5- Ranitomeya variabilis - The splash-back poison frog - Zimmermann and Zimmermann, 1988
The splash-back poison frog (Ranitomeya variabilis), also referred to as the variable poison frog or Zimmermann's poison frog, is a small species of poison dart frog known from the upper Huallaga River drainage of San Martín Region, Peru. It is semi-arboreal, living in the forest understory and canopy. Like other poison frogs, it contains alkaloid poisons. The mimic poison frog is a Müllerian mimic of this species.
The species was formerly considered to be synonym of Ranitomeya ventrimaculata.
Splash-back poison frog
Conservation status :
Data Deficient (IUCN 3.1)
Scientific classification :
Binomial name :
(Zimmermann and Zimmermann, 1988)
Dendrobates variabilisZimmermann and Zimmermann, 1988
Arboreal habitat of Ranitomeya variabilis with epiphytic bromeliadAechmea zebrina.
For the external links , refrences click here to read the full wikipedia article
Ranitomeya variabilis 'Southern' feeding
Care Articles :
1- Ranitomeya variabilis (Z IMMERMANN & Z IMMERMANN , 1988)
courtesy to : www.dendrobase.de/index.php
The Latin epithet variabilis means variable and refers to the very variable dot pattern on the body (number, shape and size).
Dendrobates variabilis (Z IMMERMANN & Z IMMERMANN , 1988)
English name: variable poison frog, zimmermann's poison frog
German name: Variabeler Baumsteiger, Einpunkt Baumsteiger
Amphibia-> Anura-> Dendrobatoidea-> Dendrobatidae -> -> Ranitomeya -> Ranitomeya variabilis (Z IMMERMANN & Z IMMERMANN , 1988)
Note to the scheme:
In the course of the comprehensive revision of G RANT ET AL . (2006), the entire Dendrobates minutus group in the sense of S ILVERSTONE (1975) was transferred to the genus Ranitomeya B AUER in 1988 due to morphological genetic and ethological characteristics . This was already as synonym to Dendrobates W AGLER , 1835 available and got again taxonomische validity. Ranitomeya variabilis was developed by Z IMMERMANN & Z IMMERMANN in 1988 on the basis of ethologically Observations on terrarium animals described as "Dendrobates variabilis" . The first description was very scarce and contained no exactly limited locality and no biotope description. Due to the lack of data, the autonomy of the species CALDWELL & M YERS (1990) was doubted and R. variabilis was included as a synonym of the species R. ventrimaculata . By S CHULTE (1999) and S YMULA ET AL. (2001) were restored to the rank of ethological, morphological and genetic data. Differences between call parameters (O STROWSKI & M AHN, personal observation) and genetic studies of V ENCES ET AL. (2003) also seem to confirm the species status.
Threat status :
Annex II of the WA. Annex B of the EUArtschVO. Notifiable according to BArtSchVO.
In the Red List, due to missing field data, evaluated as not classifiable. (IUCN, 2004). So far only known from the Cordilera Oriental. This small area of occurrence would make the species more vulnerable. S CHULTE (1999) gives the population density as "... not too rare ...". The type discovery site is located in a protected area and thus the species does not appear to be in acute danger.
Very small poison dart frog species with one KRL from 17-19 mm.
Teeth are missing. tympanum often indistinct, smaller than half the eye diameter. Eye diameter smaller than eye distance to the tip of the nozzle. Nostril covered by black, small spot. First finger smaller than the second. First toe greatly reduced. Finger formula: 3> 4> 2> 1. Toe formula: 4> 5> 3> 2> 1 or 4> 3> 5> 2> 1 Toe 1 is greatly reduced. Sometimes different toe formulas on both feet of an animal! Finger discs widened. Adhesive disk of the third finger about 2.3 times as wide as the fingerdorsum green metallic colored with oval or round black spots which are usually arranged like a line. Legs and stomach are blue, blue-green or yellow-green in color and also covered with black spots. The patches of the legs and the abdomen usually have a smaller diameter than the eye (bladder network after S CHULTE ). The throat is yellow with small black spots, sometimes marked by black spots on the chest (not a typical Vanzolinii chest belt!). No pronounced sexual dimorphism but males mostly about 1-2 mm smaller than the females. (Information according to S CHULTE , 1999.)
