2- Allobates talamancae
common names: Talamanca rocket frog, striped rocket frog, Talamanca striped rocket frog
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Calling male Allobates talamancae on Isla Colon, Panama
Care articles :
- Allobates talamancae (C OPE , 1875)
courtesy to : www.dendrobase.de/index.php
Allobates talamancae (common names: Talamanca rocket frog, striped rocket frog, Talamanca striped rocket frog) is a species of frog in the Aromobatidae family. It is found in northwestern Ecuador, western Colombia, Panama, Costa Rica, and southern Nicaragua.
Conservation status :
Least Concern (IUCN 3.1)
Scientific classification :
Binomial name :
Dendrobates talamancae Cope, 1875 "1876"
Colostethus talamancae (Cope, 1875)
Allobates talamancae is a small, non-toxic frog, with males measuring 17–24 mm (0.67–0.94 in) in snout–vent length and females 16–25 mm (0.63–0.98 in). The dorsum is smooth and dark brown in color. The flanks are black, bordered by tan or bronze line above and a white line below. The ventrum is white. The fingers and toes are unwebbed.
Allobates talamancae lay the eggs in the leaf-litter, and both parents carry the tadpoles to streams where they complete their development in small, water-filled depressions.
Habitat, ecology, and conservation :
Allobates talamancae can be found in a variety of habitats in very humid lowland and premontane habitats (secondary growth and plantations, swampy areas in primary forest, but not in open areas), usually close to streams. It can be found up to 800 m (2,600 ft) (970 m (3,180 ft) in Colombia) above sea level. Its diet consists of small arthropods. Adult frogs are found to aggregate, forming small groups, likely as an anti-predator adaptation.
It is common species; threats to it are habitat loss, introduction of alien predatory fish, and pollution.
The epithet talamancae refers to the occurrence of the species along the Cordillera de Talamanca mountain range in Costa Rica and Panama.
Allobates talamancae (G RANT , F ROST , C ALDWELL , G AGLIARDO , H ADDAD , K OK , M EANS , N OONAN , S CHARGEL & HEELER , 2006)
Colostethus talamancae (S AVAGE 1968)
Phyllobates talamancae (B ARBOR & D UNN 1921)
Dendrobates talamancae ( ERNER 1901)
Hylaplesia talamancae (B ROCCHI 1882)
Dendrobates talamancae (C OPE 1875)
English name: Talamanca Rocket Frog
German name: Talamanca rocket frog
Amphibia-> Anura-> Dendrobatoidea-> Dendrobatidae -> -> Allobates -> Allobates talamancae (C OPE , 1875)
Note to the scheme:
Watch out! The genus Colostethus sl for a long time contained the largest number of species within the Dendrobatidae (F ROST , 2004). However, their line of development within the family Dendrobatidae was not linear from a common ancestor. Recent genetic studies by V ENCES ET AL . (2003) reinstated a so-called monophyletice development. Instead Colostethus sl was subordinated to at least five mutually independent (paraphyletic) lines of development between other genera of the family Dendrobatidae. A splitting of Colostethus sl into different genera and even families! was then used in the course of the extensive revision of the Dendrobatoidea of G RANT ET AL . (2006). The former genus Colostethus sl now falls into the genera Allobates, Aromobates, Anomaloglossus, Manophryne and Rheobates (Fam .: Aromobatidae) and Colostethus, Hyloxalus and Silverstoneia(Family name: Dendrobatidae). Due to genetic criteria, the species Colostethus talamancae was classified within the genus Allobates .
threat status :
Not in Annex II of the WA (CITES, 2004). Not reportable according to BArtSchVO. In the Red List (IUCN) listed as "not endangered" due to the large area of distribution. No trade restrictions according to CITES (not listed).
Medium-sized dendrobatide with one KRLfrom 16 to 25 mm in length (S AVAGE , 2002). All of the sexually mature animals observed and kept by O STROWSKIwere more in the upper part of the size specification.
Body stretched. Head slightly longer than wide. Snout viewed dull from above.Adulte males have two vowel slots and a large one subgulareVocal sac. Finger 1> 2, finger 3 not swollen. No toe skins.dorsum dark brown. A not particularly strongly detached Dorsolateralstreifenin light brown pulls from the rump to over the eyelid. Flanks black, bounded by a whiteVentrolateralstreifenfrom the femoral joints over the flank to above the lips (labial stripes). The ventrolateral strip is slightly wavy and is limited to the bright side of the stomach by dark spots. Due to these dark spots or areas (marbling), the ventrolateral strip is partially split into two lines in some animals. Male animals often have a slightly darker Dorsolateralstreifen and appear darker. The throat is dark gray or black colored in adult males, white in juvenile and female animals. No pronounced size difference between males (16 - 22 mm) and females (17 - 24 mm), females but somewhat fuller. Thigh bottoms light beige, interspersed with orange. Thigh tops with dark bands. (according to S AVAGE , 2002 and O STROWSKI, personal observations)
The species is just as variable within a population in terms of coloration as between different populations. Therefore, it does not seem sensible to specify variants. Thighs sometimes lighter colored and also on the top with orange and / or stronger thigh bands. Also very variable in the brightness of the base color (O STROWSKI , personal observation).
up to 10 years
with 12-14 months. The first clutches are often of inferior quality (fungi).
Clutch and larvae
Lowland rainforests up to 800m high. Damp and warm, very shady. Soil mostly covered with leaves. Often in the vicinity of the smallest streams, rivulets or damp valleys, avoids more streaming streams and is not at reproduction! reliant on running water. No culture follower, only in primary forest or old secondary forest.
