Basic requirements for every vivarium :
1- Tank .
2- Environmental controls : - Heaters .
- Lighting .
-Humidity and misting system .
-Ventilation ,fans and openings .
3- Other equipments , supples and accessories .
4- Decoration materials .
Vivarium & Terrarium ..
2- Environmental controls : -Humidity and misting system .
14 Ways to Create a Humid Terrarium
courtesy to : www.homesalive.com Thursday, May 15, 2014 by Amy D
Keeping your terrarium at an optimal humidity level is essential for many tropical and aquatic reptiles and amphibians. De"mist"ify humidity with these 14 tips.
1. GO GLASS:
Glass enclosures help to keep the humidity in the terrarium higher. Most mesh enclosures provide great ventilation but at the cost of a lower humidity.
2. CHOOSE POROUS SUBSTRATE:
Substrate choice makes a big difference in keeping humidity higher. Substrates such as Exo Terra plantation soil and Jungle Blend absorb large amounts of moisture, slowly releasing it throughout the cage. Avoid non-porous substrates such as sand or crushed walnut.
3. THINK DEEP :
Keeping deep soil in the cage prevents it from drying out quickly, even in a tropical setting. Try to keep at least 3” of soil.
4. MIX THE SOIL :
Mixing the soil once a week allows moisture on the bottom the tank to be brought to the top and allows dry soil to be rehydrated. If the soil has dried out too much, add some water into the mix and stir. Be sure to not to make the soil marshy as this can cause the tank to become a breeding ground for mold and bacteria. A good consistency is one where you cannot squeeze out water but the soil keeps its shape when balled up.
5. ADD MOSS :
There are a few types of moss that when added into the soil will increase the amount of liquid the soil can absorb and will make it lighter. Mix forest moss or add it in layers on the top of the soil to simulate a natural forest floor.
6. MIST OFTEN
Mist your tank frequently, taking special care to spray down dry areas. Generally, misting 2 to 3 times a day is sufficient to keep even the most sensitive reptiles satisfied.
7. CHOOSE A LARGE WATER DISH
If you notice your animal’s water drying out over night, increase the bowl size. Many reptiles and amphibians, for example, frogs, enjoy having an oversize bathing area. Be careful that the animal can still exit the bowl; drowning is always a risk – especially in young reptiles.
8. SELECT A SPECIAL TERRARIUM
Exo Terra terrariums provide wonderful humidity control with their front ventilation and top screening. The lid can be form-fitted directly on the top with Exo-Terra Hoods. If there is no need for another hood and you would like to decrease ventilation, you can enclose the top in plastic wrap. Remember, it is crucial to keep a cross draft in the tank. If the tank is completely enclosed, the air becomes stagnant and mold becomes an issue in the tank. Certain species, for example, chameleons, need extra ventilation.
9. CHECK TEMPERATURES
If the bulbs are too hot for the tank, the tank can dry out too quickly. Conversely, if the temperature is too low, the moisture from the soil does not have a chance to evaporate. Match temperatures with your animal’s ideal temperature threshold.
10. GET A MIST SYSTEM :
if you live in a dry climate and do not have time to spray the tank regularly, invest in a mist system. There are a few types of systems, depending on your needs. Some systems are enclosed in a waterfall, providing drinking water as well as humidity, whereas other systems are outside the tank and pump a fog into the terrarium.
11. RELOCATE THE TANK
Ensure that your tank is not directly by a window or under a heat/air conditioning vent. The increase in air circulation can dry out the tank very quickly.
12. CREATE A MOISTURE GRADIENT
If you do not want to invest in a mist system, another approach is to create a natural moisture gradient in the soil using hydro-balls. These are natural clay balls that absorb lots of water as well as provide surface area for beneficial bacteria that help clean tank. A 2” layer of these balls on the bottom of the tank acts like an underground waterway that provides moisture throughout the cage. Covering the hydro-ball layer with a mesh followed by your regular substrate prevents the soil from sifting down into the balls. Top up the hydro-balls using fish airline hose as a siphon to the bottom layer. After a little tweaking, this technique works very well and can be very rewarding.
