Dart Frogs species :
there are two groups of dart frogs :
- South America Dart Frogs .
- Madagascar Dart frogs .
South America Dart Frogs
Dendrobates is a genus of poison dart frogs native to Central and South America. Dendrobates once contained over 40 species, but has lost nearly all of them to the genera Oophaga, Ranitomeya, Andinobates, and Phyllobates.
The generic name Dendrobates is derived from the Greek words dendron "δένδρο" ("a tree") and bato "βατῷ" ("I mount"), meaning ‘tree climber’.
Scientific classification :
Type species :
For the external links , refrences click here to read the full wikipedia article
1- Blue poison dart frog - Dendrobates tinctorius "azureus" previously known as Dendrobates azureus
The blue poison dart frog or blue poison arrow frog or known by its native name, okopipi, (Dendrobates tinctorius "azureus") is a poison dart frog found in the forests surrounded by the Sipaliwini savanna, which is located in southern Suriname and adjacent far northern Brazil. D. tinctorius "azureus" is also known by its Tirio Indian name, okopipi. Its scientific name comes from its azure color. While frequently considered a valid species in the past, recent authorities treat it as a variant of D. tinctorius.
Blue poison dart frog
Conservation status :
Not evaluated (IUCN 3.1)
Scientific classification :
Subspecies:D. tinctorius "azureus"
Trinomial name :
Dendrobates tinctorius "azureus"
D. tinctorius "azureus" is a medium-sized frog that weighs about 8 g and grows to 3.0-4.5 cm in length. Females are larger and about half a centimeter longer than males, but males have larger toes. The frog has a typical lifespan of five to seven years in the wild. Its bright blue skin, usually darker around its limbs and stomach, serves as a warning to predators. The glands of poisonous alkaloids located a defense mechanism to potential predators. These poisons paralyze and sometimes kill the predator. The black spots are unique to each frog, enabling individuals to be identified. This species of frog has a distinctive hunch-backed posture.
Each foot has four toes, which each have a flattened tip with a suction cup pad used for gripping. The tips of the toes in females are round, while males have heart-shaped tips.
As with almost all frogs, tadpoles differ greatly in appearance from adults. They have a long tail, about 6 mm, with a total length around 10 mm. They lack legs and have gills instead of lungs.
D. tinctorius "azureus" frogs in captivity.
D. tinctorius "azureus" is a mainland animal, but stays close to water sources. These frogs spend most of their awake time, during the day, hopping around in short leaps. They are very territorial and aggressive both towards their own species and others. To ward off intruders, they use a series of calls, chases, and wrestling. Although poison dart frogs are known for their skin toxins, used on the tips of arrows or darts of natives, in reality only the species of the Phyllobates genus are used in this manner. In captivity, the frogs lose toxicity as a result of altered diets.
Dendrobates azureus - Blue Poison Dart Frog
The blue poison dart frog breeds seasonally, usually during February or March when the weather is rainy. To find mates, the males sit on a rock and produce quiet calls, which the females follow to track down the males. The females then physically fight over a male. The male takes the female to a quiet place by water, which becomes the site of the egg-laying. Fertilization occurs externally; once the eggs are laid, the male covers them in his sperm.
Between five and 10 offspring are produced at each mating. Eggs are laid in the male’s territory, which he defends. The male takes care of the eggs, sometimes joined by the female. The eggs hatch after 14 to 18 days, and after 10 to 12 weeks the tadpoles are fully mature. Both sexes reach sexual maturity at two years of age. The expected lifespan of D. tinctorius "azureus" is between 4 and 6 years in the wild, and about 10 years in captivity.
D. tinctorius "azureus"
The blue poison dart frog feeds on ants, beetles, flies, mites, spiders, termites, maggots, and caterpillars.
Captive care :
In captivity, like most captive dart frogs, they eat a staple diet of fruit flies, pinhead crickets, rice flour beetle larvae, and springtails.
