrobatoidea-> Dendrobatidae-> Colostethinae-> Epipedobates -> Epipedobates tricolor (B OULENGER , 1899)
Note for systematics:
Since the recent revision of the Anthony Tricolor species circle by G RAHAM ET AL . (2004) dominates the use of the names Epipedobates anthonyi (N OBLE , 1921) and Epipedobates tricolor (B OULENGER , 1899) among herpetologists and terrarists. The uncertainties about the affiliation of the species can be traced back to a mistake by S ILVERSTONE (1976). He incorrectly identified a population of E. anthonyi from the province of Azuay due to the similar drawing pattern as Phyllobates tricolor, and unfortunately all subsequent investigations followed this misjudgment.
Fig .: Left the genuine E. tricolor ss, Moraspungo, Prov. Cotopaxi and on the right the morpheme of E. anthonyi , Santa Isabel, Prov., Wrongly determined by S ILVERSTONE (1976) . Azuay ( Phyllobates tricolor sensu S ILVERSTONE ).
© 2007 Wojtek Nieszporek Epipedobates tricolor"Moraspungo" © 2007 Wojtek Nieszporek Epipedobates tricolor"Moraspungo" © 2007 Wojtek Nieszporek Epipedobates tricolor"Moraspungo" © 2007 Wojtek Nieszporek Epipedobates tricolor"Moraspungo" © 2007 Wojtek Nieszporek Epipedobates tricolorMoraspungo, Cotopaxi © 2007 PUCE Luis A. Coloma
Two genetic groups can be distinguished. A northern group, spreading in the provinces of Bolívar, Cotopaxi and Pichincha, and a southern group, which includes the provinces of Azuay, El Oro, Guayas and Loja. Animals of the type E. tricolor (El Porvenir, Prov. Bolívar) can be assigned to the northern group, for which the name E. tricolor is applicable. The southern group is made up of populations, which also show a very slight genetic variation, but are clearly differentiated from the northern populations. This southern group also includes the population of E. anthonyi (Salvias, El Oro, Ecuador). For these populations is the nameE. anthonyi are available and they should therefore no longer be called E. tricolor . Furthermore, the dissemination areas of both species do not border on one another. Between the two types of species there are about 200 km distance and pushed between the foundations of the northern and southern populations lies the preparation area of Epibedobates machalilla . The populations are not parapatric or sympatric but are clearly separated from one another and thus are regarded as allopatrisch , Like the genetic distances, the biogeographical findings also support the assumption that both species are not directly related to each other despite the great morphological similarity and none
sibling species en. The separate development lines and the spreading pattern thus both support the assumption of two different types.
Due to genetic and biogeographical investigations, G RAHAM ET AL . (2004), however, show that the term E. tricolor is valid only for a few populations from a narrowly defined area of the central Ecuadorian highland. For the southern, so far falsely identified as E. tricolor (sensuSILVERSTONE ), according to G RAHAM ET AL . the name E. anthonyi . For the first time samples from the environment of thetype locality it from E. tricolor ss
(Porvenir, Bólivar province, Ecuador) was included in the genetic analyzes and it was shown that the populations from Central Ecuador , which were previously known as E. tricolor from southern Ecuador, are not identical. The DNA analyzes show a clear distinctiveness of the genotype and prove that two types are involved, so no other conclusion can be drawn.
Fig .: Phylogenetic tribal tree hypothesis and geographic distribution of the Tricolor-Klade (red point = species found of E. tricolor , blue point = type-finding site E. anthonyi ). According to G RAHAM ET AL . (2004). © 2007 Thomas Ostrwoski
Threat status :
The species Epipedobates tricolor is classified as "threatened" in the red list (EN = Endagered). The species has a very small occurrence area of less than 5000 km 2 and is also known only from seven finds. The habitats of the species continually abate on the pacific side of Ecuador by burning and woodcutting. One of the biggest threats is presumably the pollution of the inhabited districts by pesticides. Since the nature of streams is bound, it reacts sensitively to the pollution of the waters by chemicals from agriculture. As populations in unstressed biotopes are also decreasing, there is a threat of chytridiomycosis caused by batrachochytrium dendrobatidiscan not be ruled out. Above all riparine heights like E. tricolor are attacked by this aggressive fungus. The number of reproductive animals is declining so that the population trend is declining (IUCN, 2006).
According to CITES (2007) the species has been carried out several times and in large quantities for commercial purposes (animal trade) from Ecuador. Annex II of the WA.
Annex B of the EU Art. Reporting and postponement requirement according to BArtSchVO.
Medium-sized arrow-poison frog type with a KRL of 20 - 22.5 mm (measured values of the B OULENGER types according to S ILVERSTONE , 1976).
