Family Ammotrechidae Roewer 1934
The Arachnid Order Solifugae
courtesy to : www.solpugid.com/Ammotrechidae
Family Galeodidae Sundevall 1833
Approximate distribution of the family Ammotrechidae.
Adult male Ammotrechula pilosa Muma from California, USA (photo by Warren E. Savary)
Members of the family Ammotrechidae are known from North America, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean Islands. The 83 living species and single known fossil species are distributed among 22 genera, which in turn are distributed among five subfamilies. Ammotrecha(9 species), Ammotrechella (13 species), Ammotrechesta (5 species), Ammotrechinus (1 species),Ammotrechona (1 species), Ammotrechula (12 species), Antillotrecha (2 species), Campostrecha (1 species), Dasycleobis (1 species), Neocleobis (1 species), and Pseudocleobis (20 species), are placed together in the subfamily Ammotrechinae, whose members are broadly distributed through North, Central, and South America. The monotypic genus Mortola of Argentina is placed by itself in the subfamily Mortolinae. Nothopuga (2 species, both from Argentina) is the sole genus in theNothopuginae. The four Argentinian species comprising the genus Oltacola are assigned to the subfamily Oltacolinae. Branchia (3 species) Chinchippus (1 species) Innesa (1 species) Procleobis (1 species) Saronomus (1 species) are placed in the Saronominae. Three living species [Chileotrecha atacamensis, Eutrecha longirostris, and Xenotrecha huebneri], and the sole known fossil species [Happlodontus proterus], are not presently assigned to any of the recognized subfamilies.
Male ammotrechids have a fixed, non-rotatable membranous flagellum attached to the mesal face of each chelicera.
Mesal view of chelicera of male Ammotrechula catalinae Muma from Sonora, Mexico, showing flagellum (photo by Warren E, Savary).
Family Ceromidae Roewer 1933
Mesal view of chelicera of male Procleobis patagonicus Maury 1977
(illustration from Maury 1977)
Mesal view of chelicera of male Branchia potens Muma 1951, from Baja California, Mexico (photo by Warren E. Savary).
Members of the family Ceromidae occur in southern Africa. The 20 known living species are distributed among 3 genera: Ceroma (16 species), Ceromella (3 species), and Toreus (1 species). The one known fossil species (from lower Cretaceous rocks in Brazil) is placed in the genusCratosolpuga.
Immobile finger of the chelicerae of the male deeply divided, so that its medial branch is strongly extended and is bent laterally; a Flagellum is absent (?); dorsal record of the rostrum apical strongly ventral-wärts crookedly and its set nightmare slat more vertically than horizontally…..Toreus
Immobile finger of the chelicerae x not divided, normally pointed; a swivelling Flagellum clearly develops; dorsal record of the rust rum more sharpened, his set nightmare slat more horizontally than vertically directed….2
2. Immobile finger of the chelicerae x with 2 front big teeth which straight away the media and lateral cheeks tooth row follows interteeth are absent; the swivelling Flagellum runs out in a long scourge which stretches beyond in the neutral position directed to the back up to the ocular hill or even him; z with a set of teeth of the immobile finger from 2 Front, 1 intertooth and 1 main tooth which both cheeks tooth rows follow….Ceroma
Immobile finger of the chelicerae x with 2 Front, 1 intertooth and 1 main tooth which both cheeks tooth rows follow; the swivelling Flagellum basal strongly widens and in the neutral position directed to the back at the rejuvenated end only the base of the chelicerae finger reaching or completely a little overriding, in any case, far before the ocular hill ending….Ceromella
Chelicera of Ceroma macrognatha Lawrence 1954, mesal view (from Lawerence 1954).
Chelicera of Ceroma sylvestris Lawrence 1938, ectal and mesal views (from Lawrence 1938)
Family Daesiidae Kraepelin 1899
Members of the family Daesiidae are known from southern Europe, central Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and South America. The 177 known species are distributed among 29 genera, which are in turn distributed among six subfamilies. The genera Blossia (59 species) and Blossiana (1 species) are placed together in the subfamily Blossiinae. The genera Biton (66 species), Bitonissus (2 species), Bitonota (1 species), Bitonupa (1 species), and Daesiola (1 species) are placed together in the subfamily Daesiinae. The genera Eberlanzia (2 species), Gluvia (2 species), Gluviola (1 species),Haarlovina (1 species), and Mumaella (1 species) together make up the subfamily Gluviinae. The subfamily Gluviopsinae includes Gluviopsida (1 species), Gluviopsilla (1 species), Gluviopsis (11 species), Gluviopsona (3 species). The genera Gnosippus (4 species), Hemiblossia (16 species),Hemiblossiola (1 species), Tarabulida (2 species) form the subfamily Gnosippinae. The generaHodeidania (1 species), Triditarsula (1 species), and Triditarsus (2 species) constitute the subfamilyTriditarsinae. Six monotypic genera, including the only two described from South America, are not currently assigned to any of the recognized subfamilies: Ammotrechelis, Ceratobiton, Gluviella,Namibesia, Syndaesia, and Valdesia. One fossil daesiid is known from Baltic amber.
