Malaysian Horned Frogs :
Megophrys nasuta(Leaf Frog)
courtesy to : www.reptilesmagazine.com :
BY ARTICLE BY WALTER MERKER; PHOTOS BY GEROLD MERKER
Many examples of crypsis, the ability to avoid observation, are within the various taxa of the order Anura, but perhaps none are more spectacular than that of the Malaysian horned frog (Megophrys nasuta).
Several anatomical characteristics make Malaysian horned frogs look similar to large leaves. The body is dorsoventrally flattened, and the head is adorned with three fleshy projections. One protrudes from the rostrum, and one is over each eye. Two sets of dorsolateral folds running from the shoulder to the groin and a variable number of dorsum tubercles further breaks up the form. Dorsal coloration is typically a shade of either red or brown, and often darker reticulations similar to the veinlike pattern of a leaf are present. Although some animals have a deep-orange or red throat, it is usually dark brown with lighter shades of brown, gray or white, giving the appearance of a shadow. The belly is whitish or light gray.
Malaysian horned frogs show a high degree of sexual dimorphism. Females grow to approximately 71/3; inches long, and males attain a maximum length of a little more than 4 inches.
Malaysian horned frogs can be explosive eaters, so the author feeds them in a simple feeding setup to prevent substrate ingestion.
Challenging Charges :
Malaysian horned frogs are generally rewarding captives, though maintaining the species long term and achieving captive reproduction can prove challenging. As with all reptiles and amphibians, purchasing a healthy individual is key.
The Malaysian horned frog is rarely bred in captivity, and most frogs currently available in the hobby are wild-caught. Reptile exporters in Malaysia often pack large numbers of frogs in the same container, which can predispose these animals to stress and infectious conditions. When the frogs arrive in the United States, they are often placed in overcrowded holding containers, compounding the stress and further weakening the amphibians’ immune systems.
Seek dealers mindful of overcrowding. If you’re dealing with someone through the Internet or over the phone, ask how the Malaysian horned frogs are housed at the facility. If you can observe the frogs in person, look for frogs housed individually in reasonably sized containers. On examination, look for eye clarity, and try to find active animals that do not appear emaciated or weak. After the purchase, try to get the animal set up as soon as possible, and keep the number of additional animals in the same enclosure to a minimum.
Keeping It Simple :
There are a number of ways to house the Malaysian horned frog. During the acclimation period, select a simple setup that is easily cleaned. I prefer 66-quart Sterilite storage containers with opaque or solid sides. These help minimize stress in new individuals and help prevent rubbing against the sides, which can damage the amphibians’ fleshy “horns.”
One of my female Malaysian horned frogs developed abrasions over the horns. They became infected, and this delicate tissue was almost completely gone by the time the infection was under control. Using opaque-sided containers has eliminated these issues in my experience.
I have used moist paper towels as a substrate for years with no adverse effects. I also provide a shallow water bowl approximately 8 inches in diameter and 1 inch deep, so the Malaysian horned frogs can thoroughly soak in the evening. An alternative approach is to use a 2- to 3-inch layer of foam rubber on half of the enclosure and fill the other half with water to a level midway up the foam.
Lighting is an important concern for the care of Malaysian horned frogs. Appropriate light sources include UVB-emitting fluorescent tubes or compact fluorescents. Providing a source of UVB light allows many herps to naturally produce Vitamin D3, but generally this is not considered necessary to the health of amphibians that receive a Vitamin D3 supplement.
As with any amphibian, keeping the cage and the water bowl clean at all times is important. A frog’s permeable skin makes it highly sensitive to infection. I typically clean a simple enclosure once weekly.
Megophrys nasuta prefers moderate temperatures, typically in the range of 70 to 78 degrees Fahrenheit, and a humidity of 60 to 80 percent.
Natural Alternative :
Designing a streamside naturalistic terrarium is an alternative approach to a simple enclosure. My Malaysian horned frog cages measure 45 inches long, 17 inches wide and 18 inches tall. Excessive height is not necessary because these animals are primarily terrestrial and rarely climb.
Naturalistic terraria have worked well for trios of two male Malaysian horned frogs and one female Malaysian horned frog, but a smaller terrarium is suitable for an individual or a pair. A 20-gallon breeder terrarium is a good starting point for a pair because it provides a larger footprint than a traditional 20-gallon terrarium. A good rule of thumb is to add 5 gallons of space per additional frog, but a larger cage is always better for these large, easily stressed frogs.
