2- Epipedobates espinosai
Epipedobates espinosai is a species of frog in the family Dendrobatidae endemic to Ecuador. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, rivers, freshwater marshes, and intermittent freshwater marshes. It is threatened by habitat loss.
Data Deficient (IUCN 3.1)
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Epipedobates espinosai (F UNKHOUSER , 1956)
courtesy to : www.dendrobase.de/index.php
© 2007 Wojtek Nieszporek Epipedobates darwinwallacei"Mindo" © 2007 Wojtek Nieszporek Epipedobates darwinwallacei Mindo, Ecuador © 2005 Jorg Saupe Epipedobates darwinwallacei Mindo, Ecuador © 2005 Jorg Saupe Epipedobates darwinwallacei Mindo, Ecuador © 2005 Jorg Saupe Epipedobates darwinwallacei Mindo, Ecuador southern variant © 2005 Erik Van de Horst Epipedobates darwinwallacei Mindo, Ecuador southern variant © 2005 Erik Van de Horst Epipedobates darwinwallacei Mindo, Ecuador southern variant
The Epitethon espinosai refers to the Hacienda Espinosa, province of Pichincha, Ecuador, which is located near the village.
Phyllobates espinosai FUNKHOUSER, 1956
Dendrobates espinosai MYERS, DALY and MALKIN, 1978
Ameerega espinosa BAUER, 1986
Epipedobates espinosai MYERS, 1987
English name: Turqoise-bellied Poison Frog (CITES)
Espinosa Poison Frog
German name: Espinosa Blattsteiger
Amphibia-> Anura-> Dendrobatoidea-> Dendrobatidae -> -> Epipedobates -> Epipedobates espinosai (F UNKHOUSER , 1956)
Note for systematics:
The validity of the species Epipedobates espinosai is controversial. E. espinosai was partly placed with the species E. boulengeri in a race circle. Recent investigations by G RAHAM ET AL . (2004) show, however, that the animals (Mindo), designated here as E. espinosai , differ genetically distinctly from E. boulengeri . Whether the animals of the population of Mindo are identical with the type E. espinosai is still unclear. While G RAHAM ET AL . the population of Mindo as E. sp. "F" are found in R EAD (2005) and C OLOMA(2000) the term E. espinosai for the Mindo population. Also, there seems to be two color morphs ranging from Mindo to give (V AT THE H ORST , pers. Comm.), One of which is no signal spots shows (sister species?). The validity of the different populations as separate species or their belonging to the taxon E. espinosai must be clarified by further ethological and genetic investigations. However, we first follow the classification of C OLOMA and describe the variant of Mindo as E. espinosai .
threat status :
Annex II of the WA. Annex B of the EU ArtSchVO (EC). Notifiable according to BArtSchVO.
In the Red List, the threat status is assessed as unavailable due to missing data (IUCN, 2004). The validity of the species has not yet been fully clarified according to IUCN and ecological data are largely lacking. According to CITES (2005), the species is not traded.
The back is slightly granulated and marbled on a dark background with copper-brown spots. On the sides are interrupted copper-brown lateral strips, which are better seen in the marbled animals than in those with points. Some animals have a yellow signal spot on the upper arms and thighs.
The belly is smooth and light yellow. This is a rough pattern of dark brown spots. The males have a distinctly black throat.
The animals south of the Rio Mindo have a drawing consisting only of points.
Behavior (Ethology) :
In Mindo, a fairly large population density was observed. There were up to 12 animals on 150 square meters of forest. Some animals were found only 2 meters apart (V AN D ER H ORST , pers. Komm).
According to V AN D ER H ORST (Pers. Komm), the reputation closely resembles that of the closely related species Epipedobates tricolor . It is 3-5 seconds of trilling. Males call the whole day.
Typefundort of the first description
"Hacienda Espinosa, altitude 330 m, 9 km west of Santo Domingo de los Colorados, Province Pichincha, Northwest Ecuador". (F ROST , 2004)
So far only from the Terra typical (IUCN, 2004). According to R EAD (2005) and S AUPE (pers. Komm.), There should also be an altitude of 1200 m at the city of Mindo.
Feuchtheißer lowland rainforest and preemontary Bergregenwald. The photos of S AUPE give a small insight into the structure of the habitat. No published data or observations are available.
In the Mindo area the animals were found in the primary forestas secondary forest, in high grass (over one meter high), in bushes, in wetlands and in gardens. They usually held themselves in small heaps of branches and foliage. Their habitat is limited to a distance of about 30 m to the nearest water.
Fig .: Bergwaldbiotope of the species Epipedobates darwinwallacei , Mindo, Ecuador
© 2005 Jorg Saupe
The spreading extends vertically over the lowland stage up to the prämontans climate area. Temperatures in the lowland rain forest are quite constant at 26 ° C in the yearly average and with little fluctuation during the day. At an altitude of about 350 m (type founding site) there is still a humid and hot climate. At higher altitudes of 1000 - 1200 m (Mindo), stronger daytime fluctuations (day - night) are expected at 5 - 10 ° C. The average annual temperature is only around 21 ° -22 ° C. The north-west of Ecuador, as well as the Pacific side of Colombia, is located in one of the rainiest areas on the planet. Annual values of up to 7000 mm are possible. There is no marked dry season and it is all year round humidit's climate.
Attitude in the terrarium :
Terrarium / Facility:
Rainforestarium from 40x40x40cm
Rainwater and Nebler recommended
24-26 ° C, night reduction to 5 ° C
Annual temperature fluctuation minimal (1-2 ° C)
70-80%, at noon to 70%, in the morning and in the evening 100% (fog)
Usual small animal feeds Drosophila, micro-Heimchen, small waxmaids, meadow plankton and jump tails.
Variants in terrarium keeping:
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Other websites :
South America Dart Frogs - Species
Madagascar Dart frogs