Dorsal and ventral view Ranitomeya variabilis
There is only one variant known so far. Variation in the color of the dorsum from green to yellow are sometimes referred to as "yellow variant" and "green variant" but are also observed in offspring of a Geleges.
Approximately 4-5 years.
At 6-8 months, the first males begin to shout. About 2 months later, the first clutches are discontinued but often not properly fertilized. About 1-2 months later you can find completely fertilized eggs (I SENSEE pers. Komm.).
Features of scrim:
The eggs with 4-5 eggs are directly under the water surface of phytotelmata filed.
The development time of the eggs is 12-14 days depending on the temperature.
The larvae of R. variabilis are omnivorous and eat all types of foods that can be overwhelmed. In the field, the larvae, such as those of R. ventrimaculata ss, have a very strong cannibalistic and eat in the absence of food in the phytotelmata mainly remote clutches and smaller larvae of their own kind (optional Oophagie). With a finely ground mixture of ornamental fish flake food, spirulina algae and freeze-dried arthropods such as crayfishes, red mosquito larvae and Artemia, the larvae can be reared very well. (O STROVSKI , own observation)
Brood care behavior:
The male transports the hatched larvae phytotelmata. The female provides the larvae with Abortiveiern (C HRISTMANN , 2004)
Low humming call (buzz-call) with single notes of about 0.3-0.4 s length per note. These are pulsed notes. The grades are delivered irregularly as a mere announcement. At the courtship much more regular. The call rate is in the Balzphase 0.3 notes per second. The call appears as a rather slow ratchet. The Dominazfrequenz is higher with 5.7 kHz than with R. amazonicus and R. cf. ventrimaculatus (see comparison function). For all parameters see also whole sonagram. O STROWSKI & M AHN .
Type find location of the first description :
Z IMMERMANN & Z IMMERMANN (1988) do not specify a type find location . S CHULTE (1999) gives the location as follows: "The animals originate from the first crest of the Cordillera Oriental, Carretera Tarapoto-Yurimaguas, 1000 m asl."
Distributed in the Cordillera Oriental, Department of San Martin, Peru. D. variabilisis a summit species inhabiting biotopes at heights of 600 m - 1200 m. The occurrence is limited only to the Cordillera Oriental and has not yet been proven for the Cordillera Azul (S CHULTE , 1999).
Distribution area Ranitomeya variabilis
This frog is a resident of the cool mountain rainforests. He lives mostly in pairs in Bromeliads in 2-15 m height. Only rarely are animals found on the ground. They prefer bromeliads. The site visited by us was in the Cordillera Oriental at about 1100 m altitude. It was clear, damp mountain rainforest. The trunks were heavily mossy and the tops of the trees are often in the clouds. In November 2002, the measured temperature in clear to cloudy weather at 12.30 clock was only 18 degrees! Nevertheless, the animals were active and also clutches and burbot were detected. The animals lived sympatric with Ameerega bassleri at the place we visited . Ranitomeya imitator we found about 1 km away but about 200 vertical meters lower. The areas of occurrence of both normally parapatric he species (climatic separation) usually do not overlap. According to S CHULTE (1999) both species come in some places in the meantime sympatric in front. This leads S CHULTE back to a potentially favorable spread along the cleared edge of roads. The more adaptive R. imitator is said to displace R. variabilisin the sympatric community (S CHULTE , 1999). However, we could not prove both types sympatric. (O STROVSKI , personal observation).
Attitude in the terrarium :
Terrarium / Facility:
automatic irrigation and fog system recommended
Temperature not longer than 25 ° C. 20-23 ° C represent the optimal daytime temperature range (lives at about 1000 m altitude). Night lowering recommended by 2-5 ° C.
70-80%, at lunchtime up to 70%, in the morning and in the evening 100% (fog)
Small food animals like small ones Drosophila and springtails as well as small meadow plankton Spring tails are indispensable for the breeding of the young animals.
1,1 or 1,2 in smaller containers. In large terraria from 60 x 60 x 60 cm also group housing of 4-5 animals possible.
Tips for breeding:
As good substitute phytotelmata for oviposition have become Photo can type II and Photo can type III proven. The film cans should be filled to 1/3 with water and have a slope of about 45 °, then they are better accepted (I SENSEE pers. Come.). The species progresses even at very low temperatures of 16 ° C for reproduction and sets off scrub. Egg maturation in water-filled petri dishes is more successful (higher hatching, less fungal). If the breeding temperatures of the larvae are too high (above 26 ° C), developmental disturbances such as match legs appear to be more noticeable due to growth that is too fast. The larvae can be raised well with commercially available ornamental fish feeds.