The “horn” protects the eye of this adult female Malaysian horned frog when it feels threatened, and it breaks up the frog’s form, so the amphibian more closely mimics a leaf on the forest floor.
Many substrates, including crushed coconut coir, sphagnum moss or natural soil, can be used. I use a modified version of the Atlanta Botanical Gardens mix. Two parts of a coco-fiber and orchid bark mix are combined with one part of an activated charcoal and peat moss mix. I leave out the two parts of crushed tree-fern fiber described by the Atlanta Botanical Gardens because this item may potentially harm Malaysian horned frog’s gastrointestinal tract.
Water 2¾ inches deep fills the space uncovered by egg-cratelike material. Filtered spring water, water aged in an open container for 24 hours, or water dechlorinated with AmQuel or a similar aquarium product are good water options.
A 3-inch-tall glass panel divides the land and water sections. It supports the substrate and prevents it from falling into the water section. An alternative approach to a glass barrier is to use large-grade aquarium gravel as the land section drainage layer. This eliminates the need for a glass divider and a false-bottom setup, which can be difficult to install and maintain.
Select hardy plants to add cover for the Malaysian horned frogs. Appropriate examples include Scindapsus and Philodendron species, and the bird’s nest fern (Asplenium nidus). Appropriate UV lighting, though not considered necessary for the health of amphibians, is required for the health of the plants in naturalistic vivaria.
Reproduction and larval development:
courtesy to :
Breeding was stimulated by providing a drier phase to the habitat, with reduced water level, during which terrarium was sprayed only as necessary for required humidity. This treatment was then followed by an artificial rain period, with rising water level and strong daily spraying, in order to simulate a natural rainy period. After beginning the artificial rain period, males that were discernible by their smaller size, darker throats and distinct nuptial pads, started calling (Fig. 2a). The loud, metallic calls first occurred at night, but with further breeding stimulation the males also began calling during the day. Periods of calling were interspersed with inguinal amplexus, sometimes lasting several weeks, but did not necessarily lead to oviposition. Ovipositions were not seasonal, and were observed during January, May, June, July, October, and November (Fig. 2b). The minimum interval between ovipositions was about a month, but as several females housed with the males, we could not be sure of which females spawned. During night, eggs were deposited in clutches under the cork tube in water. The white eggs were glutinous, attached to each other, and measured about two mm in diameter (Fig. 2b). Larvae hatched about one week after egg deposition with the yolk reservoir clearly visible (Figs. 2c, 2d). Between 50 and 300 larvae hatched per oviposition. Immediately after hatching, the larvae preferred dark hiding places such as under cork pieces or halved coconut shells. About ten days after hatching, the larvae developed a brownish pigmentation; at this stage the tadpoles remained clustered in close groups on the bottom
Figure 2. Megophrys nasuta at the amphibian breeding unit at the Cologne Zoo a) calling male, b) couple in amplexus during egg deposition, c) embryos, and d) hatched larvae with yolk sacs. Photos: D. Karbe, A. Heidrich, T. Ziegler.
For detailed staging of the following early developmental stages see Table 1. The funnel mouth became discernible about one week after hatch. About four days later, the larvae began to move to the water surface, and after about two weeks after hatch all tadpoles were feeding. Three weeks after hatch the tadpoles had reached lengths of up to two cm. For detailed staging of the following advanced developmental stages see Table 2. After about nine weeks after hatch, some tadpoles showed a distinct ventral pattern. On average around sixty days after hatch, at Gosner stage 26 or 27, hind limbs started to develop. At this time, the largest tadpoles measured about 4.5 cm, and feeding times were reduced to two times a day because of their good nutritional condition. Shortly before metamorphosis the funnel mouth was reduced and dorsal coloration darkened. About 2.5 months after egg deposition the first larvae moved onto the terrestrial section to metamorphose. At that time the metamorphs had body lengths of 15-18 mm. Reabsorption of the tail took two or three days, the triangular projections at the upper eyelids, which are characteristic for the advanced terrestrial stages, began to develop after about two or three weeks after completion of metamorphosis. While most of the larvae had finished their development and commenced with metamorphosis after 3.0-3.5 months, some individuals showed a distinctly slower developmental progress which took up to seven months, or longer in some cases. Larval development was both temperature and density dependent. We generally observed a faster growth at higher water temperatures. For example, larvae that were kept at minimum temperatures of 24 °C developed dark pigmentation ten days after hatch, whereas larvae kept at minimum temperatures of 22 °C developed dark pigmentation up to six days later (see Table 1). Another example from early development is the formation of the funnel mouth, which can occur 2-3 weeks after egg deposition dependent on different temperature conditions (see also Table 1). In addition, larvae kept in smaller groups (ca. 10-15 per rearing tank) grew faster compared to similar larvae in tanks with a higher density. Morphology of developmental stages
Figure 3. Megophrys nasuta larvae in stages 18 to 22. Drawings: R. Bach.
