1- Andinobates claudiae :
Jungfer, Lötters & Jörgens, 2000
Andinobates claudiae (synonyms Dendrobates claudiae, Ranitomeya claudiae) is a species of frog in the family Dendrobatidae. It is endemic to Panama. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests. It is threatened by habitat loss.
Data Deficient (IUCN 3.1)
Jungfer, Lötters & Jörgens, 2000
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Care articles :
1-Andinobates claudiae (JUNGFER, LÖTTERS & JÖRGENS, 2000)
courtesy to :
The epithet claudiae is one dedication sname in honor of C LAUDIA N OEL V LASIMSKY (J UNGFER ET AL., 2000). She and her father made the description possible as part of a name sponsorship (BIOPAT, catalog no .: 97).
Ranitomeya claudiae (G RANT , F ROST , C ALDWELL , G AGLIARDO , H ADDAD , K OK , M EANS , N OONAN , S CHARGEL & W HEELER , 2006)
Dendrobates claudiae J UNGFER , L ÖTTERS & J ÖRGENS , 2000
Dendrobates mimulus B URTON , 1998. Noun nudum.
sensu F ROST 2007
English name: Bocas Poisenfrog
German name: Bocas Baumsteiger
Amphibia-> Anura-> Dendrobatoidea-> Dendrobatidae-> Dendrobatinae-> Andinobates -> Andinobates claudiae (J UNGFER , L ÖTTERS & J ÖRGENS , 2000)
sensu G RANT ET AL . (2006)
Note on the scheme:
For a long time, the populations of the Panamanian province Bocas del Toro were the taxonRanitomeya minuta assigned. However, the Art R. minuta has its westernmost distribution area in Central Panama in the province of Veraguas.
Annex II of the WA. Annex B of the EU ArtSchVO (EC). Notifiable according to BArtSchVO.
In the Red List (IUCN, 2004) as unaufstufbar (DD, Data Deficient) indicated. Little information on distribution and population size is available. A population trend is currently unpredictable. As the islands of the Bocas archipelago are currently being developed more touristy, some populations may be threatened by development. According to CITES (2005), nothing is known about trade and the taking of wild animals.
Very small Ranitomeya species with one KRL from 13 to 16 mm. According to J UNGFER ET AL . (2000) the smallest known poison dart frog species.
Body slim and stretched with oval shape. Head but wider than the body. Teeth missing. Muzzle rounded when viewed from above and rounded dull in profile. tympanum around and about 40% of the eye diameter. First finger significantly shorter than the second. Rel. Finger length (finger formula ): 3> 4> 2> 1. Finger with widened adhesive discs (hardly widened in finger I). No tendrils or hems. Rel. Toe length ( toes formula ): 4> 3> 5> 2> 1. Toes without widened adhesive discs. Skin slightly granulated with black color. On each side branches off a whitish to golden Dorsolateralstreifen from the tip of the snout. On Ventrolateralstreifen in bright white to blue is available. R. claudiae has one on the upper lip Labialstreifen in the same color. On the upper arm runs dorsal a bright line (mostly water-blue) widening towards the base of the leg and forming a so-called signal spot, which is lighter colored than the rest of the line. Such a line is also found on the thigh, but there also often extends to an irregular patch. A dorsal Media line may be present but is often interrupted. The belly is whitish to light blue with black marbling or speckle. (All data according to J UNGFER ET AL ., 2001 and O STROWSKI , 2003.)
Ranitomeya claudiae "Buena Esperanza"
Some islands of the Bocas archipelago harbor their own variant of R. claudiae . These vary in color of the dorsolateral strips and the coloration of the thigh tops. Some populations have a more pronounced median stripe (Isla Colón). The differences in drawing and color are, however, only slight and not as pronounced as in different populations of Oophaga pumilio or Dendrobates auratus (O STROWSKI , 2003).
Interesting is the fact that each island variant in their color the respective syntopically closely resembling existing populations of Phyllobates lugubris (see Fig. 1 - 6)O STROWSKI (2003) suggests that this may be a Müllerian mimicry could act. Aphenomenon which has already been studied for R. imitator and R.variabilis and is considered to be probable for both species (S YMULA ET AL. , 2001).
Fig.5: Ranitomeya claudiae . Variety "Isla Bastimentos".
Fig.6: Phyllobates lugubris . Variety "Isla Bastimentos".
Fig.4: Phyllobates lugubris . Variation "Cerro Brucho".
Fig.1: Ranitomeya claudiae . Variant "Isla Colón".
Fig.2: Phyllobates lugubris . Variant "Isla Colón".
