4- Oophaga lehmanni - Myers and Daly, 1976 - Lehmann's poison frog :
Lehmann's poison frog or the red-banded poison frog (Oophaga lehmanni) is a species of frog in the family Dendrobatidae endemic to a small part of western Colombia. Its natural habitats are submontane tropical rainforests. It is threatened by habitat loss and collection for the pet trade, and the IUCN lists it as being "critically endangered". It was named after Colombian conservation biologist Federico Carlos Lehmann.
Lehmann's poison frog
Conservation status :
Critically Endangered (IUCN 3.1)
Scientific classification :
Binomial name :
(Myers and Daly, 1976)
Dendrobates lehmanni Myers and Daly, 1976
Lehmann's poison frog has a smooth skin and exhibits aposematic colouration, which warns predators that it is inedible. There are red, orange and yellow morphs of this frog. The background colour is black or dark brown which contrasts with the two bright, broad bands of colour round the body and further coloured bands on the limbs. The first toe is shorter than the second and the toes of males have silver tips. This frog grows to a snout-to-vent length of 31 to 36 mm (1.2 to 1.4 in).
It is very similar in appearance to the harlequin poison frog (Oophaga histrionicus), a species with which it can hybridise, and there is ongoing debate as to whether it is in fact a separate species. There are distinct differences in the calls of the males between northern and southern populations.
Lehmann's poison frog is endemic to Colombia where it is found in tropical forests in the drainage of the Anchicayá River to the west of Dagua in Valle del Cauca Department, as well as in one locality in Chocó Department, all on the slopes of the Cordillera Occidental. Its altitudinal range is 600–1,200 m (1,969–3,937 ft). There are several separate populations and the total area of occupancy is less than 10 km2 (3.9 sq mi).
Lehmann's poison frog is diurnal and primarily feeds on small insects. It is found on the forest floor and in low vegetation. Breeding takes place at the end of the rainy season. The male chooses a suitable location and calls repeatedly to attract a female. She deposits a small number of large eggs on leaves up to 120 cm (4 ft) above the forest floor where the male fertilises them. He keeps them moist and rotates them occasionally and after two to four weeks he carries them on his back and deposits them singly in small temporary water pools in such places as hollows in trees, water-filled bromeliad rosettes and bamboo stalks. Here the tadpoles develop and the female periodically deposits unfertilised eggs in the water on which they feed. If there are several tadpoles in any water body, cannibalism may occur.
In the wild, Lehmann's poison frog is toxic, but in captivity it loses its toxicity because this is derived from its diet.
Lehmann's poison frog is found in a very small area of Colombia. It is present in the Parque Nacional Natural Farallones de Cali and is common in parts of its tiny range but because of the degradation of its habitat for timber extraction and illegal agriculture it is considered by the IUCN to be "critically endangered". Despite being a protected species and listed in Appendix II of CITES, it is sometimes exported as part of the international pet trade.
For the external links , refrences click here to read the full wikipedia article
Trailer Lehmanni of Colombia
Care Articles :
-Oophaga lehmannas (M YERS & D ALY , 1976)
courtesy to : www.dendrobase.de/index.php
The epithet lehmanni is one dedication sname in honor of F. C ARLOS L EHMANN , Colombian biologist and founder of the Colombian Museum of Natural History.
Oophaga lehmanni (G RANT , F ROST , C ALDWELL , G AGLIARDO , H ADDAD , K OK , M EANS , N OONAN , S CHARGEL & HEELER , 2006)
Oophaga lehmanni (B AUER , 1994)
Dendrobates lehmanni (M YERS & D ALY , 1976)
sensu F ROST (2006)
english name: Lehmann's Poison Frog, Redbanded poison (-arrow) frog
german name: Lehmann's Baumsteiger, red-headed poison dart frog
Amphibia-> Anura-> Dendrobatoidea-> Dendrobatidae-> Dendrobatinae-> Oophaga -> Oophaga lehmannas (M YERS & D ALY , 1976)
The genus Oophaga B AUER 1994 corresponds to the former Histrionicus group in the sense of M YERS (1984) or the classification of S ILVERSTONE (1975) in Pumilio and Histrionicus group.
