Ponds Fishes Guide
Goldfish, Koi, & Other Pond Fish
To most people a water garden simply wouldn't be complete without fish swimming through the water. Whether we keep fish for their bright shimmering colors, the movement in the water, or for the more practical reasons such as mosquito control, fish are an important addition to a pond. Some of us name our fish and care for them as we would any other pet.
Although it can be as simple as picking the fish that looks the prettiest, to the true enthusiast selecting a fish is much more involved. Considerations should be made when planning the pond as to what type of fish are desired. This plays a big role in determining the size of the pond and especially the filtration needs. Adequate filtration is very important when keeping fish.
The most common pond fish are:
Some people may choose from a few other fish species as well.
Keeping fish in your water garden does mean a little extra work. To a few this is a chore, but to many it is just part of keeping a beautiful and healthy pond.
Fish related articles::
Causes of Fish Stress
Care & Feeding
Health & Disease
Quarantine Your Sick or New Fish
Introducing New Fish to a Pond
Tips for Winter Care of Fish
Other General Websites :
Backyard Fish Pond - Bee Water, Garden & Fish
Water Garden Pond Spring time opening Tips, Koi fish Pond Scare with a Predator
Garden fish pond during winter"koi Winterization"
12 species of fish in garden pond Underwater #1
12 species of fish in garden pond Underwater #2
12 species of fish in garden pond Underwater #3
32 Beautiful Fish Breeds To Rise In Your Pond | Best Fish Species For Aquaculture | Fish Farming
Further reading :
General books about keeping fishes in the ponds and water gardens :
by Lloyd Mathews B.Sc. (Author)
by Herbert R. Axelrod (Author)
Care & Feeding of Pond Fish
courtesy to : www.watergarden.org/Pond-Info/Fish-Care-Feeding
Keeping fish is a natural part of having a water garden. In addition to their appeal as pets they are a part of your pond's ecosystem. In order to maintain the health of your fish some basic precautions are necessary. It is important to keep the right amount of fish for the pond size, feed properly, and monitor the water. Since a backyard pond is not a natural environment it is the responsibility of the pond owner to govern the conditions.
How Many Fish Can I Have
The stocking level of the pond is critical to the health of your fish. Too many fish leads to decreased oxygen levels and the extra fish waste leads to ammonia and nitrite build-up. To a certain degree, your fish load can vary based on your level of filtration. A pond with an undersized filter will not be able to keep as many fish, while an oversized filter will allow you a few extra fish. With an average-sized filter, your preferred stocking level will be based on surface area of the pond. For goldfish you can keep one average size fish for every 3-4 square feet of surface area. For koi, it should be limited to one fish for every 10 square feet of surface area. For example; a 10 x 10 pond will have a surface area of 100 square feet (assuming that it is a perfect rectangle). With an average filter this pond could house up to 30 goldfish or 10 koi. Of course, keeping fewer than this would make keeping good water quality even easier.
Fish Feeding Dos & Don'ts
There are two main aspects to properly feeding your fish. These are feeding the right foods and feeding in the right amounts. Each time you feed your fish, whether its three times a day or three times a week, you need to make sure you feed only what they can eat in 5 minutes. A little experimenting can teach you how much to feed. If, five minutes after feeding, there is still uneaten food you know to not feed that much next time.
Determining what and how often to feed your fish depends primarily on water temperature. In warmer water (60-85 degrees) the metabolism of the fish is high and they can be fed 2-4 times per day. At this time you should be feeding a food with a high protein level such as Legacy Variety Mix. If the water rises to 90 degrees or above you should stop feeding. In spring and fall when your water temperatures fall to 50-60 degrees, you should reduce feeding to once every 1-2 days and feed a low protein food such as Legacy Cold Weather Food. When the temperatures drop to below 50 degrees stop feeding the fish. On warm days the fish may become active and "beg" for food. Don't be fooled. Stay strong and do not feed. If the fish do need a little food, they will find enough growing in the pond. The algae that coats the pond liner is all they need. These cold temperatures slow the metabolism of your fish and food will not be properly digested. It can take 3-4 days for the fish to digest the food. It's not worth the fish's life to give it food.
Water quality is very important to the health of your fish. Poor water conditions stress fish. A stressed fish is more susceptible to disease. One of the most important things for water quality is to make sure toxins are not getting in the water from fertilizers or pesticides. Don't spray anything near the pond and make sure rain run-off does not flow into the pond as this can carry these very toxic chemicals. Some of the other factors in water can be tested, such as pH, ammonia, and nitrites.
A pH level of 6.6 to 8.4 is safe. The idea range is 7.0 to 7.8. If it becomes necessary to adjust the pH it should be done gradually as a sudden pH can cause severe damage. Ammonia should be zero. Any level of ammonia can be a problem. Note that ammonia is more toxic in higher pH ranges.
The nitrite level in your pond water should be zero.
If your ammonia or nitrite level is high it tells you that you either have too many fish or your filter is not doing its job adequately. Another possibility is that your filter may not have had time to cycle if it is a new pond. As with a new pond, a filter that has been shut off for the winter will need time to mature. This can take several weeks. A partial water change should be performed to dilute the high ammonia or nitrite problem during this time.
It is best to set up a regular routine of water testing. Once a week is recommended, more often if you are experiencing problems. Make sure you test your pond at the same time of day each test. The pH level can fluctuate throughout the day.
For ease in record keeping, we suggest that you print this Fish Care Chart to keep detailed data on your pond water.
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