2- Ranitomeya variabilis 'Highland' - Zimmerman's Poison Frog :
courtesy to : www.joshsfrogs.com/ranitomeya-variabilis-highland.html
Defining Characteristics: Great beginner thumbnail | Bright yellow and black coloration | Moderately bold | Easy to breed | Quiet call | Small | Great in Groups
Name: Ranitomeya variabilis 'Highland'. Formerly known as Dendrobates variabilis, this frog is commonly known as Zimmerman's Poison Dart Frog Recent taxonomic revisions have labeled this species as Ranitomeya variabilis. The species name refers to it's variable appearance.
Recommended Vivarium Size: A 10 gallon aquarium is suitable for 2-3 Ranitomeya variabilis, but Josh's Frogs recommends a 20H or 18x18x18 Vivarium for 1-3 frogs. Not sure how to set up a vivarium? Please watch our video on How to Set Up a Vivarium.
Temperature: Ranitomeya variabilis can tolerate a temperature range of 65 F to 80 F, but prefer temperatures in the low to mid 70s. Temperatures over 85F are dangerous.
Humidity: Like most poison dart frogs, variabilis prefer a humidity range of 80 – 100%, but can tolerate humidity down to 50% for short periods of time if the frogs have access to water. Low humidity levels, especially without access to water, can quickly be fatal.
Age: Ranitomeya variabilis 'Highland' is capable of living well over 10 years in captivity under ideal conditions, although a lifespan of 5-8 years is more common. All thumbnail poison dart frogs for sale at Josh's Frogs are well started juveniles, and are 2-3 months old.
Feeding: Like most poison dart frogs, variabilis prefer smaller foods. All of the thumbnail dart frogs sold by Josh's Frogs will readily eat Drosophila melanogaster fruit flies. Adult Ranitomeya variabilis will readily consume Drosophila hydei fruit flies and pinhead crickets. All ages of poison dart frogs will enjoy springtails and isopods. All feeder insects should be dusted with a vitamin/mineral supplement. For more information on what poison dart frogs can eat, please visit our How-To Guide on Feeding Poison Dart Frogs.
Sexing: Ranitomeya variabilis 'Highland' are fairly easy to sex as adults. Females are much wider than males, as they lay eggs on a weekly basis. Josh's Frogs sells 2-3 month old juveniles that are not sexable unless otherwise noted. For more information on sexing poison dart frogs, please visit our How-To Guide on Sexing Poison Dart Frogs.
Color/Pattern: Highland variabilis are fairly consistent in color and pattern. Exhibiting a yellow and black spotted body and legs, they are a striking little thumbnaill dart frog! Josh's Frogs does not recommend, support, or endorse line breeding as we believe this leads to weaker captive animals and nature has done a wonderful job of creating an amazing variation in color and pattern of poison dart frogs already.
Social Behavior: Ranitomeya variabilis 'Highland' do well housed in groups their entire life as long as enough space is provided. Josh's Frogs recommends approximately 5 gallons per frog. As they reach sexual maturity at 5-8 months of age, the social dynamic in a group of variabilis may change and females may eat each other's eggs, although most will even breed together in the same film canister! Josh's Frogs strongly recommends against housing different species/morphs of dart frogs - for the health of your pets, please avoid mxing! Josh's Frogs recommends purchasing multiple frogs if you are interested in breeding them – this greatly increases the chances of getting a pair.
Breeding: Variabilis are a fairly easy poison dart frogs to breed. Best bred in groups, males call to attract a female to a suitable egg laying site. Then, 4-8 eggs are laid near water (often in a film canister or a bromeliad). The eggs hatch into tadpoles, which then take 60-80 days to complete metamorphosis into miniature versions of the adults. Tadpoles will feed on dead fruit flies, the standard frog and tadpole bites/sera micron fare, and even unfertilized eggs if left in with the adults! For more information on breeding and raising poison dart frogs, please visit our How-To Guide on Breeding Poison Dart Frogs.
Natural Range: Ranitomeya variabilis is a highland species, inhabiting the Amazonian Drainage Basin in Peru, Colombia, and Ecuador. This variety hails from the latter country.