CR (= critically endagered).
According to IUCN classified in the Red List as "threatened with extinction". The classification was based on the fact that the species occurs only in two localities in a total distribution area of less than
10 km 2 . The distribution areas are highly fragmented and the natural habitats lose their quality or become smaller due to clearing and land use. The species occurs in the Parque Nacional Natural Natural Reserve Farallones de Cali. The removal of wild O. lehmanni (and all other Colombian " Dendrobates ssp. ") For breeding (or other purposes) is, according to Colombian decree INDERENA No. 39 of 9 July, 1985 prohibited (B OLÍVAR et al ., 2004).
Annex II of the WA (CITES). Annex B of EC Regulation 338/97. Notification and proof obligation according to § 6 Abs. 2 BArtSchVO.
Medium-sized poison dart frog species with a head-hull length (SVL) of 33-35.5 mm (M YERS & D ALY 1976)
Of the related species Oophaga histrionica , O occultator and O. sylvatica is O. lehmannidistinguished mainly by its color. The staining pattern of red or yellow bands or large patches on a black background in combination with white or blue-white stained tiptoe is known only from the two previously known populations. By O. histrionica populations are also red and black colored known that strongly O. lehmanni remember (L ÖTTERS 1992). However, these have no white toes. A blue-black colored population with strong O. lehmannireminding drawing pattern is also known. However, this population (without well-known locality) also has no white tipped toes. Most of the previously known populations of O. sylvatica show a rather blurred pattern of small dots, commas or spots but no large bands. The species O. occultator is also drawn completely different and is more reminiscent of O. sylvatica . However, as species identification is extremely problematic due to patterning and staining in the Dendrobatidae family, this form of demarcation is controversial (L ÖTTERS ET AL . 1999).
Type find location of the first description
"... montane forest about 13 km west of the city of Dagua at 850 -1200 m altitude on the south side of the Río Anchicaya drainage, Valle de Cauca Department, Colombia" sensu M YERS & D ALY 1976.
Secure evidence of the species exists only from two localities in Colombia. From the type discovery site on the western slope of the Cordillera Occidental in the Anchicayá Valley west of Dagua, Valle de Cauca Department and Alto del Oso near San José del Palmar, Chocó Department. All localities are above 600 m up to altitudes of 1200 m. An alleged proof from the Serrania de Baudo needs further confirmation (B OLÍVAR ET AL . 2004).
Premontanean and montane mountain rainforest.
Attitude in the terrarium :
Terrarium / Facility:
Rainforest terrarium with min. 60x60x60cm
rain system and fogger recommended
the previously documented sparse breeding successes worked exclusively in larger tanks.
The daytime temperatures should not exceed 24 ° -25 ° C even in the short term. A daytime temperature of 22-23 ° C seems optimal. A night reduction of 4-5 ° C is very beneficial and is a prerequisite for successful breeding.
70-80%, at noon to 70%, morning and evening 100% (fog)
Usual small and medium feed animals
Drosophila, micro-crickets (also somewhat larger), springtails, meadow plankton
As with all Oophaga species, the best paired attitude. Males are very aggressive with each other and suppress each other, which can lead to death in the inferior male due to stress. In order to guarantee an undisturbed reproduction also no two females should be kept.
So far, the species has been documented only very few times documented. Only very few animals reached the adult status. The species is very demanding in terms of keeping conditions and endures only at low temperatures. Due to the fact that the species is threatened with extinction and almost 100% only illegal wild catches are offered, must be strongly advised against buying and keeping. On the DendroBase the species may not be traded for these reasons!
Two reconized colors but all from the same area named Valle de Cauca © 2011
- The Red :
- The Yellow :
Other photos :
O. lehmanni in Bromeliad
- The Orange :
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