13. ADD LIVE PLANTS
Adding live plants into a terrarium will help increase the natural humidity in the tank. This can be done in most tank sizes, but the larger, the better, so as not to crowd the animal’s space. Do your research when choosing a non-toxic plant to ensure you find the best fit for your tank and animal.
14. REPLACE THE SOIL
In some cases, the soil (especially plantation soil) becomes old and does not absorb as much water as it did at one point. Replacing the soil allows you to increase the humidity as well as clean the tank
How to Create, Monitor, and Control Proper Humidity Levels for Your Herp
Humidity requirements for pet herps vary over a wide range. At one end of the spectrum, species such as green iguanas, geckos, chameleons, and water dragons need moist, tropical rainforest conditions. At the other end, species like the desert spiny lizard and the crevice spiny lizard require arid conditions. Whichever humidity level your pet requires in his enclosure, it must be monitored and maintained continuously. If the humidity would drop too low, your herp may not shed his skin correctly, and develop other health problems, such as egg binding in females. If humidity is too high, your pet could suffer severe fungal infections, or even pneumonia.
Research and observe :
Temperature and humidity conditions in your terrarium require ongoing observation and precise adjustment when needed. Before setting up your pet's microclimate, research and learn everything you can about the needs of your particular pet. So specific are the needs of various species, that keeping different species together in the same enclosure is strongly discouraged. Also, be sure to take into account your local climate, and the type of climate control operating in your home. Humidity needs may change depending upon the status of your pet. For instance, during shedding, higher humidity levels are often helpful.
Moisture variables :
The amount of moisture in the air of the enclosure or aquarium is controlled by three variables:
Introduction of water into the atmosphere
Full enclosures with small side vents conserve heat and humidity. These are best for tropical and other species with high humidity requirements. Glass and plexiglass aquariums with wire mesh tops allow heat and humidity to more readily escape. These are best for desert and other species with low humidity requirements. If you need to maintain high humidity levels, avoid enclosures made of wood or pressboard which may rot or swell when moist. Regardless of type of enclosure, adequate ventilation and regular cleaning are necessary to control the rapid growth of bacteria and mold. With any type of enclosure always make sure all electrical connections are waterproof.
In most cases, an ideal herp environment will be maintained through the use of multiple heat sources. For instance, an under-the-cage heat mat will keep the base temperature of the enclosure at the proper level, while a basking light or ceramic heater will provide a warmer spot. Most herps do best when they have a temperature gradient within the enclosure so they can move to a warmer or cooler spot, as desired. To monitor the temperature, at least two thermometers should be used. One should be placed near the floor of the cage where it is coolest, and one near the basking area, where it is the warmest. The thermometers should be checked at least once daily to be sure the heat sources are working properly.
Introduction of water
Just as thermometers are necessary to monitor temperature, a hygrometer is necessary to monitor the humidity and be sure your pet's environment is optimal. If the humidity is too low, there are many ways to add moisture to the environment. Choose one or more of the following to satisfy your herp's moisture requirements:
Pools: Some herps, especially amphibians and some snakes, need a large pool of water in which to submerge themselves. The water in the pool should be clean and changed regularly.
Dishes: Pet-safe, low profile water dishes provide water to drink and help raise humidity levels.
Foggers: Foggers add moisture and ambience by simulating low clouds, fog, and dew. They are particularly useful for dew-lapping reptiles.
Humidifiers: There are several types of humidifiers/air exchangers that constantly supply fresh, humid air to terrariums. If there are multiple herp enclosures in a room, some owners prefer to use a room humidifier.
Misters: Programmable misters deliver a quick mist every hour, a long mist every 12 hours, or many choices in between.
The warmer the temperature, the faster the water sources in the enclosure will evaporate. Since most enclosures will be warmer than room temperature, the water in the cage will evaporate faster than water outside of the cage. This means water bowls, pools, damp moss, and other water sources need to be checked frequently and water added as needed.
Waterfalls: Waterfall kits are available, which not only add humidity, but enhance the appearance of the terrarium.
Drip systems: By allowing water to constantly drip into a pool at the bottom of the cage, humidity levels can be increased. A drip system could consists of a container of water placed above the cage, with holes or plastic tubing leading from it which drips water onto the plants. (Ask your veterinarian for a used intravenous (IV) drip set, that you can fill with water.)