Figure 4. Megophrys nasuta larvae in stages 25 to 45. Drawings: M. Wildenhues.
Figure 5. Megophrys nasuta larvae in stages 18 to 22; blue color is caused by the blue cellular material at the aquarium ground / background while taking photographs. Photos: R. Bach, T. Ziegler, D. Karbe.
Figure 6. Megophrys nasuta larvae in stages 25 to 29. Photos: M. Wildenhues.
Figure 7. Megophrys nasuta larvae in stages 30 to 34. Photos: M. Wildenhues.
Figure 9. Megophrys nasuta larvae in stages 41 to 46. Photos: M. Wildenhues.
Megophrys montana :
Megophrys montana (Asian horned frog, horned frog, Asian spadefoot toad, Javan horned frog,Malayan leaf frog) is a species of frog found in Java and possibly Sumatra
egophrys montana males can reach 92 mm in SVL while the larger females can grow to 111 mm. These frogs can be identified by the bizarre, elongated "horn" present on each upper eyelid, and a pointed snout. The pupils are vertical with a dark brown iris. There is a fold of skin separating the head from the body. Dorsally, the skin is generally smooth, with one or two pairs of dorsal ridges extending from behind the head down to the groin, but the dorsum may occasionally bear some black tubercles. Numerous tubercles are present on the flanks. The body shape mimics the appearance of a leaf (Lathrop, 2003; Iskandar, 1998). The color is similar to that of dried leaves, ranging from light brown to reddish brown in color (Lathrop, 2003). Young animals may be brick-red in color, with adults usually reddish to dark brown, and occasionally yellowish brown. The venter is mottled with brown and dark cream. A dark triangular blotch occurs behind the eyes. A pair of black tubercles or spots is generally present dorsally, near the insertion of the arms (Iskandar, 1998).
Megophrys montana tadpoles have a funnel-shaped mouth, with turned-up and laterally expanded lips, allowing feeding at the surface of the water (Iskandar, 1998). The tail is elongated, with a rounded tip (Iskandar, 1998). The larval body and tail are brown (Lathrop, 2003).
Distribution and Habitat:
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Indonesia
Megophrys montana is endemic to Java. It inhabits leaf litter on the forest floor of dense tropical rainforest, both primary and secondary forest (Iskandar, 1998), and has very rarely also been seen on plantations (Lathrop, 2003). It is found at higher elevations, up to 2200 m (Lathrop, 2003).
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors :
This frog lives in leaf litter and remains immobile unless touched or molested (Iskandar, 1998). Frogs in the genus Megophrys rely on camouflage for defense; they move by short hops, since the combination of large, wide heads and bodies and short, slender legs hampers long jumps (Inger and Stuebing, 2005) and makes them rather clumsy (Wogan, pers. comm.).
During the mating season, Megophrys montana males make a single loud "kang" as their mating call, particularly when there is a full moon (Iskandar, 1998). Breeding behavior has not yet been described but is assumed to be similar to a related species, Megophrys nasuta. In Megophrys nasuta, and presumably also Megophrys montana, adults move from the forest to the edges of streams in order to breed (Inger and Stuebing, 2005). Megophrys montana eggs are colorless (Iskandar, 1998).
Trends and Threats :
This species is not threatened. It is common but not abundant (IUCN, 2006).
Possible reasons for amphibian decline
Habitat modification from deforestation, or logging related activities
Intensified agriculture or grazing ..
The diploid chromosome number is 26, with five large pairs and eight smaller ones (Iskandar, 1998).
Inger, R. F. and Stuebing, R. B. (2005). A Field Guide to the Frogs of Borneo, 2nd edition. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu.
Iskandar, D. T. (1998). The Amphibians of Java and Bali. Research and Development Centre for Biology-LIPI, Bogor, Indonesia.
Lathrop, A. (2003). ''Asian horned frog, Megophrys montana.'' Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, Volume 6, Amphibians. 2nd edition. M. Hutchins, W. E. Duellman, and N. Schlager, eds., Gale Group, Farmington Hills, Michigan.
