5- Oophaga sylvatica - Funkhouser, 1956 :
Oophaga sylvatica, sometimes known with its Spanish name diablito, is a species of frog in the family Dendrobatidae found in southwestern Colombia and northwestern Ecuador. Its natural habitat is lowland and submontane rainforest; it can, however, can survive in moderately degraded areas, at least in the more humid parts of its range. It is a very common frog in Colombia but has disappeared from much of its Ecuadorian range. It is threatened by habitat loss (deforestation) and agricultural pollution. It is sometimes seen in the international pet trade.
Conservation status :
Near Threatened (IUCN 3.1)
Scientific classification :
Binomial name :
Dendrobates histrionicus sylvaticusFunkhouser, 1956
Dendrobates sylvaticus Funkhouser, 1956
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Oophaga Sylvatica 'Paru'
Care Articles :
1- Oophaga sylvatica (F. UNKHOUSER , 1956)
courtesy to : www.dendrobase.de/index.php
The epithet sylvatica * comes from the Latin "silvae" (= forest) and refers to the occurrence in the lowland rainforests.
* Due to the female stem of the genus in a new combination with Oophaga (f) there are also some changes regarding the gender-specific suffixes from -us (m) to -a (f). From Dendrobates sylvaticus (m) is Oophaga sylvatica (f)
Oophaga sylvatica (G RANT , F ROST , C ALDWELL , G AGLIARDO , H ADDAD , K OK , M EANS , N OONAN , S CHARGEL & HEELER , 2006)
Dendrobates sylvaticus (L ÖTTERS , G LAW , K ÖHLER & C ASTRO , 1999)
Dendrobates tinctorius confluens (C OCHRAN & G OIN , 1970)
Dendrobates histrionicus confluens (F UNKHOUSER , 1956)
Dendrobates histrionicus sylvaticus (F. UNKHOUSER , 1956)
sensu F ROST (2007) modified to L ÖTTERS ET Al . (1999)
German name: Wald-Baumsteiger
Spanish name: Diablito colporado (IUCN, 2007)
Amphibia-> Anura-> Dendrobatoidea-> Dendrobatidae-> Dendrobatinae-> Oophaga -> Oophaga sylvatica (F UNKHOUSER , 1956)
The genus Oophaga B AUER 1994 corresponds to the former Histrionicus group in the sense of M YERS (1984) or the classification of S ILVERSTONE (1975) in Pumilio and Histrionicus group.
-Note on the scheme:
The Ecuadorian and Southern Colombian populations of Dendrobates histrionicus were described by L ÖTTERS ET AL . (1999) separated from the northern populations due to morphological features and call analyzes. The scientists proposed the available taxon Dendrobates sylvaticus F UNKHOUSER in 1956 for these populations. However, the call analyzes carried out suggest that the southern populations defined as Oophaga sylvatica (according to G RANT ET AL ., 2006) are composed of other distinct species. A division into further available taxa was made by L ÖTTERS ET AL, but not made, since with the available data only the northern group ( O. histrionica sensu stricto) in the sense of a uniform group. The taxa Dendrobates histrionica confluens F UNKHOUSER , 1956, also available to southern populations in Colombia , is initially considered a synonym for O. sylvatica . However, as the taxon Oophaga sylvatica may be composed of populations that are notconspezifischIt is necessary to further differentiate the status of all populations from Southern Colombia and Ecuador against the taxa O. occultator , O. lehmanni , O. sylvatica and " Dendrobates histrionicus confluens ". Until then, the name Oophaga sylvatica should be used for all southern populations sensu latobe valid. The type locality of O. sylvatica is located near the city of Santo Domingo, Pichincha province. In the vicinity of this city are red-black patterned populations (here referred to as "Santo Domingo"). Also L ÖTTERS ET AL . examined calls of such a patterned population from the vicinity of the type find site and could distinguish these from O. histrionica . From animals of the type find place however no comparable call admission exists. But because of the L ÖTTERS ET AL . (1999) and those by F UNKHOUSER(1956) in pattern and distribution are very well matched and no further distinguishable populations are known in near or far vicinity of the type find site, with some caution this population probably as O. sylvatica ssbe accepted. The genetic data of G RANT ET AL . (2006) and own investigations (H AGEMANN & O STROWSKI ) support the subdivision into min. two distinct species Oophaga histrionica and O. sylvatica . The family trees we have created show a closer relationship of the species O. sylvatica to O. lehmanni (sibling taxon) and not as expected to O. histrionica (see Fig.).