In-cage rain system: An in-cage rain system can be made from PVC tubing that has small holes drilled into it. The tubing can be connected to a water supply using a valve to control water flow. The tubing is placed over the cage, and the water drips into the cage. A collection system under the cage will need to be provided, such as large plastic trays or buckets.
Humidity boxes: For some herps who need high humidity, a humidity box can be used to add humidity to a specific area of the enclosure. To make such a box, cut an entrance in any small plastic box and line it with damp sphagnum moss. The moss needs to be changed regularly to prevent mold from developing. Humidity boxes are especially useful when the herp is shedding or in winter when room humidity levels can become very low.
Spray bottle: A low-tech way of adding humidity is simply to spray the enclosure with water at intervals. To avoid creating problems like pneumonia and mouth rot, do not overdo it.
Live plants: Depending upon the species or herp, some do well with live plants in their enclosures. This is an attractive way to add humidity as well as basking and hiding areas. Be sure to use nontoxic plants.
Too much moisture can be detrimental. Moisture on the animal will result in lowering of his body temperature as it evaporates. In general, there should be a drier area of the cage where the herp can go to to help regulate his body temperature. If mildew becomes a problem, decrease the number of hours the humidifiers, foggers, etc. are running. To kill the fungus, the enclosure can be cleaned with a mild bleach solution, rinsed thoroughly, and allowed to dry. Do not use the bleach solution in the same room as the herp, and remember to take safety precautions. For more information on cleaning cages,
The humidity requirements of herps vary. Learn what is optimal for your herp and choose his enclosure and accessories based on his needs. Daily monitor the temperature and humidity and adjust his habitat as necessary to maintain proper levels. If the humidity needs to be higher, there are multiple ways to add moisture to his environment.
- Increasing Cage Humidity :
courtesy to : www.lllreptile.com
If you keep tropical reptiles, then you should know all about humidity. Humidity is the measure of water vapor in the air, and is read between 0% (extremely dry) and 100% (completely saturated). Many tropical herps come from microclimates (burrows, forest floors, under logs, etc) that have high ambient humidity. If you are keeping these animals in a cage, then it is imperative that you re-create their natural environment as closely as possible. Inadequate humidity is a leading cause of dehydration (no appetite, wrinkly skin) and shedding difficulties. How do you know if you have it right? First of all, know the natural history of your reptile. Some species will be fine with the humidity in your home depending on where you live. However, if you have a ball python and live in the arid southwest, you may need to take some extra steps to ensure that your pets are healthy and happy. Second, know the humidity in the cage, this can be easily measured with an analog humidity gauge available at LLLReptile.com. Lastly, know the steps to take to increase the humidity of your enclosure. (Decreasing humidity is a different subject all together, but because it is less of an issue, it will not be covered here.)
1- Large water dish. Most species require a water dish that at the very least they can fit into, although one they can swim in is better. The larger the water dish, the more humidity you will get. As the water evaporates from the surface of the dish, the moisture molecules flow into the air and increase the humidity. Placing the water dish in a warm (but not hot) area of the enclosure can increase the effects.
2-Decrease ventilation. All animals need fresh air. Reptiles included. But if you are keeping a tropical snake in a cage with a screen top, what do you think is happening to all of that humidity? Its floating right out of the cage into your home. This doesn't help your reptile any. You can decrease this loss by covering half, but no more than that, of the cage top with some water proof material. Plexiglass, treated wood, and wet towels have been used. By covering the top of the cage on the side where you have the water dish, you will greatly increase the efficiency of your setup.
3-Regular Misting. The best way to help keep your cage at the proper humidity levels is to spray the cage once or twice a day with room temperature water. You can used a hand held spray bottle, or a pressure sprayer with a gentle mist. Lightly mist the entire enclosure, including the animal, substrate, and cage walls. The droplets that form will evaporate and increase the humidity. Also many reptiles like to drink up little water droplets off of the cage furnishings, rather than from a dish. Here's a great tip: Use bottled water for your spraying. Because this water has no dissolved minerals in it, it won't leave any unsightly water spots on the glass of your terrarium.