Written by Peera Chantasirivisal (Kris818 AT berkeley.edu), URAP, UC BerkeleyFirst submitted 2005-11-03Edited by Kellie Whittaker (2008-01-04)
This is the dwarf cousin of the Megophrys nasuta commonly seen in the market place. This is M. montana and quite rare. Very small. Two or three could fit into the palm of your hand. A sedentary, terrestrial frog from Malaysia. One to two gallon enclosure with 2-5" of moist ecoearth for burrowing, with a shallow reservoir for soaking when necessary is all that's needed.
The Vietnamese Mossy Frog :
courtesy to : BY KEN FOOSE
Vietnamese mossy frogs are found at an elevation of about 3,000 feet in flooded caves and on the banks of mountain streams. They are nocturnal and semi-aquatic, spending much of their time hiding in the water under rocks and floating plants.
Captive Housing :
A 10-gallon terrarium is great for two adults. Add 5 gallons for each additional frog. Put about 3 inches of filtered water into the tank. You can use gravel or river stones for the bottom, but it's a lot easier to clean if you don't. The frogs don't seem to require substrate. Provide some hiding places in the tank, made of faux rock or ceramic, or even some small pieces of Mopani wood. Use something that pokes out of the water just a bit, but also has an underwater area for them to hide in. They will use this to perch out of the water, so make sure it is big enough to accommodate the entire frog. Clay flower pots can also be used to provide such hiding places/perches.
Put a quality submersible filter in the tank, which will keep the water clean and add a little current to it. Cork background on the inside back of the tank will add a nice look to the enclosure and give the frogs something to climb on. A few Mopani wood branches coming out of the water, and some attractive artificial vines or other leafy items for shelter and security when they are out of the water completes the setup. Mossy frogs are nocturnal and live in fairly cool realms, so no special lighting or heating is required. A temperature range in the mid-70-degrees Fahrenheit works great. Anywhere between 65 to 80 degrees is tolerable.
This carnivore feeds on small crickets. Dust the crickets with a low- D3 calcium supplement at each feeding. Feed them about three times a week, as many crickets as they will take in one sitting.
What's Available :
For years, mossy frogs were imported and expensive. The first ones I ever saw sold for more than $300 each. We've come a long way, and the prices have steadily declined. Most mossy frogs offered for sale now are captive-bred, well-established specimens, and they are a fraction of what they used to cost. Find them at reptile specialty stores, on the Internet and sometimes at reptile shows.
Ken Foose produced his first captive-bred snakes at age 11. With a Master's Degree in Zoology, he has been both zookeeper and curator. He opened Exotic Pets, which specializes in reptiles and amphibians, in Las Vegas in 1991, and he is currently vice president of the International Herpetological Symposium.
Megophrys aceras(Short-horned Asian Horned Frog)
This species is known from Nakhon Sri Thammarat in Thailand (Taylor 1962) southwards through most of Malaysia Peninsular (as Megophrys montana; Berry 1975) to Melaka, and from Sumatra (Indonesia). It occurs from lowlands (at about 150 m asl) to montane forests (over 1,500 m asl) (Dring 1979).
Habitat and Ecology:
This species inhabits closed-canopy evergreen forests. Tadpoles develop in forest streams.
There are no published data and collected series are generally modest (Grandison 1972, Dring 1979), corresponding to the 'occasional' encounter rates at most localities; although it can be locally abundant (P.P. van Dijk, J. Sukumaran, D. Sharma, J. Tang, Y. Norsham, D. Iskandar and Mumpuni pers. comm.).
This species appears sufficiently widespread and adaptable to be threatened by nothing but widespread systemic habitat degradation, pollution or epidemic disease.
Provided existing protected areas in Peninsular Thailand, Malaysia and Sumatra remain intact and free from disease impacts, no additional conservation actions seem necessary for this species.
There are many confusing variants, and erroneous attributions of Xenophrys aceras to Megophrys monticola. Research is needed to confirm whether or not the animals from the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra belong to the same species.
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2014. Megophrys aceras. In: IUCN 2014
Theloderma asperum(Pied Mossy Frogs):
Theloderma asperum is a frog in the family Rhacophoridae. It is also known as the pied warty frog,hill garden bug-eyed frog, or somewhat informally, bird poop frog. It is the smallest frog of the genus, reaching no more than 3 centimeters long. The main color of the frog is red-brown. The sides of the frog are mud-white with red spots. The frog has dark red eyes and can be found in the northeastern India, Burma, China (Tibet, possibly more widely), Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnamas well as Sumatra in Indonesia.