Fig .: Pedigree-like representation of the relationships of the genus Oophaga . Neighbor Joining Tree based on 16S rRNA sequences. © 2007 Hagemann & Ostrowski
Threat status :
Although the species is considered to be relatively widespread and adaptable, Oophaga sylvatica is classified in the Red List (IUCN, 2007) as "potentially threatened" (NT = Near Threatened), especially in Ecuador, because of the loss of habitat (logging, slash and burn) have decreased. In Colombia, the species is still common, but since the populations in Colombia probably composed of several species (L ÖTTERS ET AL ., 1999) could reduce the circulation area further.
According to CITES (2007), the species has not been traded under the name Dendrobates sylvaticus. However, exports are recorded under the name Dendrobates histrionicus from Ecuador.
Annex II of the WA. Annex B of the EUArtschVO. Notifiable according to BArtSchVO.
Small to medium-sized dendrobatide with one KRLfrom 25 to 30 mm. (S ILVERSTONE , 1975, population: Santo Domingo de los Colorados / type locality)
The animals probably reach the age of 10 to 15 years. S CHOOP (2000) reports on animals that were 13 years old.
O. sylvatica reaches the adult size after approx. 1.5 years. According to S CHOOP (2000), however, the animals do not become sexually mature until they are 2 years old.
According to M YERS & D ALY (1976), the skin of O. sylvatica ( Dendrobates histrionicus , Río Baba) contains as its main constituents poisonous class alkaloidshistrionicotoxine. Histrionicotoxin (50%) and isodihydrohistrionicotoxin (30%) are the main components of skin toxins. The skin of a frog contains approx. 180 mg dead weight approx. 360 μg toxins. For the two major components, histrionicotoxin and isodihydrohistrionicotoxin, M YERS & D ALY give a lethal dose of 100 μg toxin per 20 g mouse. The poison from the skin of a frog is sufficient to kill about 3-4 mice when injected subcutaneously.
Clutch and larvae :
The larvae hatch depending on the temperature after about 10 - 16 days from the eggs. The development time until the metamorphosis is then about 2.5 to 3 months (S CHOOP , 2000)
Like all members of the genus Oophaga , the larvae of Oophaga sylvatica are high-grade forage specialists and only take those produced by the femaleAbortiveieras food. They are considered asobligatory oophagand can hardly use other feeds. An artificial rearing is made very difficult or is hardly possible (compare to the comments in O. pumilio ).
Fig .: Balancing couple of Oophaga sylvatica "Qeubrada Guanguí", terrarium
Type find location of the first description
"Hacienda Espinosa, altitude about 300 m (about 1,000 ft.), 9 km west of Santo Domingo de los Colorados, Provincia de Pichincha, north-west Ecuador". (F ROST , 2007)
The species is distributed from northwestern Ecuador to southwestern Colombia. In Ecuador populations from the provinces of Pichincha, Esmeraldas, Imbabura and Los Ríos are known. In Colombia, deposits from the administrative districts of Cauca and Narino are known. The occurrence extends from 0 to 1000 m altitude.
Fig .: Distribution area Oophaga sylvatica
Biotope Oophaga sylvatica
Biotope Oophaga sylvatica
Oophaga sylvatica biotope , "San Lorenzo"
Oophaga sylvatica biotope , "San Lorenzo"
Oophaga sylvatica biotope , "Santo Domingo" pale black
Fig .: Balancing couple of O. sylvatica in the biotope.
Provincia Pichincha, Ecuador.