4-Proper Substrate. The substrate, or bedding, that you use in your reptile enclosures can significantly effect the humidity in the cage. Dry substances like paper products, shavings, and sand hold very little moisture, and if anything, absorb humidity out of the air. Unsealed wooden cages will have the same effect. If you want to increase and maintain higher levels of humidity try using orchid bark. We use it alone or mixed with Bed-a-Beast as an exclusive substrate for all of the tropical animals in our stores.
Remember, these are only hints and guidelines. Make sure you know the specific need s of the animals in your care, as every species has different requirements.
Among the various environmental requirements you should know about any herp you keep is what relative humidity is normal in its native habitat and, therefore, what that should be in its vivarium. Humidity refers to the amount of moisture (water vapor) contained in an atmosphere. Humidity is measured in various ways, but the most common measurement used is relative humidity, which is expressed as a percentage (e.g., 55 percent) to show how dry or how moist the air is.
To help maintain humidity and air quality in the vivarium use as many live plants as possible.
If you need to maintain high humidity in your vivarium, the easiest, most reliable way is to use a misting system. These systems range from simple setups to sophisticated and automated setups. Some you can purchase, install and turn on. Others you have to make. The system you choose depends on your do-it-yourself skills, how your vivarium is set up, your particular environmental needs and your budget. If you plan to make your own system, this article will help you with the project. If you plan to purchase a commercial system, this article will help you choose the right one. Whichever misting system you choose, there are several basic fundamentals to consider. Eight of the most important are discussed here.
Pictured is a misting system attached to a water source. Necessary components of any system include the water-storage container, pump, tubing and connectors, nozzles, timer, and hygrometer. Components such as a humidistat, a water-filtration system and an automatic water shut-off device might be optional depending on the situation.
Keep in mind that the purpose of a misting system is to maintain vivarium humidity — not to water the enclosure. Excessive water in vivarium substrates is a big problem, and it is responsible for the poor health and even death of many vivarium animals and plants. Once initially moistened, the vivarium substrate tends to hold onto that water, especially if the humidity is high. So actual watering is rarely necessary, and it should be done carefully and conservatively. You want a misting system that uses as little water as possible and provides as fine a mist or fog as possible.
(2)Operating Pressure :
Misting systems can be generally divided into low-pressure or high-pressure systems. Low pressure is technically less than 100 pounds per square inch, but most low-pressure systems operate with less than 40 or 50 psi. High pressure is technically more than 100 psi, but the most efficient systems operate with more than 250 psi. In general, the higher the pressure of a misting system, the better it is at creating a fog or fine mist to provide the high humidity you want without soaking the vivarium with excess water.
Some of the technology in this tropical rain-forest vivarium is visible. The high-pressure diaphragm pump is in the bottom-left cabinet. The copper line and stainless-steel misters can be seen intruding through the tank’s glass top.
Quality high-pressure misting systems typically use pumps that operate in the 250- to 800-psi range, but some pumps operate at 2,000 psi or more. The larger your system is (e.g., a multiple-tank system or an entire herp room), the higher the water pressure should be for efficient functioning. Tubing for these systems should be rated for high-pressure use, such as reinforced nylon or PVC, and affixed with threaded connectors.
Heat and ultraviolet light, which come from the light fixtures in a vivarium, compromise the structural integrity of most tubing materials over time. This can be especially serious with high-pressure systems, so tubing should be checked every few months for cracks and leaks. Even if tubes seem OK, I suggest replacing them at least yearly. To avoid these problems, copper tubing is also good for high-pressure systems, and it often improves the appearance. Some of the components, such as the connectors, have to be welded using a high-temperature torch and a quality solder containing silver, but if you can have this done, or learn to do it yourself (not as difficult as you may think), it will give you a strong, permanent and good-looking system.
(4)Volume Output :
The output of misting nozzles is measured either in gallons per hour or gallons per minute. Gph is often used for high-output nozzles intended primarily for irrigation use. Gpm is more useful for low-output nozzles intended primarily for humidity-creating purposes, so the quality nozzles you seek for a vivarium misting system will probably be rated using gpm. Nozzles should ideally be designed to deliver only a fraction of a gallon per minute when operating under high pressure.
