Epipedobates is a genus of poison dart frogs native to northern South America (Colombia and Ecuador) west of the Andes, including the western slopes. Common name phantasmal poison frogs has been suggested for the genus.
Scientific classification :
Type species :
Epipedobates was erected in 1987 in an attempt to split dendrobatids into monophyletic genera, accommodating species that had until then been placed in Phyllobates. In the major revision of poison dart frogs in 2006, most of the species formerly placed in Epipedobates were then transferred to Ameerega, leaving behind just five species. With description of new species, the species count had increased to seven by early 2015.
Dorsal colouration is cryptic, brown. A pale oblique lateral stripe is present. Dorsal skin is smooth or with irregularly scattered granules or tubercles, most distinct and prevalent posteriorly. In adult males, third finger is swollen.
There are seven species:
Epipedobates anthonyi (Noble, 1921)
Epipedobates boulengeri (Barbour, 1909)
Epipedobates darwinwallacei Cisneros-Heredia and Yánez-Muñoz, 2011
Epipedobates espinosai (Funkhouser, 1956)
Epipedobates machalilla (Coloma, 1995)
Epipedobates narinensis Mueses-Cisneros, Cepeda-Quilindo, and Moreno-Quintero, 2008
Epipedobates tricolor (Boulenger, 1899)
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Epipedobates anthonyi calling and eating
Fig: Distribution area Epipedobates
© 2008 Thorsten Mahn
1- Epipedobates anthonyi - Anthony's poison arrow frog
Anthony's poison arrow frog (Epipedobates anthonyi) is a poison dart frog species in the family Dendrobatidae found in Ecuador and Peru.
Anthony's poison arrow frog
An individual in the Leipzig Botanical Garden, Germany
Conservation status :
Near Threatened (IUCN 3.1)
Scientific classification :
Binomial name :
Phyllobates anthonyi Noble, 1921
Colostethus anthonyi (Noble, 1921)
Phyllobates anthonyi (Noble, 1921)
Dendrobates anthonyi (Noble, 1921)
Ameerega anthonyi (Noble, 1921)
Anthony's poison arrow frog has a snout-to-vent length of about 19 to 26 mm (0.7 to 1.0 in). The hind legs are short and robust. The dorsal surface is usually dark red or brown and there are several yellowish-white oblique stripes and a central longitudinal stripe.
Distribution and habitat :
Anthony's poison arrow frog is known only from a number of locations in southwestern Ecuador and northwestern Peru at heights of between 153 and 1,769 m (502 and 5,804 ft) above sea level. Its natural habitat is the leaf litter on the floor of tropical dry forests, especially near streams.
Anthony's poison arrow frog is diurnal and terrestrial. Males are territorial. A clutch of 15 to 40 eggs is laid on the ground among leaf litter and the male guards them till they hatch in about two weeks. He then carries them on his back to a suitable water body where the tadpoles develop to metamorphosis in about sixty days.
Anthony's poison arrow frog is listed as "Near Threatened" by the IUCN. Its population seems stable but it has a limited range, estimated to be less than
20,000 square kilometres (7,700 sq mi), and its habitat is being degraded by pollution from agrochemicals. It is also collected for medicinal use.
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Epipedobates anthonyi with tadpoles
Care Articles :
1- Epipedobates anthonyi - Dendrobase.de
courtesy to : www.dendrobase.de/index.php
Amphibia-> Anura-> Dendrobatoidea-> Dendrobatidae-> Colostethinae-> Epipedobates -> Epipedobates anthonyi (N OBLE , 1921)
The genus Epipedobates sensu G RANT ET AL . (2006) corresponds to the former Westandine cliff of Epipedobates and forms a monophyletic line with currently 5 species.
Note on systematics:
Since the recent revision of the Anthony Tricolor species circle by G RAHAM ET AL . (2004) dominates the use of the names Epipedobates anthonyi (N OBLE , 1921) and Epipedobates tricolor (B OULENGER , 1899) among herpetologists and terrarists. The uncertainties about the affiliation of the species can be traced back to a mistake by S ILVERSTONE (1976). He incorrectly identified a population of E. anthonyi from the province of Azuay due to the similar drawing pattern as Phyllobates tricolor, and unfortunately all subsequent investigations followed this misjudgment.
Fig .: Left the genuine E. tricolor ss, Moraspungo, Prov. Cotopaxi and on the right the morpheme of E. anthonyi , Santa Isabel, Prov., Wrongly determined by S ILVERSTONE (1976) . Azuay ( Phyllobates tricolor sensu S ILVERSTONE ).