O. sylvatica . Calling male in the biotope.
Provincia Pichincha, Ecuador.
O. sylvatica uses heliconia as a breeding plant. Provincia Pichincha Ecuador
Riparian vegetation of small rivers. Habitat of O. sylvatica .
Provincia Esmeraldas, Ecuador.
Fig .: Oophaga sylvatica biotope , "Santo Domingo"
Attitude in the terrarium :
Terrarium / Facility:
Not too small Dendrobaten terrarium from 60 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm. automatic rain system and ultrasonic are recommended. Furnishings are brick bricks, stones and Xaxim at. As an embossing Javamoos, Bromeliads and various plants are used. Several medium funnel bromeliads are required for reproduction. Some photo dose type I should be distributed for oviposition in the pelvis.
The species is a lowland dweller of the Pacific rainforests in northern South America. There prevail on the ground relatively constant 26-27 ° C. The species is exposed in the annual mean only small temperature fluctuations of 1-2 ° C. Depending on the altitude, the day-night variation in the lowlands is on average only 2-5 ° C. For a successful attitude, daytime temperatures should not be permanently lower than 26 ° C, or not lower than 21 ° C. A short-term increase to 29 - 30 ° C or cooling to 16 - 17 ° C is, however, survived by the animals mostly unscathed. Such fluctuations can also occur in the natural biotope in the short term. A night reduction by 3-4 ° C has proved to be advantageous.
70-80%, at noon to 70%, morning and evening 100% (fog)
adult cope with the usual food animals like springtails. Small fruit fly Big fruit fly Micro grilling or crickets, Small waxmead n, barklice (Micro beetles), Firebrat and finely sifted meadow plankton, As ants and mites specialists prefer Adulti rather smaller feed insects. Freshmetamorphosede young are very small, so that in the first four to six weeks springtails are essential for a diet. For successful breeding, the parent animals must be fed varied and balanced. Exclusively female-fed females produce no or inferior ones Abortiveier and therefore can not raise kittens. A failure in offspring is therefore often due to a poor diet of adults. Meadow plankton has proven to be particularly rich and varied food. Bred food animals should be additionally vitaminized to achieve a similar quality. For adults, food animals such as crickets and fruit flies should be dusted regularly 1-2 times a week with a good vitamin preparation (eg Amivit A after the original B IRKHAHN-Rezeptur). Feed animals for young animals should be pollinated daily for the first 4 weeks. Since springtails are difficult to pollinate, they must be fed, if necessary, before feeding directly with the vitamin preparation. Store opened vitamin supplements in the fridge. Fruit flies can be well pre-fed with liquid vitamin
preparations (eg sanostol ® , Multibionta ®) and so nutritionally physiological upgrade. Pollinated food animals should be offered in the terrarium on exchangeable trays. Residual vitamin powder residues can not form a bacterial focus on the terrarium floor. Fruit pieces designed in small bowls in the terrarium (eg banana slices) are good places for fruit flies and are soon accepted by the frogs as feeding places. For a sufficient vitamin supply of the feed animals by these Lockstellen the residence time of the feed animals, however, should be too low, so that should be additionally vitaminized. Offered food trays should be cleaned every 2-3 days for hygienic reasons. Spring tails work well on laid out
XaximConcentrate by cutting them with small ones! Quantities of dry yeast sprinkled. Here,too, the frogs quickly learn the meaning of the feeding place.
Male O. sylvatica are very territorial but female animals also occupy territories and rank at high density. Therefore, a pairwise attitude (1,1) should be preferred. In large terrariums (from 120 cm in length) may also be a male with two females (1,2) be socialized. S CHOOP (2000) reports on up to three females, which he associated with a male in terraria measuring 60 x 50 x 50 cm. However, this unnatural composition means increased stress for all animals, which affects the mating success. Competing females often eat the clutches of their counterparts, so that a higher females number should not lead to better breeding successes.
Sylvatica on leaf
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Oophaga Genus :
Oophaga Genus :