(5)Water Quality :
Most municipal (tap) water contains various minerals and chemicals that can cause problems. It could jeopardize the health of vivarium herps and plants, clog misting-system components (especially nozzles), and deposit minerals that create an ugly, hazy film on tank glass and fixtures. You want to eliminate as much of the chemical and mineral pollutants from the water as possible, and there are two ways to get purified water.
One way is to purchase distilled or purified water, and use it as the source for your self-contained misting system. If you do this, then you will not need any water filtration with your misting system. However, you will need to make sure your supply container always has enough water in it for your misting system to operate.
Another way is to incorporate a water-filtration system into your misting system, and this route is mandatory if you connect your misting system to a faucet, hose or other municipal water source. A basic carbon filter is the minimum requirement. It reduces the amount of some of the most harmful compounds. A reverse-osmosis filter removes most of the minerals from the water. A deionization filter removes the chemicals the other filters missed. For the vivaria my company creates, we always use a high-quality filtration system containing all three components. To be really safe, add an in-line particulate filter to remove any large particles before the water gets to the other filter units.
(3)Mist Droplet Size
The size of the droplets produced by the system’s misting nozzles is important. It indicates the quality of the mist. Droplets are measured in microns, which is one-millionth of a meter or about 0.00003937 inches. In general, droplet sizes of around 5 microns create a fine fog, around 20 microns create a heavy fog, around 100 microns create a fine spray, around 240 microns create a medium spray, around 400 microns create a heavy or coarse spray, and around 1,000 microns create a fine rain or drizzle. Rain droplets measure more than 1,000 microns. If the droplet size isn’t listed in the information on a system you are considering, ask for it.
It is best to select a droplet size that allows you to get the effect you want with the shortest possible misting duration. To create high humidity while adding hardly any extra water to the vivarium, you want to have a system that produces a fog or fine spray, so you usually want a droplet size less than 100 microns. A fog with droplet sizes in the 20-micron range hangs in the air for about 100 times longer than a heavy spray with droplets in the 400-micron range. A fine fog with droplets in the 5-micron range may still be lingering in the air of a tall vivarium a half-hour after the system has shut off. To create high humidity and a light coat of moisture on leaves and other smooth surfaces (which provides drinking water for some herps and moisture for certain kinds of high-canopy tillandsias and orchids), a mist with droplet sizes in the 100- to 240-micron range is good. For a heavier coating of moisture for certain herps and moisture-loving tillandsias, bromeliads and orchids (which like to get wet but dry out between mistings), a coarse spray with droplets in the 400- to 600-micron range is good. However, care must be exercised here. The time between mistings must be long enough to allow the vivarium to dry well between mistings.
The type of misting nozzle also plays a role in the type of mist produced. I recommend quality nozzles of stainless steel, brass and/or nickel for a high-pressure system. High-pressure pumps combined with metal, low-volume misting nozzles tend to produce nice fogs or fine mists. Low-pressure systems and high-volume nozzles tend to produce heavy sprays and use more water.
Low-pressure systems are less efficient, and they tend to produce more of a coarse spray, or rain, effect. The materials used in these systems are not a significant concern. Plastic, nylon or PVC tubing is OK, and compression or barb connectors are adequate. You simply push the tubing into these.
Only when a rain chamber is the goal would I recommend a low-pressure system over a high-pressure system. Rain chambers are temporary tanks set up for certain frogs and other herps. They simulate a drenching rain to stimulate breeding behavior or to assist in shedding.
Misting nozzles deliver ultrafine water droplets into the vivarium. Most commercial systems use plastic misting nozzles, but some plastic nozzles can be replaced with metal ones. Quality misting nozzles of stainless steel, brass and/or nickel can provide a finer mist, a more uniformly accurate delivery of the desired gallons-per-minute rate, and more reliable long-term service than most plastic nozzles.
