Paludarium Components and materials
Aquatic Part :
You will use the same products which used in the Aquarium in the aquatic section of the paludarium , Filters , heaters , lighting required the same to create a proper habitat for the aquatic creatures ..
- Fresh Water Aquarium Components used in Paludarium :
1- Heater .
3- Other equipments and Accessories .
Salt water Paludarium ?!
Please note that there is no salt water paludarium which divided into two sectionone for reef and one for land .. May be a brackish water which replicate the Mangroove and rivers delta and this type will explain with fresh water paludarium
Land ( Terrarium ) Part :
You will use products which is important for animals to live successfuly inside your paludarium the land part will use the same terrarium products and components ..
- Land or Terrarium Components Used in Paludarium :
1- Heater .
3- Other equipments and Accessories .
- Products and components which shared in both part
- Products and components which shared in both part
We will expalin the materials which it used by both worlds :
1- Tank :
Normally we used the same water tank or aquarium that will be used in aquarium but there are two types of this :
- Even you will create all the paludarium which consist of the terrarium area and the aquatic area in same tank which we will name it here The Built - In paludarium : One tank inhabit both parts
- Or the water tank or the Aquarium will be used only for the aquatic part or for the aquarium - in this case a separate terrarium will be built for the upper part this type we name it The Separated Paludarium : water tank will replicate the aquatic part only
- Glass Aquarium Tank :
A built -In Paludarium : Both the Terrarium and aquarium in the same tank
We Can name this type also an Island Paludarium
Some pictures for the Separated type Paludarium
Brazing around the top side of the glass aquarium
Aquarium Glass thickness: You can make your glass aquarium in any simple work shop and by cutting the necessary glass sheets.. Keep in mind that the thickness id different according to the tank size and that due to the pressure accrue from water weight on the sides , 4 mm glass will be enough for 30 cm x 30cm x 60cm long . Tank and 6 mm thickness will be enough for larger.. to be sure for proper thickness you can see the schedule below .. Also for larger tanks is must make a brazing which mean and sheet of glass to support the tank in the top and bottom to avoid opening or gaping ..
An aquarium (plural: aquariums or aquaria) is a container of any size having at least one transparent side in which water-dwelling plants or animals are kept and displayed. Fishkeepers use aquaria to keep fish, invertebrates, amphibians, aquatic reptiles such as turtles, and aquatic plants. The term, coined by English naturalist Philip Henry Gosse, combines the Latin root aqua, meaning water, with the suffix -arium, meaning "a place for relating to". The aquarium principle was fully developed in 1850 by the chemist Robert Warington, who explained that plants added to water in a container would give off enough oxygen to support animals, so long as their numbers do not grow too large. The aquarium craze was launched in early Victorian England by Gosse, who created and stocked the first public aquarium at the London Zoo in 1853, and published the first manual, The Aquarium: An Unveiling of the Wonders of the Deep Sea in 1854.
An aquarist owns fish or maintains an aquarium, typically constructed of glass or high-strength acrylic.Cuboid aquaria are also known as fish tanks or simply tanks, while bowl-shaped aquaria are also known as fish bowls. Size can range from a small glass bowl to immense public aquaria. Specialized equipment maintains appropriate water quality and other characteristics suitable for the aquarium's residents.
Some hobbyists use less glass thicness when they decided to built a Paludarium , because less water used inside - You can do this but it is not recommended because you will limit yourself with paludarium application only for the tank and can't use it as an aquarium at all .
Position of the Aquarium Tank :
Things to be taken in consideration when you mount your aquarium:
Avoid direct sun light position in the room ( Near the windows )
Avoid the corridors which are close to the tanks... The movement of people normally disturbs the aquatic life in the tank.
Ask about the foundation of the building specially if you live in a multi story building or in wooden house.. ask professionals if you have a big tank ( every 1 liter is equal to 1 kg , o 100 liter mean 100 Kg , 1000 liter mean 1000 Kg = 1 ton .. the sedan small car weight 500 to 800 kg ?!! ) . No problem if you put the aquarium on the Ground level (If there is no Basement).
Foam board or any soft material should be mount under the tank is very important to protect the glass .