For the external links , refrences click here to read the full wikipedia article
My azureus dart frogs eating bean beetles
Care Articles :
1- Dendrobates tinctorius 'Azureus' - Blue Poison Dart Frog
Defining Characteristics: Great beginner frog | Bright blue coloration | Bold | Easy to breed | Quiet call | Large | Can be kept in groups when young | Best kept in pairs as adults
Name: Dendrobates tinctorius 'Azureus'. Formerly known as Dendrobates azureus until genetic testing proved D. azureus was another population of Dendrobates tinctorius. Commonly called the Sky Blue Poison Dart Frog, Blue Poison Arrow Frog, or the Dyeing Poison Dart Frog (based on an early belief that natives used brightly colored frogs to dye fabric).
Recommended Vivarium Size: A 10 gallon aquarium is suitable for a single Dendrobates tinctorius 'Azureus', but Josh's Frogs recommends a 20H or 18x18x18 Vivarium for 1-3 frogs. Not sure how to set up a vivarium? Please watch our video on How to Set Up a Vivarium.
Temperature: Dendrobates tinctorius 'Azureus' can tolerate a temperature range of 65 F to 80 F, but prefer temperatures in the low to mid 70s. Temperatures over 85F are dangerous.
Humidity: Like most poison dart frogs, Azureus prefer a humidity range of 70 – 100%, but can tolerate humidity down to 50% for short periods of time if the frogs have access to water. Low humidity levels, especially without access to water, can quickly be fatal.
Size: Adult female Azureus are larger, measuring in at approximately 2 inches. Male Azureus are a bit smaller, averaging about 1.5 inches at maturity. All of the Dendrobates tinctorius 'Azureus' froglets Josh's Frogs sells are well started juveniles, and measure approximately 1” long.
Age: Dendrobates tinctorius 'Azureus' is capable of living well over 20 years in captivity under ideal conditions, although a lifespan of 10 years is more common. In the wild, it is thought that Azureus may live 4-6 years. All Azureus for sale at Josh's Frogs are well started juveniles, and are 2-3 months old.
Feeding: Like most poison dart frogs, Azureus prefer smaller foods. All of the azureus Josh's Frogs sells will readily eat Drosophila melanogaster fruit flies. Adult Dendrobates tinctorius 'Azureus' will readily consume Drosophila hydei fruit flies and pinhead crickets. All ages of poison dart frogs will enjoy springtails and isopods. All feeder insects should be dusted with a vitamin/mineral supplement. For more information on what poison dart frogs can eat, please visit our How-To Guide on Feeding Poison Dart Frogs.
Sexing: Dendrobates tinctorius 'Azureus' is not sexable until 10-12 months of age. Male Azureus tend to be smaller than females, which often appear both longer and wider. Males also tend to have wider front toe pads and a less defined back arch than females. Josh's Frogs sells 2-3 month old juveniles that are not sexable unless otherwise noted. For more information on sexing poison dart frogs, please visit our How-To Guide on Sexing Poison Dart Frogs.
Color/Pattern: A very variable poison dart frog, all Dendrobates tinctorius 'Azureus' are mostly blue in color with a varying degree of black spots. The blue can range from a very dark, deep blue to a light sky blue in some individuals. Spots can be large in some individual Azureus, but generally are less than 1cm across. 'Fine Spot' or 'Small Spot' lines of Dendrobates tinctorius 'Azureus' have been created by line breeding. Josh's Frogs does not recommend, support, or endorse line breeding as we believe this leads to weaker captive animals and nature has done a wonderful job of creating an amazing variation in color and pattern of poison dart frogs already.
Social Behavior: Dendrobates tinctorius 'Azureus' do well housed in groups up to sexual maturity, as long as enough space is provided. Josh's Frogs recommends approximately 10 gallons per frog. As they reach sexual maturity at 10-12 months of age, the social dynamic in a group of Dendrobates tinctorius may change, and all but one female may need to be removed. Female D. tinctorius may fight with each other over a mate. For that reason, many breeders recommend keeping Azureus in pairs as adults. Josh's Frogs strongly recommends against housing different species/morphs of dart frogs - for the health of your pets, please avoid mxing! Josh's Frogs recommends purchasing multiple frogs if you are interested in breeding them – this greatly increases the chances of getting a pair.
Breeding: Azureus are very simple and easy to breed. Like most Dendrobates tinctorius, Azureus are best bred in pairs as adult females may fight with each other in the presence of a male. Generally, eggs are deposited on a smooth broad leaf, or on a petri dish under a cocohut. The eggs hatch into tadpoles, which then take 60-80 days to complete metamorphosis into miniature versions of the adults. For more information on breeding and raising poison dart frogs, please visit our How-To Guide on Breeding Poison Dart Frogs.