The timer turns the misting system on and off. You need the kind typically used for horticultural misting purposes. These allow you to turn on the system numerous times each day for specific, short durations. Ideally, the timer should be capable of durations less than one minute. You must try to set the timer to come on often enough to keep humidity at the desired level. This usually requires some initial experimentation and then ongoing attention as conditions change. In a more sophisticated system, a humidistat automatically keeps humidity at the correct level. Whether you use a timer or a humidistat, include a hygrometer in the vivarium to display humidity. Handy, inexpensive combination thermometer-hygrometers are available.
All tubing must be rated safe for drinking water use. Low-pressure misting systems use plastic tubing, and high-pressure systems require reinforced-nylon, PVC or copper tubing. Various connectors of the same material as the tubing are necessary. Straight-line connectors (couplers), tee connectors (three-way) and L-shaped (90 degree) connectors are the most common.
The pump pulls water from the storage container and sends it to the mist nozzles. Most people prefer one that operates quietly. Quality submersible (used in the storage container) or external, in-line pumps can be used, but the most common, efficient type is an external diaphragm pump.
The water-storage container holds the water used by the misting system. Any container that can be fully enclosed may be used as long as it is rated as safe for food or drinking water use. A typical container is a 5-gallon food-storage container with a lid and snug openings created for the water lines and tubing. In the simplest, most economical system, you manually keep this container filled with distilled or purified water. In systems connected to a water source, this container includes an automatic shut-off device that regulates the water level. The most common shut-off device is a simple ball-and-cock type like those used for toilets and ponds, but smaller, more sophisticated types are available.
Misting systems connected to the household water supply need a good water-filtration system, which might include a basic carbon filter, a reverse-osmosis filter and/or a deionization filter. An in-line particulate filter (1) removes any large particles before the water gets to the other filter units.
Just by eliminating the need to mist with a spray bottle, any misting system helps with vivarium automation, but some systems are more automatic than others.
(7)Degree of Automation :
Just by eliminating the need to mist with a spray bottle, any misting system helps with vivarium automation, but some systems are more automatic than others. If you connect your system directly to the household water supply, then you eliminate some tasks, such as checking the water-supply container and refilling it. Include a humidistat, and it automatically runs your system to maintain the humidity you set. A really good programmable humidistat even adjusts the humidity levels from day to night and season to season.
(8)Humidity and Air Circulation Balance :
Simply reaching the correct humidity level is only half of the job. The other half involves maintaining that humidity while achieving proper fresh-air circulation. Paludarium humidity for the land section is a difficult issue for most vivarists primarily because increasing humidity usually involves limiting exposure to the outside air to keep moisture from escaping. But restricting air exchange between the vivarium and the outside disrupts the gaseous composition of the air. Among other changes, the percentage of carbon dioxide can increase to a dangerous level, and percentages of airborne matter, such as dust, fungal spores, bacteria and viruses, can reach unnaturally high levels. Poor air quality inside the vivarium is the result. A quality, efficient misting system can monitor the paludarium humidity and turn on numerous times each day for specific, short durations, so it can keep the humidity level up even with more fresh-air circulation being allowed into the paludarium ..
Another way to help maintain humidity and air quality in the paludariums and vivariums vivarium is to use as many live plants as possible. As part of their natural metabolic process, plants remove carbon dioxide and other toxic gases from the air while adding oxygen and humidity. How much toxic gas is removed and how much oxygen and humidity is added varies depending on the species of plant, but most tropical plants, especially those with large, smooth leaves, are very efficient.
Now that you are familiar with these eight fundamentals, you’re ready to hunt for the misting system or parts right for your paludarium. Herpkeeping and horticultural magazines, the Internet and perhaps some reptile stores are good sources to begin your search for a commercial misting system. So do yourself and your herps a favor. Buy or make the best misting system you can afford, and combine it with a good drainage system, ample fresh-air circulation and plenty of beautiful, live plants.
Product Review: Managing Water and Humidity for Your Reptiles
Today I’m straying away from reviewing a single product and focusing on a group of products relating to water and humidity. In the past few years many new products have hit the market that are meant to keep humidity in your reptile terrariums at appropriate levels, and/or keep your reptiles well hydrated and in good health, but figuring out what is worth purchasing, or which product to choose can be a real pain. In this article I will show the pros and cons of each method and which products have the best value, or highest quality.
