2- Dyeing poison frog - Dendrobates tinctorius :
The dyeing dart frog, tinc (a nickname given by those in the hobby of keeping dart frogs), or dyeing poison frog (Dendrobates tinctorius) is a species of poison dart frog. It is among the largest species, reaching lengths of 50 mm (2.0 in). This species is distributed throughout the eastern portion of the Guiana Shield, including parts of Guyana, Suriname, Brazil, and nearly all of French Guiana.
Dyeing dart frog
Least Concern (IUCN 3.1)
Scientific classification :
Like most species of the genus Dendrobates, D. tinctorius is highly toxic if consumed. It produces pumiliotoxins that the frog uses for self-defense. While pumiliotoxins are weaker than their derivative allopumiliotoxins and the batrachotoxins secreted by Phyllobates species, they are sufficiently toxic to discourage most animals from feeding on them. In the case of D. tinctorius, the toxins cause pain, cramping, and stiffness when the frogs are handled roughly. Due to the toxins of the frogs, animals that feed on D. tinctorius will typically learn to associate the bright colours of such frogs with the vile taste and pain that occurs after a frog is ingested. As it is such a variable species, different color morphs of D. tinctorius have varying degrees of toxicity.
Local tribes use D. tinctorius for decoration. Feathers are plucked from the back of young parrots and the frogs are rubbed on the parrots' exposed skin. When the feathers regrow, the toxin causes them to appear yellow or red rather than green. These altered feathers are highly prized by the indigenous tribes.
The dyeing poison dart frog is large for a poison dart frog, but may be smaller than Phyllobates terribilis and Ameerega trivittata. Many small forms of D. tinctorius reach 3.5 cm long; most morphs are around 5 cm in length or slightly bigger; some of the larger morphs may exceed 7 cm, although large ones are usually closer to 5.5 cm long. For some time, captive individuals were thought to be incapable of reaching the sizes of wild specimens; however, later evidence suggested captive individuals do not reach their maximum potential size possibly due to vitamin and mineral deficiencies. More recently, breeders have had success raising dyeing poison dart frogs to very large sizes.
Dendrobates tinctorius is one of the most variable of all poison dart frogs. Typically, the body is primarily black, with an irregular pattern of yellow or white stripes running along the back, flanks, chest, head, and belly. In some morphs, however, the body may be primarily blue (as in the "azureus" morph, formerly treated as a separate species), primarily yellow, or primarily white. The legs range from pale blue, sky blue or blue-gray to royal blue, cobalt blue, navy blue, or royal purple and are typically peppered with small black dots. The "Matecho" morph is almost entirely yellow and with some black, with only a few specks of white on the toes. Another unique morph, the citronella morph, is primarily golden yellow with tiny splotches of black on its belly and royal blue legs that have no black dots.
Males are typically smaller and more slender than females, but they have larger toe discs. The toe discs of female dyeing poison dart frogs are circular while those of the males are heart-shaped. Also the females have arched backs as opposed to males who have curved ones.
Male Dendrobates tinctorius alanisclimbing at the Zurich Zoo
It exists in discrete patches throughout this region, being restricted to "highland" (up to 350 m (1,150 ft)) areas. While this species can be found at sea level, individuals have been collected at the base of nearby hills or mountains. The isolation of populations has presumably occurred as a result of the erosion of these highland areas and the seasonal inundation of the inter-patch areas.
The species encompasses a great diversity of color and patterning variants (subspecies and morphs). Some batrachologists suspect that some of these are actually different species.
1- D. tinctorius 'Patricia'
D. tinctorius 'Citronella'
D. tinctorius (left) with Epipedobates anthonyi
D. tinctorius 'Giant Orange'
D. tinctorius "azureus"
The specific name tinctorius comes, however, not from the variety of colors, but from the legends of some indigenous tribes. It has been said that tribe members used the frog poisons to cause green parrot feathers to grow different colors. 
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Dendrobates tinctorius 'patricia'
Care Articles :
1- Dendrobates Tinctorius care sheet
WRITTEN BY D.KNIGHT
Dendrobates Tinctorius are from the Family Dendrobatidae. Dendrobates Tinctorius populations can be found wide spred throught Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana and northern Brazil . They are diurnal frogs that are very active and make very intresting pets.