Natural Range: Dendrobates tinctorius 'Azureus' is native to a very limited range in the Sipaliwini Savanna, located in southern Suriname. This large grassland is punctuated by 'forest islands', isolated pockets of jungle that occur along streams, where Azureus are found. It is estimated that the population of Azureus in the pet trade is several times larger than the wild population at any point in history.
History in the Hobby: Discovered in 1968, Dendrobates tinctorius 'Azureus' were imported for the first time in 1970. Most Azureus descend from imports in the 1980s and early 1990s. Many lines exist in the hobby, generally reflecting individual imports from Suriname or Europe. All Azureus in the pet trade descend from one population in the wild, and can safely be bred together. Josh's Frogs works with several lines of Dendrobates tinctorius 'Azureus', and pairs different lines with each other to maintain genetic variability in the frogs we sell.
Links of Interest:
2- Dendrobates azureus: The Blue Poison Dart Frog
courtesy to : bioweb.uwlax.edu/bio203/s2013/klinkosh_brid/
April 4th, 2013
-Welcome! This webpage has been created in the interest of education with respect to the dart frog
Dendrobates azureus, Dendro- meaning tree, -bates meaning walker and azureus referring to the blue color. To learn more about this amazing frog, either click the tabs above to skip about the site or follow the arrows below to be taken on a tour in the world of this organism. The link to our host website, containing pages on hundreds of other organisms, can be found at the bottom of the page. My name is Bridgette Klinkosh, a student at UW-La Crosse, and I will not only discuss my organism, the Blue Poison Dart Frog, but also other related organisms found on our host website, the link to which can be found at the bottom of this page. This year the topic for websites is poisonous and venomous organisms, but there are many other organisms to learn about on our host site.
The above image is of my heavier spotted Dyeing dart frog named Pongo. His mate, Perdita, will be showcased later. They are both only a few months old and not yet sexually mature, but still accurate representations of overall appearance and therefore wonderful ambassadors for their species.
If you would like to see photos of Perdita now,
The Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History has a live exhibit of these frogs, which are permanently on display in their location in New Haven Connecticut.
The Blue Poison Dart Frog is well-known among seasoned herpetologists as a good beginning animal for pet keepers who are just starting out. This critter is known by many common names such as: Dyeing dart frog, Blue dart frog, and locally as Okopipi. They are alright to keep without a permit, as they are listed as least concern on the ICUN Redlist though a few articles refer to them as vulnerable, due to the pet trade and illegal capture. (Follow the link in the previous sentence to check on the status of other organisms.) Josh's Frogs, where I obtained my pair of frogs, is a reputable dealer of captive bred reptiles and amphibians.
Dyeing dart frogs are smaller compared to their amphibious relatives, ranging anywhere from three to four and a half centimeters. They are usually described as having bright blue-black limbs with a sky-blue body, black spots covering their back and lightly dotting their underbellies. Dyeing dart frogs are diurnal, meaning they are active more in the daytime hours, and are usually solitary creatures; they are not usually found in larger communities unless involved in courtship/ mating displays.
**As something of a disclaimer, I would like to add that this species has become synonymous with the species Dendrobates tinctorius due to recent sequencing of the DNA, revealing that they may be closely enough related to be considered the same species. However, due to multiple sources from the late 2000s, which refer to these two frogs as separate species, I will do the same. Some information (beyond appearance) such as mating behavior and egg/tadpole care is common between the two species and may have come from D. tinctorius based articles. They do differ by various physical characteristics such as the size of the discs of the fingers, the hunched back appearance, and the shape of the tympanum (the disc behind the eyes of the frogs) which are all unique to D. azureus. I would also like to take this moment to add that all images of the dart frogs, including terrarium setups, were taken and are owned by myself. I could watermark the images, but I feel it would degrade the images I have provided for your benefit and take away from the awe inspiring effect of these beautiful creatures. If you would like to use one or more of my images, please simply send me an e-mail asking for permission and I will reply as quickly as possible. Any images adapted or not owned by myself will be cited accordingly. Thank you.
Further reading :
Find more at :
South America Dart Frogs - Species
Madagascar Dart frogs