Fig.3: Ranitomeya claudiae variant "Cerro Brucho".
So far not known but probably similar to the related species R. fulgurita and R. minuta up to 6 years.
So far there are no husbandry reports. The closely related species R. fulgurita reaches sexual maturity after about 9 months (J UNGFER ET AL ., 1996).
After S APORITO ET AL . (2004) arepumiliotoxine (PTX: 251D, 281A, 223A) and Allopumiliotoxine (aPTX: 267A, 225A, 297A) major components of the skin toxin of R. claudiae .
Clutch and larvae :
Features of scrim:
The eggs of an observed gel had a diameter of 1.5 mm.
An observed clutch needed 14 days to develop (daily temperature: 26 - 28 ° C). By the 14th day, the larvae had disappeared and probably transported away by the male.
Ranitomeya claudiae is a diurnal inhabitant of the foliage layer. The animals live a bit hidden but are not particularly shy. R. claudiae are particularly active in the morning until about 12.00 o'clock. At this time, increasingly calling males and animals can be observed in the feed intake. At noon less R. claudiae can be detected and their reputation activity decreases. Another activity phase is from 3:00 pm until sunset.
There are no detailed reports on population structure and social interaction. The population density was sometimes very high at 2-3 animals per square meter (O STROWSKI , 2003). The distance between calling males (Revierbesitz?) Was usually several meters. Calling males were often found among old withered leaf sheaths at the base of Heliconia bushes. Possibly. these are defended against other males as spawning grounds or larvae landing sites. Aggresive interactions could not be observed so far (O STROWSKI , pers. Observ .)
One of O STROWSKI(personal observation) pair observed at Isla Colón in courtship showed the spawning behavior typical of species of the subfamily Dendrobatinae. The male lured a female by its chirping cries. This approached purposefully the male and began with the front legs to touch the abdomen and back of the male several times (Vorderbeistreicheln). The male then lured the female to an oviposition site under a leaf. This was done under constant call and short-term pausing. The female followed closely and began repeatedly touching the male with his forelegs as he reached the male again. After about 25 minutes, the animals disappeared under a leaf. Oviposition was not observed but on the next day a nest could be detected at the same place.R. claudiae thus seems to correspond largely to that of R. fulgurita (J UNGFER ET AL ., 1996).
Brood care behavior:
The male takes over the spawning alone after spawning. A male could be observed on the Isla Colón some days with his clutch. In the presence of the clutch, it took a position directly within the jellyfish (see Fig.) Presumably, this posture was used to irrigate the Geleges. The clutch developed completely within the next 14 days. Within this time, the male was found 5 times on the eggs. The slippage of the larvae and their removal could not be observed. However, several larvae carrying males could be observed in the biotope. Sales outlets of the larvae have not yet been proven. Larvally pregnant males, however, were observed conspicuously often in the area of heliconia (O STROWSKI , personal observation).
Ranitomeya claudiae watering the cover
Larva by Ranitomeya claudiae
Phytothelmata in broken internodes of the giant bamboo. Larvalwaters of R. claudiae
The male of Ranitomeya claudiae transports the larvae to the breeding water
Ranitomeya claudiae watering the cover
Freshly metamorphosed cub of Ranitomeya claudiae .
The animals call throughout the day mostly hidden under leaves or in small caves. The call is a quiet insect-like chirping, which is easily confused with the chirping of the occurring tropical crickets. Although the call belongs to the typical background noise in the biotope, he was assigned to the animals late, as calling males are difficult to observe and stop approaching the call usually set immediately. The call of R. claudiae is one Chirp reputation(chirp-call), which closely resembles the vocalizations of the closely related species R. minuta and R. fulgurita . Five calls from O STROWSKIrecorded and measured at 25 ° C in the "Colón" population of R. claudiae consisted of individual groups of notes with a length of 879 - 1105 ms and a dominant frequency of 5.78 - 5.87 kHz. Each group of notes contained 54 - 68 pulsed notes (call rate: 61 - 62 notes / s). The note length averaged 15.67 ms and the notes were separated by intervals of about 1.5 ms. The number, length and interval of the pulses could not be resolved with the program used (BatsoundPro) (for further parameters see the whole sonagram).