3- Ranitomeya variabilis:
Currently, there are two lines of variabilis in the hobby. One line (Linbo) originated from CB stock in Europe. The other line was imported by INIBICO starting in the spring of 2006, and more recently by the Understory project. The two lines are phenotypically very similar. Both the INIBICO and Understory frogs are representative of a variable, contiguous population, and mixing is encouraged. However, because definitive site data is not available for the Linbo of variabilis, they should not be mixed with the INIBICO/Understory frogs at this time. However, given the relatively small distribution of the frog, it is likely they do not represent separate populations.
- General Care: Since D. variabilis are found at higher elevations (1600-4500 ft) (2), a cooler temperature range is recommended (low to mid 70’s), but successful husbandry with temp ranges that seasonally approach 80º F has been noted. As with most dendrobatids, a nighttime temp drop of up to 10º F if possible is recommended.
AKA: Dendrobates variabilis
Contributers: Oz (rozdaboff), Darren Meyer
Images provided by: Michael Khadavi (corpus_callosum), Shawn Harrington(sports_doc), Antone Jones (frogtofall), Rob Kleinhanz (kleinhanz)
Difficulty: Intermediate – Based on size and speed.
Location & History – Rainforests of northeastern Peru. Discovered by Zimmerman (1988) (1)
Descriptions & Behavior: Small (15-18mm) frog with behavior ranging from shy and mildly skittish to bold in the right conditions. The common names of this species include Zimmerman’s poison frog and the variable poison frog (due to the variability in the patterning and coloration observed in the species). Dorsally, they display black spots on a metallic yellow to green background. Ventrally, they display the same black spots, but on a blue-green background, with the exception of the head, which maintains the dorsal background coloration. Legs can be metallic green to blue with black spots. The coloration and patterning of D. variabilis are mimicked by D. imitator imitator, which inhabit the same geographic range. While the two look very similar, there are distinct differences in body shape and patterning. Variabilis possess a single dorsal nose spot with two small spots on the tip of the nose that are not visible when viewed from above, while the two spots on the tip of the nose on an imitator extend onto the top of the head, and can be seen from above. These spots may or may not intersect with one or more smaller nose spots (see image – Variabilis on the left, Imitator on the right).
The belly patterning between variabilis and imitator is also different. Variabilis have blue ventral coloration with yellow coloration on the neck. Imitator however have a variable amount of yellow coloration that can extend throughout the ventral surface:
Variabilis can be housed in pairs, trios or groups. Female heavy groups are preferable, as they encourage breeding activity, and males can exhibit intrasex aggression.
Vertically oriented enclosures (15H, 20H) with a fair amount of terrestrial space are recommended, as these frogs make regular use of both the vertical space and the viv floor. Bromeliads, large-leaved plants, and vines covering the background (such as creeping fig) offer the frogs security as well as sleeping locations. A thick layer of leaf litter is also recommended, as these frogs like to dart for cover when startled. The more hiding spaces offered, the more the frogs will be out for observation.
- Breeding & tadpole Care:
Frogs mature quickly (7-8 months), and males may even begin calling as early as 5 months. Call is audible but not extremely loud; the low buzzing nature of the call resembles that of D. ventrimaculatus. Males will call from laying location to attract female. Females are significantly larger than males.
Egg deposition has been observed almost entirely in film canisters. Success with the Linbo line has been noted using completely horizontal black film containers placed up high in the viv. INIBICO frogs readily utilize white or black film canisters, tilted at a 45 degree angle half-filled with water. In conversations with individuals who have observed D. variabilis in their natural habitat, it has been reported that egg deposition occurs in the axils of plants filled with water. The angle and level of water within the film canisters appears to serve as an acceptable substitute for the natural preference. Clutches of 4-10 eggs can be laid as often as every 5-7 days. Eggs can be removed from the viv, or left to develop on their own. While tadpoles can be raised by the parents, even with a large number of tad deposition sites, only a small percentage of the tads will be cared for by the parents.
Tadpoles may exhibit cannibalism and should be housed individually. Tadpoles can be fed tadpole bites, fish flakes or another mostly protein based dietand detritus (decaying leaves and dead FFs), but it is not recommended to raise tadpoles on a mostly algae based diet. Froglets emerge from the water relatively large in comparison to other thumbnails, and while the feeding of springtails for the first couple of weeks is recommended, they rapidly show an interest in stunted and wingless melanogaster.
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