Tab .: Measured values of selected morphological characteristics of Epipedobates tricolor , holotype. (Records marked with *) are not gender specific.)
Fig .: Ventral and dorsal drawing patterns of (A) + (B) Epipedobates tricolor Lectotypus, Porvenir, Ecuador (BM 19184.108.40.206); (C) + (D) Epipedobates anthonyi , holotype, Salvias, Ecuador (AMNH 13739); (E) Epipedobates anthonyi , Paratypus, Salvias, Ecuador (AMNH 13740). Drawings from SILVERSTONE (1976), not to scale. According to N OBLE (1921)
E. tricolor differsfrom the very similar species E. anthonyi by some morphological features such as a longer first finger (shorter in E anthonyi ), a longer snout (shorter in E. anthonyi ) and another coloration. During populations of E. anthonyirather blue, blue-white, white or cream-colored drawing patterns on a red-brown to dark-brown body, E. tricolor shows pale yellow to vigorous lemony-yellow strips on a dark red-brown to black body. However, the most important distinguishing features, according to present knowledge, are the shape, the color and the arrangement of the signal spots. E. anthonyi shows realtively small yellow or orange red Inguinalfleck which are usually only visible when the legs are extended to the back. E. anthonyi shows further signal spots in the same color on the posterior side of the thigh. These are also not visible in normal seating. E. tricolor , on the other hand, shows strongly red signal spots. The inguinal patches are much more pronounced and often recognizable even in normal posture in a dorsolateral view. E. tricolor upper arm attachment has a so-called axillary spot, which is absent or is only slightly developed in E. anthonyi , and E. anthonyishows E. tricolor also sigan spots on the inward facing underside of the lower limbs (see fig.)
Like other species of the Dendrobatidae family, E. tricolor can reach an age of 10-15 years.
Typefundort of the first description
"Porvenir, Bolivar, western slope, about 5800 feet [1769 m]", Ecuador. (F ROST , 2007)
The species is known only from Central Ecuador west of the Andes. Foundations are known from the provinces of Bólivar, Cotopaxi and Pichincha. The species inhabits heights of about 1000 - 1769 m.
Attitude in the terrarium
Terrarium / Facility:
Well planted and structured rain forestarium from 40 x 40 x 40 cm for a male and two females. For groups better 80 x 40 x 40 cm. Rainwater and Nebler recommended. Small stream or water part as a larvae spot. Ensure grouping by good structuring for different areas (many breeding caves on different levels).
E. tricolor is a resident of the temperate montane mountain rainforest. For this reason, the holding temperatures should be 20 to max. 25 ° C. A night reduction of approx. 5-10 ° C is recommended and corresponds to the natural events.
Since the species lives along streams in cooler montawälderdern, the average humidity should be around 80-90%. Short-term reduction to 70% (at noon) is well-tolerated. At night the humidity should reach nearly 100%. This is most easily achieved by intensified nebulization before the extinction of the illumination and a night reduction of the temperature.
Usual small and medium feed animals such as springtails. Small fruit fly. Large fruit fly Micro grilling or small fishes up to 5 mm in size (remove bony legs), Small wax maden, barklice. White Asses and sifted meadow plankton , Adulti overwhelm even larger food chunks and are only with fruit flies not enough to feed. Without "strong" food such as waxmaids or sharks, the breeding is usually not successful, since the females then often do not place any or only inferior eggs or develop disturbances in the larvae. For adulti feed animals such as crickets and fruit flies should be regularly dusted 1-2 times a week with a good vitamin preparation (eg Amivit A according to the original B IRKHAHN-Rezeptur). Feeding animals for young animals should be pollinated daily for the first 4 weeks. Keep opened vitamin preparations in a refrigerator. Fruit flies can be fed well before the feeding with liquid vitamin preparations (eg Sanostol, Multibionta) and so nutritional physiological. Even young crickets can be enriched with nutrients and vitamins by feeding green fodder (meadow herbs). Pollinated fodder animals should be offered in the terrarium on interchangeable bowls. Thus, remaining vitamin powder residues can not form a bacterial herd on the terrarium soil. Fruit pieces (eg banana slices) arranged in small bowls in the terrarium are good locks for fruit flies and are soon accepted by the frogs as feeding places. For an adequate supply of vitamins to the feed animals through these lures, however, the dwell time of the feed animals should be too low, so that additional vitamins should be used. For hygienic reasons, the food shelves should be cleaned every 2-3 days. Bouncing tails can be easily concentrated on Xaxim pieces, Amounts of dry yeast. Here as well, the frogs quickly learn the importance of feeding.
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