Type find location of the first description
'' Panamá: Pronvincia Bocas del Toro: mainland west of the island of Loma Partida (82˚11'W / 09˚ 09'N). '' (J UNGFER ET AL ., 2000)
Common in the province of Bocas del Toro, Panama. Locations have been found on the islands of Popa, Colón, Bastimentos, Cayo de Agua and on the mainland near Almirante and Cerro Brucho (J UNGFER ET AL ., 2000, M ETTES 2002 and O STROWSKI , 2003). In the opinion of O STROWSKI (2003) spread throughout the province Bocas del Toro. An occurrence as far as Costa Rica probably seems to the author, but still has to be proven. All previously proven deposits are located in the lowland rainforest at altitudes between 5 and 140 m above sea level (J UNGFER ET AL ., 2000).
: Distribution area Ranitomeya claudiae
The species does not seem to be a good cultural follower like Oophaga pumilio . All biotopes visited by the author are shady primary forests or very old, mostly overgrown cocoa plantations. The biotopes were almost all near the coast. It was usually very shady, and the ground was covered with a thick layer of leaves. Undergrowth in the form of Heliconia sp. and Dieffenbachia sp. was mostly available but not very dense. The preferred biotopes were conspicuously frequent on slopes and never in depressions. These observations largely coincide with the statements of J UNGFER ET AL, (2000). The animals live only near the ground in the foliage and could never be observed climbing. Partly old overgrown coral rubble hills are used as biotope, whose caves and columns provide hiding places. With D. claudiae , more Dendrobatidae were usually associated depending on the location (O STROWSKI , 2003). There were often Oophaga pumilio , Dendrobates auratus , Phyllobates lugubris , talamancae Allobates , Silverstoneia aff. nubicola and S. cf. flotator in the same habitat . On the mainland at Cerro Brucho near the type discovery site came five! other poison dart frogs sympatric with R. claudiae in the same Habitat before (O STROVSKI , personal observation). This biodiversity is madepossible by the occupation of various ecological niches. Each species uses different resources regarding whereabouts, feed supply and breeding opportunities.
Herb layer on the forest floor in the primary forest. Panama, province of Bocas del Toro.
Old shady cocoa plantation. Panama, province of Bocas del Toro.
Water-filled leaf sheaths of Heliconia ssp. similar to R. imitator could serve as larval distribution sites. Panama, province Bocas del Toro.
Water-filled leaves, here of cocoa (Theobroma cacao), are suitable as sales points for larvae.Panama, province
In the vicinity of such heliconia dwarfs, calling or larvae carrying males were often observed.Panama, province
Deciduous layer on the forest floor of a coastal lowland rainforest on Isla Colón. Biotope of R. claudiae.Panama,
The southern end of the Isthmus (Costa Rica and Panama) is climatically separated by the Cordilleras into a humid Caribbean and a drier Pacific side. The Caribbean side of Panama is characterized by a fairly even tropical climate. In the course of the year, the temperature fluctuations are very low and average about 1-2 °. Even in the course of the day, higher variations between day and night can rarely be detected in the Caribbean lowlands (W ALTER & B RECKLE, 1999). However, on clear nights, after heavy rains or Atlantic cold air currents due to hurricanes in the Caribbean Sea can lead to short-term temperature drops. In the autumn of 2004 in Changuinola, Panama at sea level, a cold snap with temperatures of only 15 ° C. Also in Costa Rica, the author was after heavy rainfall in the lowlands temperatures of 16 ° C measure (O STROWSKI , pers. Observed). However, these unusual low temperatures last only a few hours (in exceptional cases a few days) and are usually only locally limited. On the protected forest floor, however, temperatures can be measured almost year-round, which correspond approximately to the annual average both during the day and at night (W ALTER & BRECKLE , 2000). In the province of Bocas del Toro this is about 26 ° C (see Fig.). The rainfall is also relatively constant and high year round. During the northern winter, the Northeast Passage's air currents bring humid air masses, while in the northern summer, low pressure areas over the Caribbean cause precipitation. The precipitation varies between 2000 and 4000 mm per year, depending on the shadow from the mountain ranges (W ALTER & B RECKLE , 1999). Only in the months of January to March can there be short dry periods of less than 100 mm per month (see Fig.). Overall, the rainfall over the year but relatively constant, so that the frogs on the Caribbean side can reproduce throughout the year.
Climate diagram of the Caribbean side in Costa Rica. Uniform precipitation distribution without dry period. Source: Instituto Geografico Nacional de Costa Rica.
Climate diagram of the Caribbean side in Westpanama. Dry period from January to March.
Attitude in the terrarium
Terrarium / Facility:
The species is currently unlikely to be in legal position. An accommodation in not too large containers (food density) of 30 x 30 x 30 cm, as with R. fulgurita and R. minuta , should suffice for the attitude of a couple. A small part of the water and a dense vegetation as well as some caves (Photo can type I) should be present. A deciduous layer of beech or oak leaves provides the animals with cover and spawning opportunities.