Theloderma asperum is a tree bark mimic that breeds in tree holes.
PIED WARTY FROG
scientific name: Theloderma asperum
The species has a large area of distribution. It covers parts of northern India, Myanmar, southern China, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam and even the Indonesian island of Sumatra. Observations from Bangladesh, Bhutan and Nepal are unclear.
Rain forests, to find in water-filled tree holes. Nocturnal
The smallest of the moss frogs remains under 4 cm GL
The eggs contain only a few eggs usually not much more than 12 Are produced within 4-6 weeks 2-3 eggs that are attached somewhere just above the water level. The tadpoles hatch after 8-10 days. Until the tadpoles into frogs will it take up to 2 months.
When daytime temperatures reach 23-26 ° C. At night the temperature should drop slightly (1-2 ° C). If the lighting doesn't bring enough heat in the terrarium, then can you the mats like Thermo Mat PRO which be regulated with Thermo Control Pro II use. For an aqua-terrarium, or a larger pool of water heaters are suitable or even better yet, a "Sorry Link missing" filter.
70-90% here is the use of special techniques such asSuper Rain or Super Fog recommended that precise about Humidity Control or PRO Timer can be controlled.
"Sorry Link missing" with low UV content in conjunction with the "Sorry Link missing". At twilight and night active animals play the UV component of a subordinate role.
As Aquaterrarium, the whole floor with water up to 1-2 islands are covered or you can use a large water tank, which can be removed for cleaning. In that case, a loose, absorbent substrate is introduced. Particularly suitable is for example Jungle Bedding coupled with "Sorry Link missing" and Hydro Fleece to avoid stagnation. Several Moose e.g. "Sorry Link missing" store extra moisture.
Ideal is a "Sorry Link missing", which is set up as aqua terrarium. Happy to help animals climb, a sufficient number "Sorry Link missing". Rear-and side wall cladding Xaxim not only look nice but offer the additional animals climbing. A dense vegetation (eg, Ficus benjamina, F. pumila, Scindapsus etc.) complete the setup. Could be useful here also an active ventilation by the "Sorry Link missing" be.
(for long term care):mind. 30x30x45 for a couple
Live insects (eg crickets, grasshoppers or the smaller cockroaches). Alternatively, this special "Sorry Link missing" are offered, this is already Cuttlefish Bone, staggered. It is perhaps necessary animals by the tweezer used to that. The animal occasionally "Sorry Link missing" should be administered are definitely attention.
Milk Frog :
Amazon Milk Frog Housing And Care
If you are searching for a new amphibian pet or project, take some time to consider milk frogs
courtesy to : www.reptilesmagazines.com BY DEVIN EDMONDS
Few popular amphibian species in today’s herpetocultural mainstream have as interesting and unusual a life history as the milk frog (Trachycephalus resinifictrix). In nature, they live and breed exclusively in the canopy of Amazon rain forests, as high as 100 feet above ground. Males compete in their arboreal homes for water-filled tree holes, which are the only places they breed. In these holes, tadpoles develop and often cannibalize their own species’ eggs for food. Add to this the defensive milky skin secretions for which T. resinifictrix gets its common name, and you have a very cool frog to keep in captivity.
You might expect a species with such specific and unique characteristics in the wild to be difficult to maintain, but not the milk frog. These are fun, hardy and robust amphibians that have been compared to the popular White’s tree frog (Litoria caerulea) in their care. Properly kept milk frogs may live to be 8 years old or more. While you’ll want a basic understanding of amphibian captive husbandry under your belt before working with them, milk frogs are by no means difficult, and they can even breed fairly easily given the right setup.
Light gray to white polka dots eventually develop and speckle most of the dark dorsal coloration of adult milk frogs.
Creamy Coloration :
Perhaps much of the popularity the milk frog has gained in recent years is a result of its attractive coloration. Most often found for sale as sharply patterned black-and-white banded juveniles, their contrasting coloration blends into a mix of more subtle browns and grays, outlined in crisp white as they mature during the first couple years. Light gray to white polka dots eventually develop and speckle most of the dark dorsal coloration as adults.
Like many tree frogs, adult male milk frogs are substantially smaller than females and rarely exceed 21/2 inches in length. Females, on the other hand, can grow to 4 inches or more. Males also have loud calls, which they use to attract mates and defend breeding sites. Milk frogs are hearty amphibians, with muscular limbs and bulky hands. At the tip of each toe is a fat toe-pad for climbing that often appears a subtle shade of turquoise, especially when viewed from underneath as a frog is climbing on the terrarium glass at night.