Due to genetic and biogeographical investigations, G RAHAM ET AL . (2004), however, show that the term E. tricolor is valid only for a few populations from a narrowly defined area of the central Ecuadorian highland. For the southern, so far falsely identified as E. tricolor (sensuSILVERSTONE ), according to G RAHAM ET AL . the name E. anthonyi . For the first time samples from the environment of thetype locality
it from E. tricolor ss(Porvenir, Bólivar province, Ecuador) was included in the genetic analyzes and it was shown that the populations from Central Ecuador , which were previously known as E. tricolor from southern Ecuador, are not identical. The DNA analyzes show a clear distinctiveness of thegenotypeand prove that two types are involved, so no other conclusion can be drawn.
Fig .: Phylogenetic tribal tree hypothesis and geographic distribution of the Tricolor-Klade (red point = species found of E. tricolor , blue point = type-finding site E. anthonyi ). According to G RAHAM ET AL . (2004). © 2007 Thomas Ostrwoski
Two genetic groups can be distinguished. A northern group, spreading in the provinces of Bolívar, Cotopaxi and Pichincha, and a southern group, which includes the provinces of Azuay, El Oro, Guayas and Loja. Animals of the type E. tricolor (El Porvenir, Prov. Bolívar) can be assigned to the northern group, for which the name E. tricolor is applicable. The southern group is made up of populations which also show a very slight genetic variation, but all of which are clearly defined by the northern populations. This southern group also includes the population of E. anthonyi (Salvias, El Oro, Ecuador). For these populations is the nameE. anthonyi are available and they should therefore no longer be called E. tricolor . Furthermore, the dissemination areas of both species do not border on one another. Between the two types of species there are about 200 km distance and pushed between the foundations of the northern and southern populations lies the preparation area of Epibedobates machalilla . The populations are not parapatric or sympatric but are clearly separated from one another and thus are regarded as allopatrisch, Like the genetic distances, the biogeographical findings also support the assumption that both species are not directly related to each other despite the great morphological similarity and none sibling species en. The separate development lines and the spreading pattern thus both support the assumption of two different types.
threat status :
Although the species is considered to be relatively widespread and adaptable, Epipedobates anthonyi is classified as "Potentially Threatened" (NT = Near Threatened) in the Red List. Although the available data justified a classification as "Vulnerable" (Vulnerable), the species was only classified as "Potentially Threatened" according to the Red List, as its distribution area is likely to be slightly larger than previously assumed. The species is so far only a relatively small area of less than
20,000 m 2and is therefore potentially affected by any habitat loss. Above all in Ecuador, the stocks have declined sharply due to the loss of biotopes (woodcuts, burners) and environmental pollution (agricultural pesticides). The species was collected and exported for medical research (epibatidine). However, these collections do not appear to be a threat to their masses. It is however recommended to monitor the extraction for scientific purposes and trade. The species is not known from any protected area. The population trend is considered to be decreasing. The species is still a common species in southern Ecuador (IUCN, 2007)
According to CITES (2007), the species was not traded under the name Epipedobates anthonyi . However, exports are under the nameEpipedobates tricolor from Ecuador. Due to the taxonomic turmoil, these were mainly populations of E. anthonyi (see systematics).
Annex II of the WA. Annex B of the EU Art. Reporting and postponement according to BArtSchVO.
Prov. Azuay, Ecuador
© 2007 PUCE Luis A. Coloma Epipedobates anthonyi"Quebrada Carabo" Prov. El Oro, Ecuador © 2004 Jan Verkade Epipedobates anthonyi "Río Saladillo" Prov. El Oro, Ecuador © 2004 Jan Verkade Epipedobates anthonyi "Río Saladillo" Prov. El Oro, Ecuador © 2004 Jan Verkade Epipedobates anthonyi "Buena Esperanza" Prov. El Oro, Ecuador © 2004 Jan Verkade Epipedobates anthonyi "Buena Esperanza" Prov. El Oro, Ecuador © 2004 Jan Verkade Epipedobates anthonyi "
Small to medium sized type with a KRL of 16.5 - 26.5 mm. The average size is 19-24 mm (S ILVERSTONE , 1976)
With good care in captivity about 15 years.
The male animals begin to call with approximately 10-11 months, whereby the females deposited only with 13-14 months. Often, the first scraps of poor quality (only galeries, moldy, unfertilised).
Epipedobates anthonyi Prov. Azuay, Ecuador © 2007 PUCE Luis A. Coloma Epipedobates anthonyi © 2007 Thomas Schäffer Epipedobates anthonyi"Rio Jubones" © 2013 Raymond Kuijf Epipedobates anthonyi "Rio Jubones" © 2013 Raymond Kuijf
Epipedobates anthonyi "Tierra Alta" © 2008
© 2006 Jens Ackermann Epipedobates anthonyi "Tierra Alta" © 2006 Jens Ackermann Epipedobates anthonyi "Tierra Alta" © 2008
Fig .: Epipedobates anthonyi "Santa Marta", Prov. Azuay, Ecuador. Calling © PUCE Luis A. Coloma
Fig. E. anthonyi "Sarayunga", Prov. Azuay, Ecuador. Couple in the Amplexus. © 2007 PUCE Luis A. Coloma
Fig. E. anthonyi "Sarayunga", Prov. Azuay, Ecuador. Males during transport of the larvae. © 2007 PUCE Luis A. Coloma
Fig. E. anthonyi "Sarayunga", Prov. Azuay, Ecuador. Males guard the clutch. © 2007 PUCE Luis A. Coloma
Southwest Ecuador and in the north-west of Peru. West of the Andes at altitudes of 153-1387 m altitude (F ROST , 2006).