Location Isla Colon:
One of my sites was located about 300m from the sea, about 0-10 m in height. It was a primary forest with many moist depressions. A stream ran through the area but was not a heavily populated biotope. The animals were found everywhere in the foliage between tree roots and soil vegetation. The population density was about 1 adult it animal / m2 and up to 10 juvenilee animals / m2. It was very shady and the temperature was 26 degrees. Rain is very common (daily), but mostly at night.
The animals lived here sympatric with Dendrobates pumilio and Phyllobates lugubris (description T. Ostrowski)
Close-up of the spotted Allobates talamancae Geleges in the biotope
The biotope is also a mushrooming place
Tagaktiv but hidden, but willingly comes to the food. When socializing with other frogs a little less shy.
Is a bit aggressive towards conspecifics, animals express themselves before feeding, regardless of gender. Very territorial! It is always called only briefly (display call), then there is again a long time silence. The male and female guard their eggs and drive off other frogs by jumping. As with many Colostethen, the males stimulate each other in calling. Here the male and not the female transports the tadpoles (see C. inguinalis) (description T. Ostrowski)
Couple Allobates talamancae at the courtship
The call is a bright, loud call composed of a sequence of double notes. It is similar to that of Ameerega pictus . As a defense or Drohruf give the animals a quiet buzzing of themselves, to which females are capable.
Calling Allobates talamancae male
Type find location of the first description
According to first description: "near Old Harbor [= Puerto Viejo], on the East coast, [Cantón de Limón, Provincia Limón,]" Costa Rica (F ROST , 2006).
Lowland rainforests from Costa Rica and Panama
(along the Cordillera Talamanca) via West Colombia
to Northwest Ecuador, 0-800 m. His species ranges
from Rio San Juan to Nicaragua, through
northeastern and southwestern Costa Rica,
throughout much of central and eastern
Panama (including several islands in
Bocas del Toro), to the Pacific lowlands
of Colombia to northern Ecuador. It occurs
Biotope Allobates talamancae
Allobates talamancae in the area, ♂ above, ♀ below left
The southern end of the isthmus(Costa Rica and Panama) is climatically separated by the Cordilleras into a humid Caribbean and a drier Pacific side. The Caribbean side of Panama is characterized by a fairly even tropical climate. In the course of the year, the temperature fluctuations are very low and average about 1-2 °. Even in the course of the day, higher variations between day and night can rarely be detected in the Caribbean lowlands (W ALTER & B RECKLE, 1999). However, on clear nights, after heavy rains or Atlantic cold air currents due to hurricanes in the Caribbean Sea can lead to short-term temperature drops. In the autumn of 2004 in Changuinola, Panama at sea level, a cold snap with temperatures of only 15 ° C. Also in Costa Rica, the author was after heavy rainfall in the lowlands temperatures of 16 ° C measure (O STROWSKI , pers. Observed). However, these unusual low temperatures last only a few hours (in exceptional cases a few days) and are usually only locally limited. On the protected forest floor, however, temperatures can be measured almost year-round, which correspond approximately to the annual average both during the day and at night (W ALTER & BRECKLE , 2000). In the province of Bocas del Toro this is about 26 ° C (see Fig.). The rainfall is also relatively constant and high year round. During the northern winter, the Northeast Passage's air currents bring humid air masses, while in the northern summer, low pressure areas over the Caribbean cause precipitation. The precipitation varies between 2000 and 4000 mm per year, depending on the shadow from the mountain ranges (W ALTER & B RECKLE , 1999). Only in the months of January to March can there be short dry periods of less than 100 mm per month (see Fig.). Overall, the rainfall over the year but relatively constant, so that the frogs on the Caribbean side can reproduce throughout the year.
Attitude in the terrarium:
Terrarium / Facility:
Rainforest terrarium from 50x50x50cm with water part, stream is not required.
automatic irrigation and fog plant recommended
Bodenbewohner, does not climb.
24-27 ° C, drop by 3-4 ° C at night Annual variation in
temperature minimal (1-2 ° C)
80-95%, drops to 70% at lunchtime, 100% in the morning and evening (fog)
Annual variation: Rainy season with high humidity and rainfall between May and September, keeping it slightly drier in winter
Usual small to medium-sized food animals: Drosophila, micro-crickets, small wax maggots, meadow plankton and springtails.
Young animals are small, but cope immediately with small Drosophila.
Good results were achieved with the combinations 1.1 and 2.1. In several animals it comes to repression rituals. Even in large pools hardly group keeping possible, because the animals are very territorial. Two males are more advantageous because otherwise rarely called and abgesaicht.
Tips for breeding:
Oviposition occurs in caves or under leaves.
Photodoses are preferred.
Creates 10-30 eggs
Development time Eggs: 18 days
The male guards his clutch and rarely eats during this time.
Active transport of tadpoles by the male in slightly larger water retention, mostly puddles.
All tadpoles are transported and deposited together
Development of the tadpoles: 80-90 days, water temperature at 24 ° C, night setback recommended
The tadpoles can be reared together and fed with the commercial fish feeds.
Turtles should be placed in a water portion of a terrarium after breaking their forelegs, as they are very susceptible to stress when moving. (Paralysis and death)
Other websites :
For more information about resources for the above article .. click here
Allobates talamancae on Isla Colon, Panama
Allobates talamancae vocalisation. Talamancae!!
Calling male Allobates talamancae on Isla Colon, Panama
Courtship/Lead and Follow Behaviour of Allobates talamancae
Allobates talamancae calling
Striped rocket frog calling (Allobates talamancae)
Madagascar Dart frogs
South America Dart Frogs - Species