11- Ameerega silverstonei -Silverstone's poison frog - Myers & Daly, 1979) :
Silverstone's poison frog (Ameerega silverstonei; formerly Epipedobates silverstonei) is a species of frog in the family Dendrobatidaeendemic to Peru. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and rivers. It is threatened by habitat loss for agriculture and drug crops, and is exported in the illegal pet trade.
Silverstone's poison frog
Conservation status :
Endangered (IUCN 3.1)
Scientific classification :
Binomial name :
(Myers & Daly, 1979)
Epipedobates silverstonei (Myers & Daly, 1979)
Silverstone's poison frog is a large Dendrobatid frog with males growing to a snout-to-vent length of about 38 mm (1.5 in) and females to 43 mm (1.7 in). The head has a rounded sloping snout and is as wide as the body. Males have a small vocal sac in the throat. The skin of the head, fore limbs and underparts is smooth while that of the dorsal surface and hind limbs is granular. The fingers are flattened and have expanded discs at their tips. There is no webbing between the digits of either hands or feet. The head and back of this frog is orange-red, sometimes with black spots or mottling, especially towards the rear. The hind limbs are largely black and the forelimbs and underparts vary in colour, sometimes being black and sometimes orange. The palms of the hands and feet and the underside of the digits are grey or orange.
Silverstone's poison frog is endemic to Peru. It is found in Cordillera Azul mountain range in Huánuco Department, where it is found at an altitude of about 1,330 m (4,364 ft)
above sea level. Its range is not precisely known and might be wider than is thought. It has also been introduced to the vicinity of Tarapoto in the San Martín Region but the result of this introduction is unknown.
Silverstone's poison frog is a terrestrial species that is found among the leaf litter of the forest floor in tropical montane forests. Males are territorial during the breeding season and call to attract females. The eggs are laid in small clutches of about thirty eggs in a closely packed single layer underneath leaves. The male guards them till they hatch. He then carries them on his back to a suitable ephemeral pool or water-filled crevice where the tadpoles develop until undergoing metamorphosis. The bright colors of this frog probably deter potential predators and this frog is known to be distasteful to snakes.
For the external links , refrences click here to read the full wikipedia article
Ameerega silverstonei call.
Care articles :
1- Ameerega silverstonei (M YERS & D ALY , 1979)
courtesy to : www.dendrobase.de/index.php
Ameerega silverstonei (G RANT , F ROST , C ALDWELL , G AGLIARDO , H ADDAD , K OK , M EANS , N OONAN , S CHARGEL & W HEELER , 2006)
Phyllobates (Pseudendrobates) silverstonei (B AUER , 1988)
Phobobates silverstonei (Z IMMERMANN & Z IMMERMANN , 1988)
Epipedobates silverstonei(M YERS , 1987)
Dendrobates silverstonei ( MYERS & D ALY , 1979)
English name: Silverstones Poison Frog sensu W ALLS , 1994
German name: Red peach poison frog
Dutch name: rode praalkikker
Amphibia-> Anura-> Dendrobatoidea-> Dendrobatidae-> Colostethinae-> Ameerega -> Ameerega silverstonei (M YERS & D ALY , 1979)
40-45mm, males slightly smaller
yellow over orange to red, black part may vary
with 15-16 months. The first clutches are often of inferior quality (fungi).
quite shy, intense courtship behavior and guarding of the melee by the male
Type find location of the first description
Tingo María, Department of Huánuco, Peru This locality lies along the gravel road from Tingo María to Pucallpa, about 5 miles by road southwest of the roads crest at 1640 m elevation. " sensu F ROST , 2006
They live at altitudes from 1300m in the Cordillera Azul (text Ralf Jansen)
We found the animals in the Cordillera Azul at about 1400-1500 m altitude. It was a heavily farmed area with many pastures and only small residual forest spots along small, cool streams. Nevertheless, according to the locals, the animals are common. We were able to detect animals on the ground in the shade of some trees along very small, slow-flowing Quebradas (streams). Here it was damp and the soil was densely covered with mosses and moss ferns (Selaginella) or covered with leaves. The temperature was, on a sunny day! in November 2002, at 12.00 pm 20 degrees! At this altitude, the temperature of the night often falls to only 10 degrees. When keeping these temperature data should be considered! According to the locals, the animals are also found in the pastures in the rainy season, where the temperature can reach 28-32 degrees in the sun. Nevertheless, the animals should not be exposed to such high temperatures. (Text Thomas Ostrowski)
Attitude in the terrarium
Terrarium / Facility:
Rainforest terrarium from 50x50x50cm for a couple,
100x50x50cm for a group
possible several levels, as the animals like climbing
rain gear and fogger recommended
22-24 ° C, lower by 3-4 ° C at night
The species must be kept cool, ditto the burbot. (Text Ralf Jansen)
temperature fluctuation minimal (1-2 ° C) The indicated daily temperature seems to me to be a bit high. My E.silverstonei are in the bottom row of my breeding room. The temperature is there during the day 20-21 ° C. At night I sink to 18-19 ° C in this row. (Text Thomas Marmetschke Jr.)
70-80%, at lunchtime up to 70%, in the morning and in the evening 100% (fog)
Usual small to large food animals such as large Drosophila, micro-crickets, smallest wax maggots, meadow plankton
Group housing possible
Tips for breeding:
Put 40-45 eggs
newspaper about 30 days
2- Ameerega silverstonei
Myers and Daly, 1979
courtesy to : www.dendrobates.org/ ameerega/ameerega-silverstonei/
For more information about resources for the above article .. click here
Central Peru, restricted to the Cordillera Azul near Tingo Maria. Found no lower than 1350 meters elevation and reportedly occurs to at least 1800 meters.
This species is stunning to behold. Only once you reach the cool, misty summits of the Cordillera Azul are you within the range of this montane specialist. Its habitat is a place of perpetual dampness and cold, with daytime temperatures on the ground typically around 21 C (70 F), and at night reaching 12-15 C (53-60 F). Though every man, woman, and child from the area is familiar with this memorable frog, they can be very difficult to find among the thick vegetation typical of those elevations. When seen, they are usually under logs or underneath large piles of leaves and are very shy. We were unable to find tadpoles of this species, though they reportedly breed in backwaters of small streams and puddles.
Current populations appear to be a shadow of what they once were. Much of this frogs habitat has been cleared for cattle pastures and tea farms. The remaining populations have been decimated by heavy smuggling activity for the past 15 years. The status of this species in the wild is potentially fragile and the time to begin a conservation initiative is now.
This species is sister to a large clade containing bassleri/pongoensis/bilinguis. This species is unique and does not share recent common ancestry to any extant poison frog, though is well supported within the genus Ameerega.
Prior to the official description in 1979, this species was known to many people but under incorrect names, such as Phyllobates bicolor.
Madagascar Dart frogs
South America Dart Frogs - Species