Closely associated with the misting system is the drainage system. Any water that goes into the vivarium must escape somehow. It is important that the vivarium substrate does not become saturated with excess water, and a good drainage system is one way to ensure substrate saturation is controlled. The best drainage systems incorporate bulkheads in the vivarium bottom connected to a drainage pipe. Usually this pipe leads to a wastewater catchment, and this container must be emptied on a regular basis.
Foggers pour fog into your terrarium, creating a very nice visual effect as well as increasing humidity, and creating small dew drops on some surfaces of your terrarium. There are a few pros and cons with this product.
Creates a very nice visual effect
Can help simulate morning dew for desert reptiles
Internal Fogger : Though an ultrasonic fogger such as this can be placed directly inside the paludarium, placing it instead in a small vessel with clean distilled water will significantly extend the life of its membrane. Photo by Kenneth Wingerter.
One effective (and certainly visually pleasing) way to increase humidity is to apply a fogger. The fog (3-5 micron droplets) they produce is superior to the mist (60-100 micron droplets) produced from hand-held sprayers in that it remains in suspension longer, thereby reducing the threat of unwanted bacterial and fungal growth. There is a wide array of fog generating devices on the market to choose from, though the use of a unit that is specially designed for terraria/paludaria is strongly recommended. Solid-state "ultrasonic foggers" are the usual choice for this application. Most of these are comprised of a water sensor (to detect that the unit is in enough water to function), a small light to indicate that the unit is in operation, and a transducer plate to "break" the water with electrical oscillation frequencies; better units include adjustable output controls and a custom-fitted water bottle.
Disk foggers very often break and replacement pieces can add up in price to equal the cost of an expensive misting system within a year or two.
Don’t come with built in timing, so you need to purchase a timer, or terrarium control system, to provide a varied humidity throughout the day, as is required to keep many reptiles in good health.
Damages and wets floor if terrarium is made of screen or has circulation holes on the lower area of the cage (a feature of most of the front door terrariums by Exo Terra, Zilla, and Zoomed). The fog seeps through the holes and settles on the floor; the amount of water isn’t much, but if the floor is wooden, it can do some damage.
External Fogger: External Fogger used in the outside of the tank and deliver the fog via flexible pipe .. Mainly used for terrarium and also can be used in Paludarium ..
There are 2 main types of foggers, disk foggers and cool mist humidifiers. The most popular brand of disk fogger is made by Exo Terra. Disk foggers are placed into a bowl of water, or a waterfall. They break very easily, and replacement parts are expensive. They sell for about $40 but many suppliers have removed them from their stock due to the many problems.
Cool Mist Humidifiers have been widely used in households, but Zoomed has recently created a version of their own meant for reptiles. If you are going to purchase a fogger, I would recommend the Zoomed product.
Automatic misters and misting systems have become increasingly popular recently, especially with very high maintenance reptiles such as chameleons. They spray a fine mist out of nozzles using a pump and a timer to mist at timed intervals of your choice. There are a few pros and cons with these products.
Mist king system at work .. courtesy to mistking.com
Misting system nozzles :
Mid nozzle which connect with two pipes
End nozzle in the End of the Point
One nozzle with Two Heads
Misting system consist of :
High Pressure Pump
This system is merge of the tank with pump in one enclosure
courtesy to : Exo-Terra
below a video for this device :
Below Misting system at work , courtesy to mist king .com
Above the basic misting system connection - courtesy to Mistking.com
Below Manifold to distribute the water to several tanks
courtesy to : www.mist king .com
courtesy to : www.mist king .com
Allows you to be away from your reptiles for a while, as you do not need to mist them yourself daily
Reptiles that require misting multiple times per day (chameleons) are easier to maintain with an automatic system if you are away from home during working hours (adult chameleons require misting up to 5 times per day for lengthy periods of time.)
Many systems give a very fine mist and certain products can produce a rain-like effect along with mist (Aquazamp’s Rain dome)
Many pumps can handle up to 80 nozzles, so they are great for breeders
Some systems can be more costly than other methods which provide humidity and misting
Nozzles often break if you don’t use Reverse Osmosis (R/O) or other filtered forms of water
There are many misting systems out there, but I will be going over the most popular four, The Habba Mister, (Zoomed’s ReptiRain is basically the same thing) Exo Terra’s Monsoon Misting System, and The Mistking and Aquazamp.