Milk frogs can be purchased directly from breeders, and they can also be found for sale through herp dealers and specialty pet stores. Nearly all milk frogs in the trade are captive-bred animals, as most countries in the Amazon, where milk frogs naturally occur, no longer regularly export wild-caught amphibians. The first successful captive breeding of this species was not so long ago; in fact, it was described earliest in the April 1998 edition of REPTILES magazine. Given that captive-bred stock is regularly available, many common problems associated with obtaining wild-caught animals can be avoided. Still, it’s important to inspect individuals carefully before purchase.
Avoid buying freshly metamorphosed frogs. As cute and colorful as they are, small froglets can also be more sensitive and trickier to maintain than larger juveniles. Opt for purchasing frogs that measure around 1 inch in length or more. Healthy milk frogs should be asleep during the day, usually perched above ground unless they have recently been fed. They should also look somewhat rotund. Milk frogs are not slender, lanky frogs like the popular red-eyed tree frog. They are fat and heavyset, more like a White’s tree frog.
Before acquiring milk frogs, it is a good idea to set up their housing at least a week in advance. This will allow you to monitor the conditions inside and ensure they are adequate before frogs are introduced.
An adult pair can be maintained in a 20-gallon aquarium, while a group of five shouldn’t be kept in anything smaller than an enclosure measuring 24 inches long, 18 inches wide and 24 inches tall.
An adult pair can be maintained in a 20-gallon aquarium, while a group of five shouldn’t be kept in anything smaller than an enclosure measuring 24 inches long, 18 inches wide and 24 inches tall.
A standard, 10-gallon aquarium provides enough room to house up to five juveniles. Adults will need more room. An adult pair can be maintained in a 20-gallon aquarium, while a group of five shouldn’t be kept in anything smaller than an enclosure measuring 24 inches long, 18 inches wide and 24 inches tall. Large, plastic storage boxes have also been used to house milk frogs successfully. Good ventilation is important for both glass and plastic housing, so make sure to use a screen cover to allow adequate airflow. Conditions in the canopy of the rain forests of South America are humid but never stagnant, and a terrarium for milk frogs should reflect this.
The easiest way to maintain milk frogs is in a simple, hygienic housing style. Because of their arboreal nature, no substrate is needed as long as the bottom of the enclosure is rinsed with water to remove waste frequently. Alternatively, you can use a layer of moist paper towels as a substrate, but these will need to be replaced several times a week. Moist sphagnum moss patted down flat over a layer of gravel for drainage can also be used as a substrate and will require less frequent replacement than paper towels.
A large water dish will serve as your frog’s water-filled tree hole, near which milk frogs spend much of their time in the wild. In nature, these holes are often quite large. One field study found the average diameter of occupied holes to be more than 17 inches, and the average water volume within to be nearly 5 gallons! Don’t skimp on the water dish. If you give your frogs a big one, they will happily soak in it every night.
Water quality is important for amphibians, so make certain to only use tap water that has been dechlorinated. You can remove chlorine and chloramines from tap water with aquarium products that are available in the fish department of pet stores. It is best to let water sit for a day after being treated to fully allow gases to dissipate and chlorine and chloramines to be fully neutralized. If you suspect the tap water in your area is of poor quality and not suitable for frogs, some brands of bottled spring water are safe to use.
Large, hollow cork bark tubes form easily cleaned perches and shelters. You can position several of these at various angles within the enclosure by leaning them against the walls of the enclosure. Bamboo poles or PVC pipe can be used, as well. To create a naturalistic tree hole, insert the base of a large cork bark tube into a water dish of similar diameter.
Spruce It Up:
It is possible to include live plants in a milk frog enclosure, even a very basic one such as I’ve described. Use broad-leafed epiphytes that are sturdy and can support the weight of a milk frog. My milk frogs would frequently spend the days asleep within the axils of large Neoregelia bromeliads. Broad-leafed varieties of Philodendron also work well. These plants can be grown in pots or epiphytically attached to cork bark or cork bark tubes with sphagnum moss tied in place at the base of the plant with fishing line. If you don’t have a green thumb, or simply would prefer not to deal with live plants, artificial ones will work just the same. Or you can skip the plants entirely.