Attitude in the terrarium :
Terrarium / Facility:
Rainforestarium from 40x40x40 cm. In terrariums from 50x50x50 cm, for example, a group holding of 2.3 animals is possible. Due to the strongly pronounced habitat behavior, one should provide a terrarium design by forming steps and projections, as well as a sufficiently dense plant for visibility. In addition, climbing possibilities can be introduced, for example, through cork oak branches, in order to meet the high movement and climbing urge of the animals.
With regard to the planting, it is advantageous to allow it to grow as densely as possible and opaque in the posterior third of the terrarium. Such a dense terrarium, covered with large-leaved vine plants, eg, ivy, contributes a great deal to the safety requirements of the frogs and thus reduces the awe. On large plant leaves, the frogs have additional spawning possibilities and also use them gladly as places of stay and as call positions. The climatic conditions are stabilized by abundant plants.
The settling possibilities in the form of film cans should be distributed as evenly as possible throughout the terrarium. This ensures that not only the most dominant males use all spawning sites alone, but also the less dominant males have enough opportunities to settle with a partner. The spawning areas should be placed as far as possible in the rear part of the terrarium. The animals spawn very preferentially in the upper third of the terrarium, however, the prevailing humidity is generally too low for a good laying development (dingling / fungal growth).
This is due to the concept of the terrarium itself. In the upper area the air is usually heated during the daytime by the illuminants (usually more than 25 ° C) and the relative humidity is rather low. In the night, when the lighting is switched off, there is a temperature reduction and an increase in the relative humidity; but this is not sufficient to promote good nesting.
On the other hand, the daytime temperatures in the floor area are significantly lower and the relative humidity is correspondingly higher, but there is the danger that too much condensation and moisture will settle on the floor, causing them to have a higher fibrillation rate. We were also able to observe in the terrariums that micro-organisms (mites, planaria, etc.) accumulated on the ground in the ground area and were also not beneficial to the development.
By applying the spawning opportunities in the middle terrarium level, it is ensured that a continuous temperature and humidity prevails. This factor is to be regarded as positive in the development of the game.
There should also be one, but preferably several, water bodies at different positions in the terrarium. Several water bodies distributed in different areas avoid aggression among the animals, since in this species not only the males but also the females have a clear potential for aggression. Not infrequently, we were able to observe that animals that entered a different area have been persistently persecuted and stuck. However, we have so far suffered no losses due to such attacks.
Rainwater and Nebler recommended.
Depending on the origin of the population. For upland animals not too warm from 22-24 ° C with night subsidence. Lowland populations can also tolerate temperatures of 26 ° to 28 ° C. But also a night reduction of 3-5 ° C should be offered.
Epipedobates anthonyi lives in partly quite dry uplands. There the animals are always tied to small or small watercourses. A high humidity of 70-80% per day and 100% at night should therefore be offered. A water portion for constant access to water should also be present.
Usual small and medium feed animals such as Drosophila , micro-Heimchen, jump tails and meadow plankton. Adult animals can also overpower some larger food animals and like to eat terflys and medium sized dachshunds. The animals are good eaters. The feed quantity and quality have a direct effect on the size of the groats and the sludge rate. In the case of predominant feeding with Drosophila , the layers are smaller and the slippage rate is significantly lower.
In well-structured larger containers good in the group durable. In small pools prefer only one male with up to two females. Social structures of dominant and oppressed animals are formed in groups. With sufficient hiding-places and a good feed offer the under-animals show however no stress symptoms.
Tips for breeding:
Since the animals produce very large eggs (up to 30 eggs), an extensive breeding is the easiest. The males do a very good brood care and always put enough larvae in an existing water part. The larvae can either be fed directly in the terrarium in the water part and reared or can be transferred in separate vessels or small aquariums. The larvae are not cannibal predators and can be reared together. you are
and can be well-dressed with commercially available ornamental fish feeders. The young animals go very small on land and need small Drosophila and jumping tails as Erstfutter. An intensive breeding with the removal of the scrims improves the yield of reared young animals, but since the supply by breeding usually exceeds the demand, this is not worthwhile. Since young animals grow slowly and require a large amount of feed, the effort of rearing all the larvae of a lineage against the extensive method is not worth it. In addition, it is ensured that only the healthiest animals go ashore.
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