The temperature should not exceed 28 ° C, as the animals live in the shade in the leaf layer and could never be detected there more than 26 ° C. 24-26 ° C therefore appear to be the optimum.
The humidity should be quite high (at least 80%), but dry areas should be present and the floor should not be too wet.
Based on the toxins found, it can probably be concluded that the prey spectrum of the species in nature, as in O. pumilio or D. auratus, is largely made up of ants. Certain ant species contain those enriched in the frog skin toxine (S APRITO ET AL ., 2004) and account for about 80% of food in O. pumilio (D ONNELLY , 1991). R. claudiae certainly copes only with the smallest ant species, as he is after J UNGFER ET AL . (2000) probably the smallest poison dart frog ever. In the terrarium, therefore, only feed animals in jumping tail size are eligible for a diet. Even small Drosophila should be able to overwhelm the species only with difficulty. An attitude is promising only with well-running breeding of breeding tail and certainly indispensable for the rearing of the young.
Only one pair or one male with two females should be kept in the pelvis. In larger pools may be more, but then the food supply could be difficult. In the biotope the stocking density was 2-3 animals per square meter (O STROWSKI , 2003), however, calling (male) territories had a slightly larger distance of 2-3 m to each other (O STROWSKI , pers. Observed).
Tips for breeding:
So far not bred. As with the very closely related species R. fulgurita and R. minuta , oviposition will occur on leaves or in small caves (photodoses) on horizontal smooth surfaces. The larvae are likely, as well as the related species, as well
omnivorous and mix well with a mixture of different fish feeds.
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2- Andinobates claudiae
Jungfer, Lötters & Jörgens, 2000
courtesy to : www.dendrobates.org/ andinobates/andinobates-claudiae/
Account by Thomas Ostrowski
Known only from the Province of Bocas del Toro in Western Panama, close to the border of Costa Rica. Based on a photo taken near Manzanillo, it seems probable that the distribution extends to southeastern Costa Rica (Janzen, pers. comm.). Very common at the bigger islands of the Bocas del Toro Archipelago (Bastimentos, Colón and Popa) and the adjacent mainland on the Peninsula of Aguacate (type locality), but rarely found in the rest of the mainland. This is a lowland species found only at elevations from nearly sea level to 140 meters above sea level.
The very small species inhabits hot (27° – 28°) and humid (80 – 90 % rel.) primary and secondary forest and is somewhat terrestrial. They can be found only in the leaf litter and rarely up to 1 m above ground when transporting tadpoles to small pools in broken bamboo stalks or in leaves or axils of Araceae or Heliconia. The frogs are active during the whole day, but the the soft, cricket-like buzz call can be heard most frequently in the morning and afternoon. The females lay small clutches of 1 to 4 eggs which are carried by the male and deposited individually in small phytotelmata. Feeding behaviour has not been observed. Tadpoles are omnivorous and feed on algae and arthropod larvae. The tadpoles may also be commensalists and benefit from the egg-feeding behaviour of Oophaga pumilio. We often found more than one tadpole of A. claudiae together with tadpoles of O. pumilio in one pool, and all populations of A. claudiae, so far known, are sympatric with O. pumilio.
Listed as Data Deficient by IUCN. This species has a small range but populations seem to be stable. Andinobates claudiae is adapts well to secondary habitats, and in good habitats, the species reaches a high density (1-2 individuals per m2). The species has never been exported for the pet trade. However, some individuals have been exported in shipments from Panama to Europe under the name of “minutus”. Because of their tiny size and their hidden behaviour in terraria, this frog is not highly sought-after. Also because they are easy to breed in captivity, the demand of this species is small and therefore there is low risk of large-scale smuggling.
The pattern of A. claudiae resembles exactly the pattern of the sympatric and very poisonous species Phyllobates lugubris. It is possible that A. claudiae and juveniles of P. lugubris mimic each other in a system of Müllerian mimicry.
Andinobates claudiae is most closely related to A. minutus. With an SVL of only 13–15 mm, A. claudiae is one of the smallest known species of the Dendrobatidae.
JUNGFER, K.-H., S. LÖTTERS & JÖRGENS, D. (2000): Der kleinste Pfeilgiftfrosch – eine neue Dendrobates-Art aus West-Panama. – Herpetofauna 22 (129): 11-18.
OSTROWSKI, T. (2003): Dendrobates claudiae und Phyllobates lugubris – zwei Pfeilgiftfrösche aus Panama im gleichen Kleid. – Reptilia 8 (5): 72-75
Type Locality Map :
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