Let There Be Light (and UVB) For Your Amazon Milk Frog
While these days it is quite standard practice to provide light that emits UVB radiation to many reptiles to allow calcium to be properly utilized and prevent metabolic bone disease (MBD), few studies have been conducted on captive amphibians to see the affects of UVB on frogs. In this regard, milk frogs stand alone. Recent work has, in fact, been carried out to look at the differences between juvenile milk frogs raised with UVB lighting and those without. The result? Milk frogs raised with UVB lighting grew larger and had healthier skeletons.
Many people have kept and even bred milk frogs successfully without providing UVB lighting. The frogs live, they grow and they survive. However, given the recent increase in our knowledge about how UVB affects the growth of milk frogs, it would be wise to provide UVB radiation to captive milk frogs if you plan to offer the best care possible.
Use a fluorescent tube that emits UVB radiation of either 2.0 or 5.0 strength, and place it over a screened section of the enclosure. Remember that the amount of UVB radiation emitted by lights decreases with time, and they must be replaced annually even though they still light up. Also, take into consideration that if the bulb is more than a foot or two away from where the frogs spend most of each day, they will receive very little benefit from the light, as the amount of UVB received decreases the farther away a frog is from the bulb.
In addition to UVB lighting, you may also want to provide a standard fluorescent tube that has a color temperature of between 5,000 and 6,500 Kelvin to offset the unnatural purple or blue glow of the UVB light. All fluorescent lights should be placed on an automatic timer that is set to provide light for around 12 hours each day.
Replicating a Rain Forest Environment For Your Frog
Temperature is important for captive amphibians, and it is one of the most common areas where mistakes are made. Before adding or removing heat sources, make sure you are using an accurate thermometer to measure the temperature. This should not be positioned in just one area of the enclosure; position a few in different areas of the enclosure.
In the canopy of the Amazon rain forest, milk frogs can choose whether they want to shelter in a dark cool tree hole or sit on a branch in the warm sun. Replicate this in the terrarium. During the day, the coolest areas of the enclosure can stay between 70 and 75 degrees Fahrenheit while the warmest areas near the light source can reach 85 degrees. At night, the temperature can drop to 65 degrees without problems. Occasional days outside these ranges can be tolerated by healthy milk frogs so long as normal temperatures are restored soon after.
A low-wattage, incandescent spotlight can be added for heat over the screen cover of the terrarium if the temperature is too low. Lights made of red glass can be left on and used for heating at night. Avoid heat pads, hot rocks or heating cables, especially if you are not using a substrate, as in this case, they could harm the frogs.
Humidity levels are not as important as getting the temperature right, but take care to mist the terrarium with water at least once a day. You can use dechlorinated tap water for misting or go for reverse osmosis water if you don’t want water spots to develop on the glass. By misting the terrarium once or twice daily you can provide a temporary increase in humidity where the level reaches nearly 100 percent, followed by a decrease to more normal ambient humidity levels that stay between 50 and 90 percent.
Eager Eaters :
Perhaps the most enjoyable aspect of keeping milk frogs is feeding them. These are gluttonous, greedy and rarely fussy frogs. Growing juveniles should be fed once per day, while adults can be fed twice per week or less frequently. Although milk frogs are predominantly nocturnal, most learn to wake up and feed during the day if food is available. Feed between three and 10 food items per frog, depending on the size of the food and the size of the frog.
Providing a variety of food items is key to long-term success. Crickets can make up a large part of the diet. These should be about as long as the width of the frog’s head. Other food items, such as house flies, earthworms, wax worms and small roaches (Blaberus craniifer have been used, but other roach species would also probably work) should be offered every three to five feedings to vary the diet. Juvenile frogs will also eat flightless fruit flies, and large adults can eat pinky mice, but mice should be fed sparingly, if at all.
Use a powdered nutritional supplement that is phosphorus-free and contains calcium, vitamin D3 and vitamin A. Coat food items with this supplement at every feeding for juvenile frogs. For adult frogs, use it on food items every other feeding or so.
Milk Frog Maintenance :
Routine care for milk frogs is not time consuming or difficult, but it is important that you are diligent and do not neglect important aspects of their husbandry. Cleanliness is of upmost importance. Replace the water in the water dish every day. Additionally, remove feces, dead food items and other waste from the enclosure daily. You should also check the temperature frequently to make sure it is within a suitable range.
At least every few weeks, remove all frogs and inspect their condition. Make sure they look like they are maintaining a good weight and are healthy. While the frogs are removed, you can take out all hiding spots, plants and the water dish and rinse them off. Never use soaps or detergents for cleaning because leftover residues can harm amphibians. Instead, use hot water to help remove waste from perches and the terrarium.