I’m going to start with the Habba Mist. It’s a fairly compact system that comes with 1 nozzle and has assorted times it will mist per day. On Chameleon Forums, we commonly refer to this as ‘The Habba Spitter’ and rightfully so: of all the misting systems it has the least fine mist. In fact it’s more like a squirt. With many reptiles this wouldn’t be harmful, but with the chameleons, if it squirts them in the face, they could suffocate, and I believe it has happened. It costs about $65.
Repti Rain® Automatic Misting Machine:
Programmable misting unit for terrariums, bird cages, aviaries or indoor gardens. New technology allows for a stronger and quieter pump that can mist 2 separate cages. Portable: for indoor or out-door use. Includes AC adapter, or will run on batteries (4 C batteries, not included). Four programmable spray interval settings 1/2 every hour, 3 hours, 6 hours, or 12 hours. Four spray duration settings: 15, 30, 45, or 60 seconds.
Additional Information :
ncludes adjustable mounting hooks, 4 point suction cup hold down, remote nozzle extension and 6 watt AC adapter.
Formerly known as the Habba Mist®.
Repti Rain® Automatic Misting Machine
Zoo Med's Repti Rain® is a misting machine that works great for a variety of tropical pets.
Here's Ashley to show you how it works.
Electrical cord or wire
The Exo Terra Monsoon RS400 is a programmable rainfall system suitable for all types of terrariums and greenhouses. It helps maintain optimal humidity by generating precipitation at programmed intervals. The duration and frequency can be easily adjusted depending on the type of animal or plant housed. Frequent rainfall helps stimulate breeding behavior and is a necessity when housing live tropical plants such as bromeliads, orchids, mosses, etc. The system can be programmed to rain multiple times per 24 hour cycle for time periods ranging from two seconds to two minutes. The large one gallon reservoir ensures continuous operation for several days without the need for refilling, making it ideal for vacation. The reservoir can be easily replenished without needing to uninstall the entire system.
The Exo Terra Monsoon RS400 comes with two easy-to-install nozzles but the system can be extended to accommodate up to six nozzles, making it ideal for multiple terrariums. The rain produced by these specially designed nozzles is extremely fine, creating mist-like effect in the terrarium or greenhouse. The extra long tubing makes it possible to conceal the unit in a storage area or under the terrarium in a cabinet.
Easy to connect and install tubing. Sloping top makes filling water reservoir easier. Flexible spray nozzles can be pointed in any direction. Easy to install tubing fits through the closeable wire/tube inlets featured on all Exo Terra terrariums.
Ultrasonic fogger :
Product Manual (pdf) : HM-10_Repti_Rain_Instructions.pdf
Item Number: HM-10
Warranty : 1 Year
Exo Terra’s Monsoon Misting System: The best way to describe this system is as a cross between the Habba Mist and the Aquazamp and Mistking, both in quality and in price, but realistically, if you have the budget to afford this product, just purchase the most basic Mistking system, which is almost the same price. The nozzles on this have a mist, but not a very fine one, along with a horrible quality, I didn’t have one last longer than 4 months, using R/O water. I can’t imagine how short it would last with tap water, but I don’t think it would be very long. You get what you pay for. These cost $4.50 for two, about 10% the price of Mistking nozzles.
The Mistking and Aquazamp misting systems are two similar high quality misting systems. They both feature fine mist nozzles and high quality systems. Many zoos have even used these, like the Singapore Zoo, which uses Mistking systems in many of their tropical setups. Due to the similarity of these, below we will do a comparison. As a reptile breeder I highly recommend purchasing one of these for your reptiles. Save up if you have to, it is well worth it. Here at Crazy Cresties we have even created crested gecko racks featuring built-in Mistking systems. The cheapest Mistking setup with all you need included is $99 and the cheapest all included setup for Aquazamp is $120.
Assembling a Premium AquaZamp Misting System : ( Below Video )
Congrats - You've finished Vivarium misting !!