Second row: Left - Mesal view of chelicera of male Hemiblossia termitophila Lawrence 1963.
(From Lawrence 1965)
Family Eremobatidae - Eremobatidae Kraepelin 1899
Approximate distribution of the family Eremobatidae.
Top: Eremobates sp. (palpisetulosus group), female, from California (photo by Warren E. Savary).
Bottom: Eremochelis bilobatus (Muma), male, from Arizona (photo by Warren E. Savary).
Members of the family Eremobatidae are known from North America and Central America. The 187 described species are distributed among seven genera in two subfamilies. The generaEremobates (88 species), Eremocosta (13 species), Eremorhax (10 species), Eremothera (2 species) andHorribates (3 species) currently comprise the Eremobatinae, a subfamily characterized by the presence of a single, flattened claw on the tarsus of the first leg. The subfamily Therobatinae, characterized by the presence of two claws on the tarsus of the first leg, includes the generaChanbria (4 species), Eremochelis (36 species), and Hemerotrecha (31 species).
In solifugids of the family Eremobatidae, the anterior margin of the propeltidium (the part of the head that bears the two eyes) forms a straight line perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the body (see photograph below). The mesal surface of the (typically) needle-like fixed cheliceral finger of the male may bear a distinct groove or cup and a series of modified setae (again, see photograph below), but lacks a husk-like or whip-like flagellum. In members of the familyAmmotrechidae (the only other family of solifugids occurring within the range of the eremobatids), the anterior margin of the propeltidium is recurved, sloping backwards evenly from the eye tubercle, and a translucent husk-like flagellum is present on the mesal face of the fixed cheliceral finger in males (see Ammotrechidae).
Head of Eremochelis bilobatus (Muma), male, from Arizona (photo by Warren E. Savary).
Members of the family Gylippidae are known from central Asia, the Near East, and southern Africa. The 25 known species are distributed among five genera: Acanthogylippus (1 species), Bdellophaga (1 species),Gylippus (18 species), Lipophaga (3 species), and Trichotoma (3 species). No subfamilies are recognized.
Galeodids are readily distinguished from other members of the order Solifugae by the presence of fine microsetae on the tarsal claws of legs II through IV. This vestiture of microsetae does not occur on any other group of solifuges. Most of the species are relatively long-legged, and included among them are the largest members of the order.
Members of the family Galeodidae are known from northern Africa through Asia. The 200 known species are distributed among nine genera: Galeodes (174 species), Galeodopsis (5 species), Galeodumus (1 species), Gluviema (1 species), Othoes (5 species), Paragaleodes (11 species), Paragaleodiscus (1 species), Roeweriscus (1 species) and Zombis(1 species). No subfamilies are recognized.
Family Gylippidae - Roewer 1933
Family Hexisopodidae - Pocock 1897
Members of the family Hexisopodidae occur in southern Africa. The 25 known species are distributed among two genera: Chelypus (9 species) and Hexisopus (15 species). They are readily distinguished from other members of the order Solifugae by the lack of claws on the fourth pair of legs.
Family Karschiidae - Kraepelin 1899
Members of the family Karschiidae are known from Asia, the Near East, southeastern Europe, and northwestern Africa. The 40 known species are distributed among four genera: Barrus (1 species),Barrussus (2 species), Eusimonia (15 species), and Karschia (22 species). No subfamilies are recognized.
Family Melanoblossidae - Roewer 1933
Members of the family Melanoblossidae have perhaps the most interesting distribution in the order Solifugae. They are known from southern Africa and southeastern Asia (Vietnam and Indonesia). The 16 known species are distributed among six genera,, which in turn are divided among two subfamilies. The southeast Asian genus Dinorhax(1 species) is the sole member of the subfamily Dinorhaxinae, and the southern African genera Daesiella (1 species), Lawrencega (7 species),Melanoblossia (4 species), Microblossia (1 species), and Unquiblossia (2 species) are assigned to the Melanoblossinae.
Family Mummuciidae - Roewer 1934
Members of the family Mummuciidae are known only from South America. The 18 known species are distributed among 10 genera: Cordobulgida (1 species), Gaucha (1 species), Gauchella (1 species),Metacleobis (1 species), Mummucia (5 species), Mummucina (5 species),Mummuciona (1 species), Mummucipes (1 species), Sedna (1 species),Uspallata (1 species). No subfamilies are recognized.