If you are searching for a new amphibian pet or project, take some time to consider milk frogs. They’re not your average tree frog. With an interesting and unique natural history but simple care requirements, milk frogs make exceptionally rewarding captives.
Other Types of frogs :
Malayan flying frog
The Malayan flying frog, Rhacophorus prominanus, is a species of frog in the moss frog family(Rhacophoridae). It is found in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand.
This is a largish flying frog, with females growing to a body length of up to 7.6 cm (about 3 in), and males reaching up to 6.2 cm in body length. It is generally jade green on the back and somewhat translucent when small, and a prominent red blotch on the webbing extends between the third and fifth hind toes.
Tadpoles are greyish green and have no markings. Towards metamorphosis, they become greener. They lose their tails when they are about 30–33 mm long, and freshly emergent juveniles measure about 15 mm. The labial tooth row formula (LTRF) is 5(2-5)/3 in small tadpoles and 6(2-6)/3 in older ones.
Its natural habitats are subtropical and tropical moist montane forests above 600 meters ASL, where it inhabits rivers, intermittent rivers, and intermittent freshwater marshes. It is not considered threatened by the IUCN, which classify it as a Species of Least Concern.
However, the IUCN followed a recent study, according to which Rhacophorus tunkui was a junior synonym of R. prominanus. This synonymy was later criticized for severe methodological flaws:
"... the justifications provided by Harvey et al. (2002) were insufficient and unconvincing, especially when type material of both R. prominanus and R. tunkui were not even examined."
It appears as if R. tunkui is indeed a distinct lowland sister species of the Malayan flying frog, about two-thirds of the length of the latter, and differing in some coloration details. Its tadpoles have two or three prominent black spots on each side of the tail base. While more research seems warranted, at present these frogs are better considered two species for the time being. It is not known how the range restriction of the Malayan flying frog to montane habitat would affect its conservation status; technically both taxa would more appropriately be considered as "data deficient".
Snout to vent length of approximately 110 mm; large head (broader than long); short rounded snout; nostril is somewhat nearer the eye than the tip of the snout; vertical pupils; notched tongue; two rows of vomerine teeth located between relatively large choanae; distinct tympanum that is approximately half the diameter of the eye; webbed pedal digits; bound lateral metatarsals; omosternum has a bony style; sternum is a cartilaginous plate lacking a style; simple terminal phalanges; subarticular tubercles are large; olive brown dorsally, with dark black bands between the eyes and on the dorsum.
The males of this species are much larger than the females. The males have a paired internal vocal sac and three short ridges (two longitudinal and one transverse) of small black spines along the inner surface of the first manual digit. There is a narrow posterior diverticulum of the lung that apparently occurs only in males. The male also has dermal papillae extending along the lateral surfaces of the body and proximal hindlimbs (Boulenger 1900; Noble 1925; Perret 1966)
Distribution and Habitat :
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Angola, Cameroon, Congo, Congo, the Democratic Republic of the, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Nigeria
Trichobatrachus robustus is known from Equatorial Guinea, Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Nigeria. In 1998, it was collected in Southwest Cameroon by the ALSCO Biodiversity Conservation Initiative (Herrmann and Herrmann 2002).
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Egg masses are laid on rocks in streams. The tadpoles of this species are reported to be quite muscular. They are carnivorous and their mouths contain several rows of cornified teeth.
Noble (1925) hypothesized that the dermal papillae of the males increased the effective surface for respiration. Noble (1925) proposed that T. robustus males needed an enlarged respiratory surface due to possessing small lungs and a robust body.
Trends and Threats
The status of this species is unknown.
Boulenger, G. A. (1900). ''A list of the batrachians and the reptiles of the Gaboon (French Congo) with descriptions of new genera and species.'' Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1900, 443-456.
Hermann, H.-W., and Herrmann, P.A. (2002). ''Herpetological conservation at the Cologne Zoo.'' Herpetological Review, 33(3), 168-169.
Noble, G. K. (1925). ''The integumentary, pulmonary, and cardiac modifications correlated with increased cutaneous respiration in the Amphibia: a solution of the 'hairy frog' problem.'' Journal of Morphology and Physiology, 40(2), 341-416.
Perret, J.-L. (1966). ''Les amphibiens du Cameroun.'' Zoologische Jahrbücher für Systematik, 8, 289-464.