Adelphobates is a small genus of poison dart frogs. They are found in the central and lower Amazon basin of Peru and Brazil, possibly Bolivia. It was originally erected as a sister group to the Dendrobates and Oophaga genera. The validity of the genus is still being discussed, with the alternative being "Dendrobates galactonotus group" within Dendrobates. One species originally placed in this genus as Adelphobates captivus has since been moved to the Excidobates genus erected in 2008.
Phytothelmata like leaf axils or tree hollows.
This beautiful genus is rare in the pet market and hard to find and this due to the import limitations and laws , also its original habitat suffer deforestation
Scientific classification :
Grant et al., 2006
Type species :
(Caldwell and Myers, 1990)
Adelphobates is from the Ancient Greek, adelphos (brother or twin) and bates (walker or climber)."Brothers" refers to Charles W. Myers and John W. Daly, two unrelated scientists directly involved with studies of the species.
All members have conspicuous, vibrant coloration, and smooth skin. A peculiar feature of their reproduction is that tadpoles are transported to Brazil nut capsules lying on the forest floor. Cannibalism may result if more than one tadpole ends up in the same capsule.
There are three species:
Adelphobates castaneoticus (Caldwell and Myers, 1990)
Adelphobates galactonotus (Steindachner, 1864)
Adelphobates quinquevittatus (Steindachner, 1864)
For the external links , refrences click here to read the full wikipedia article
courtesy to : www.dendrobase.de/index.php
The genus Adelphobates was founded in 2006 by GRANT ETAL . established. The species contained in it were spun off from the former large genus Dendrobates . The type species of the genus is Dendrobates castaneoticus CALDWELL & MYERS , 1990. The genus name Adelphobates comes from the Greek adelphos (= twin, brother) and refers to the decade-long scientific "brotherhood" of CHARLES W. MYERS and JOHN W. DALY and is thus dedication sname in honor of the two researchers. Within the family Dendrobatidae the genus stands as independent clade in the subfamily Dendrobatinae C OPE , 1865 together with the sister genus Dendrobates W AGLER , 1830 and Oophaga B AUER , 1994 beside the other kinds Minyobates M YERS , 1982, PhyllobatesD UMERIL & B IBRON , 1841 and Ranitomeya B AUER , 1988. The demarcation to the other genera took place at G RANT ET AL . mainly due synapomorph he genetic characteristics. common morphological Characteristics are the brightly colored clutches and larvae, although some species of the family Ranitomeya have such bright eggs (Vanzolinii clade) and so it is more likely to plesiomorphic e features trades. ethologicallye Similarities can be found in the structure of the Anzeigeruf it. Currently, the family includes three types: A. castaneoticus, A. galactonotus and A. quinquevittatusthat form a genetically well-defined monophyletic clade to all other types (G RANT ET AL 2006 V. Ences ET AL ., 2003) All types of Genus were formerly placed to other relatives circles. S ILVERSTONE (1975) saw in many small species of Amazonia only populations of a single polymorphic species, which he calls Dendrobates quinquevittatusdesignated. However, several morphological features of some populations and ethological differences in call and brood care behavior have led to doubts. Some of these populations have therefore been recaptured and joined together in the " Dendrobates quinquevittatus group" (M YERS , 1982). As D. quinquevittatus were falsely called many different populations from Peru and Ecuador, which obviously also represented several species. The taxon Dendrobates quinquevittatus sl was therefore considered temporarily as a collection for many small Amazonian species. C ALDWELL ET AL . (1990) were able to re-describe the true D. quinquevittatus ss ( Adelphobates quinquevittatus ) whose dissemination further limit and show the existing confusion. C ALDWELL 's D. quinquevittatus ss (type finder : Rondônia, Brazil) differed both ethologically and morphologically significantly from the populations of Peru and Ecuador previously known as D. quinquevittatus sl. For these populations, the species D. ventrimaculatus sl was again raised to the rank (see also overview Ranitomeya ). Adelphobates castaneoticus has been described as D. castaenoticus in the course of this description . C ALDWELLput this type due to common features of the drawing and the brood as Schwesternart in a common close relationship with D. quinquevittatus ss The three types D. quinquevittatus, D. castaneoticus and ventrimaculatus D. but were still in the so-called " Dendrobates quinquevittatus - group "Classified as a common relationship was adopted. Genetic studies by V ENCES ET AL . (2003), however, identified separate lineages for the Peruvian species around D. ventrimaculatus and the Brazilian species for D. quinquevittatus . At the same time, their studies surprisingly showed for the three speciesD. quinquevittatus, D. castaneoticus and D. galactonotus are closely related. The species D. galactonotus ( Adelphobates galactonotus ) has so far been included in the " Dendrobates tinctorius " group due to morphological similarities (size) (S ILVERSTONE , 1975). Genetically, however, this group was only a distant relative, as well as the small Amazonian species of the relationship of D. ventrimaculatus, However, this genetic relationship, which at first appears strange from a morphological point of view, has meanwhile also been confirmed by other research groups, and there are also clear similarities between the three species in the pattern and larval morphology and in the call parameters. A division into a separate " Dendrobates quinquevittatus clade" with only these three species was therefore justified. The remaining small Amazonian species have been classified in the new " Dendrobates ventrimaculatus clade" because there is no closer relationship between the species of both clades. In the course of the revision of G RANT ET AL . (2006) further emphasized the independent development of both clans byDendrobates ventrimaculatus - Klade "the genus Ranitomeya B AUER was again raised in 1986 and the new genus Adelphobates was established for the" Dendrobates quinquevittatus - Klade " .
The genus is a Brazilian fauna element. The three species occur only south of the Río Amazonas and west of the Río Ucayali. The medium to large species are diurnal inhabitants of the deciduous layer of lowland rainforests along the south side of the Amazon River. The two species, some of which are also sympatric, A. castaneoticus and A. galactonotus , prefer to use water-filled Brazil nut shells ( Bertholletia excelsa , Lecythidaceae) as larval landing sites. However, A. quinquevittatus does not use them primarily, but uses them (as well as in the case of Brazil nut) as often as others
Photos of the species :
1- Adelphobates castaneoticus
3- Adelphobates quinquevittatus
2- Adelphobates galactonotus
courtesy to : www.dendrobates.org/ adelphobates/
Grant et el. 2006
This genus was described by Grant et al. (2006) and includes three Brazilian species. Surprisingly, despite differences in size, A. castaneoticus and A. quinquevittatus have been shown to be more closely related to A. galactonotus than to the more similar-sized Ranitomeya. In any case, the species in this genus are not very closely related to each other, as shown by the very long branch lengths in species of this clade. Synapomorphies are all molecular. Grant et al. (2006) assigned Dendrobates captivus to this genus on the basis of dorsal patterning, a relationship that was later rejected by Twomey & Brown (2008).
Adelphobates castaneoticusCaldwell and Myers, 1990
Adelphobates galactonotusSteindachner, 1864
Adelphobates quinquevittatusSteindachner, 1864, Rev. Martins & Haddad, 1990
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