Family Rhagodidae - Pocock 1897
Rhagodinae Pocock, 1897a: 250 (key), 252; Kraepelin 1899a: 208-209; Pocock 1900a: 147; Kraepelin 1901: 30.
Rhagodidae Pocock: Roewer 1933: 264-267; Kästner 1933-1935: 295; Birula 1938: 11, 17; Roewer 1941: 100-101; Roewer, 1960: 4-5; Kaestner 1968: 225; Muma 1976: 8; Muma 1982: 103; EI-Hennawy, 1990: 21.
Members of the family Rhagodidae are readily distinguished from other members of the order Solifugae by the unique hemispherical form of their anal segment and their ventrally located anus (terminally located in all other groups of solifuges). Rhagodids are heavy-bodied and short-legged. Many are brightly or contrastingly colored. The cheliceral dentition is well developed in both sexes. The flagellum (present only on males) is paraxially immovable and consists of two flattened, curled setae that form a curved, truncate horn-like tube on the mesal surface of the chelicera.
Unidentified rhagodid - Kenya
Unidentified rhagodid - India
Rhagodids are distributed from northern Africa through southwestern Asia. The 98 known species are placed within 27 genera: Rhagodalma (1 species - Sudan), Rhagodax (1 species - Jordan), Rhagodeca (3 species - Israel, Oman, Syria, Yemen), Rhagodelbus (1 species - Uzbekistan),Rhagoderma (3 species - India, Israel, Pakistan), Rhagoderus (1 species - Israel), Rhagodes (27 species - Afghanistgan, Azerbaijan, Egypt, Israel, Iran, Libya, Somalia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Yemen), Rhagodessa (5 species - Eritrea, Israel, Sudan, Syria), Rhagodeya (2 species - Libya, Sudan), Rhagodia (4 species - Ethiopia, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, Turkey), Rhagodima (2 species - India),Rhagodinus (2 species - Ethiopia, Iraq, Israel), Rhagodippa (1 species - Djibouti), Rhagodira (3 species - Afghanistan, Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia),Rhagodista (1 species - Iran), Rhagoditta (6 species - Algeria, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Iran, Israel, Pakistan, Somalia, Tunisia), Rhagodixa (3 species - Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Pakistan), Rhagodoca (17 species - Djibouti, Ethiopia, Iran, Kenya, Pakistan, Somalia, Uganda), Rhagodolus (1 species - Gambia, Nigeria), Rhagodomma (1 species - India), Rhagodopa (4 species - India, Iran, Israel, Kyrgyzstan, Nepal, Pakistan), Rhagodorimus(1 species - Israel), Rhagodorta (1 species - Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia),Rhagodospsus (1 species - Iraq), Rhagoduja (1 species - Iran), Rhagodula(1 species - Israel), and Rhagoduna (4 species - Iran, Pakistan, Somalia, Sudan, Syria). No subfamilies are recognized.
Original Description: Pocock 1897a (as Rhagodinae. a subfamily of Solpugidae) - "This group is established for the reception of the single genus hitherto known as Rhax, for which I propose the new nameRhagodes, the term Rhax having been up till now used by myself and others in a sense inadmissible according to the rules of nomenclature I adopt (vide supra under (Galeodes). Like Biton and Galeodes, Rhagodes is also an alien from the Palrearctic Region, being found in abundance all over Persia, Afghanistan, parts of India, and Africa north of the Sahara. On the west of Africa it extends as far south as Gambia and on the east as far as Somaliland, Mombasa, and Masailand." Pocock (ibid,, page 50) ascribed the following characters to Rhagodinae in a key tropical African solifuge familes and subfamilies: "Legs long or short, fourth pair at most weakly spined and considerably longer and stronger than the others, armed with two claws, its coxa and trochanter much shorter than the rest of the appendage and bearing five malleoli on each side in the adult. Abdominal tracheal stigmata visible upon the posterior margin of the second and third sterna, lying in a triangular excision of the plates; claws free from hairs; tarsus of palp immovably fused to the protarsus. Anal segment of large size, transversely elliptical, the anal aperture not extending more than halfway from its lower border towards the dorsal border." He credited Hansen (1893, p. 191) as having first pointed out the latter character.
Family Solpugidae - Leach 1815
Members of the family Solpugidae occur throughout Africa and are known also from Iraq. The 200 known species are distributed among 23 genera. The genus Ferrandia is placed in its own subfamilyFerrandiinae. The genera Metasolpuga, Oparba, Oparbella, Prosolpuga,Solpuga, Solpugassa, Solpugeira, Solpugella, Solpugema, Solpugiba,Solpugista, Solpugisticella, Solpuguna, Solpugyla, Zeria, and Zeriassa are placed together in the subfamily Solpuginae.
Solifugae Species :