COLOURS AND MORPHS
Dendrobates Tinctorius are very colourful, attractive anuras with many morphs and variations in colour. Dendrobates Tinctorius has over 30 knowm morphs and new ones are still being found. D.Tinctorius "powder blue" is black with white markings, D.Tinctorius "Saul" is black with a yellow back and D.Tinctorius "Azureus" is blue from head to toe.
In captivity Dendrobates Tinctorius are not toxic, there toxins are produced from their natural diet. There is much research into what part of their diet causes this toxin and it is believed to come from fire ants and other small inverts. Wild caught specimens of Dendrobates will soon loose their toxicity when in captivity.
Dendrobates Tinctorius require allot of space, a vivarium of 24x18x18 will house an adult trio.
Dendrobates Tinctorius do best either housed in sexed pairs, all male groups or a large group of males and females in a ration of two males to each female. Dendrobates Tinctorius are territorial and will fight over breeding sites and feeding locations, so it’s important to provide lots of hiding spots and cover. Dendrobates Tinctorius will also appreciate a well planted vivarium, plants like pothos and bromeliads provide not only cover but potential breeding sites. Eco earth or coco husk with a covering of dead leaves, twigs and nut shells make an ideal substrates and should be given drainage by means of a false bottom or a deep layer of hydroleca. The viavrium should have an escape prof lid constructed of either glass or plastic. Screen style tops should also be covered with glass or plastic panels. This is vital in keeping the humidity raised in the vivarium and will also prevent small prey items from escaping. When choosing the lid of the vivarium it is important to remember that most, if not all the UVB rays will be filtered out by most glass and plastics, so care should be taken in choosing a suitable material.
Although Dendrobates Tinctorius naturally inhabit the forest floor under the cover of the tree canopy, they are still subjected to exposure from U.V rays and full spectrum lighting. UVB can be very beneficial to Dendrobates Tinctorius, it will aid them in the production of D3 and will help prevent bone disfigurement in juveniles. A 2% tube with a reflector will provide them with substantial exposure and help promote plant growth. Full spectrum lighting may also be beneficial to both frogs and plants, and will contain a level of UVB.
TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY
Dendrobates Tinctorius require high humidity's of 75%-100% along with some ventilation. The vivarium should be misted with de-chlorinated water at least once a day, and never allowed to fully dry out. A temperature between 70 and 8o degrees in the day is required, with a drop to as low as 65 degrees at night.
Dendrobates Tinctorius are small amphibians that eat very small foods. Providing a constant source of small insects is the most difficult part of their husbandry. Fruit flies make the best staple diet, and they are very easy to culture. Pin head crickets, springtails, termites, aphids and small fly larvae also make good foods but are not ideal as the main diet. Feeding the right amounts can be a tricky game, feeding should be judged on how many insects are eaten within 2 minuets. Adults should be fed every other day, and Juveniles do best offered food daily but in smaller quantities. Vitamin and mineral supplements are essential, and should be replaced every six months. Fruit flies and other food items should be supplemented before being offered to the frogs.
Fruit fly culturing guide
A Very shallow water area should be provided as Dendrobates Tinctorius will use it to replenish their natural water reserve, BUT they are very poor swimmers and will drown easily. The area or dish should be changed daily using de-chlorinated water.
Handling should be avoided unless it is vital to the specimens well fare. If you do have to handle then powder free surgical gloves must be worn and frequently misted with de-chlorinated water to stop them drying out. Dendrobates Tinctorius do not like or get used to being handled, it is very stress full to them and if not done correctly very dangerous. Not only will the salts in human skin irritate them but there is a risk of damaging a limb or tearing the skin. When cleaning the viv the safest and less stress full way for the frogs is to catch them in a tub which has been sprayed with de-chlorinated water.
Dendrobates Auratus are an ideal Dendrobates for a beginner to posion dart frogs, however they are very fragile and deteriorate quickly if not given the proper care. These frogs stress very easily and are only suited as a visual pet.
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