Aquarium HeightSheet Thickness
1 to 12 inches Aquarium Height (25 mm to 300 mm ) - 1/4 inch Acrylic Thickness ( 6 mm )
12 - 18 inchesAquarium Height ( 300mm to 450 mm )- 3/8 inch Acrylic Thickness (10 mm)
18 - 24 inches Aquarium Height (450 mm to 600 mm)- 1/2 inch Acrylic Thickness (12 mm)
24 - 30 inches Aquarium Height ( 600 mm to 750mm)- 3/4 inch Acrylic Thickness ( 18 mm)
An Acrylic tank with top brazing sheets
Acrylic Tanks : The term acrylic refer to the plastic transparent sheets it is very similar to the glass but made from plastic ,then the sheets is easy to working with by the familiar tools in cutting , sawing and holing it is simple in that in contrast with glass sheet only the negative thing it is easily to scratch ..
Also the Acrylic sheet thickness is different according to the tank size.. You need also to make brazing around the top and bottom of the tank to support it ..
Styro Board or Foam board or any proper soft materials ..
To Calculate the Aquarium Tank size :
width x Length x hieght = Size in litets
400 mm x 600 mm x 500mm =120 000 000
Divided by 1000000 = 120 liters
40 cm x 60 cm x 50 cm = 120 000
divided by 1000 = 120 liters
Sun Light Direction from the Window
Good Positions for the Aquarium
Accebtable Areas if you are limited and forced to .
Bad Positions for the Aquarium
Usually We used a wide rectanglar shape with little hight tanks - These tyoes can be used for separated type paludariums
Below is a normal aquarium tanks can be used to set up a Built-In Paludarium type
2- Lighting :
Lighting for Paludarium have a double targets , it must be strong enough to pentrate the water to supply enough lights to the plants and also enough lit for the land ( Terrarium plants )
Most styles of fixture that are appropriate for an aquarium or terrarium (PC, T-5, LED, and so on) will be appropriate for a paludarium. Paludarium lighting can be relatively uncomplicated, though its application does present certain unique challenges. The rich diversity of flora and fauna potentially maintained in paludaria suggests that a potentially diverse set of lighting needs might have to be met within a single system. It is therefore incumbent upon the more assiduous paludarist to
1) carefully develop a lighting regime that is well suited to the environment he or she aims to establish,
2) carefully select livestock that is appropriate to the selected lighting regime, and
3) ensure that each specimen will be afforded with an ideal proximity and exposure to the light source.
The quantity and quality of illumination need not be homogeneous throughout the paludarium; indeed, environmental discontinuity (e.g., patches of shade beneath a dense canopy of riparian vegetation) creates microhabitats and thereby increases potential biodiversity. There are a number of cases where it might be advantageous to utilize multiple fixtures, particularly where one must concentrate light of a higher intensity, and/or certain spectrum, in a specific area of the display. Such an arrangement can be applied in a way that conforms to the basic aquatic-terrestrial layout (front-and-back, side-by-side, etc.) of the display.
One such example of this is in the case of systems that include basking reptile species. Basking areas are spotlighted with bulbs that emit both UV-A and UV-B radiation to promote, respectively, proper skin pigment formation and calcium metabolism. Basking lamps are typically concentrated within the "hot spot" (i.e., warmer area) of the paludarium; they should be situated directly overhead, like the sun (basking animals have body shapes and eye positioning that are specialized for efficient, safe, and comfortable sunbathing in this orientation).
Another such example might be found in the use of spotlighting to cast a "beam" of "sunshine" over an area of the aquatic section that contains light-loving, submergent plants. Supplemental lighting of this kind may be directed through the sides, as well as from the top, of the enclosure. This may well be necessary to avoid burning shade-loving emergent or terrestrial plants, which can result from a generalized application of high-intensity (e.g., metal halide) lighting.
Light intensity decreases (due to spreading and scattering) by the square of the distance from the lighting source. Hence, moving a bulb a mere couple of inches away from the water surface can decrease its intensity by a factor of four:
1- raising a lighting fixture high above the water, as with a paludarium, will significantly limit the amount of usable light that can be intercepted by the very same plants and animals it is intended for.
2-The presence of scattering constituents (e.g., fog) further degrades light transmission.
3-Reflection off of the paludarium walls and the water surface can alter the intensity and even character of light.
Accounting for all of these-and yet many other, important factors-can be exceedingly difficult. Arguably, there are few places where a PAR meter can simplify light intensity calculations more than in a paludarium.
One solution of this problem is by separate the lighting system into two types :
Upper light for the whole Paludarium But will specially for the Land area and it's livestock and it's requirements of Basking light and or UV lights .
The aquarium or the water world can be used the submersible light ..
this problem will be appear more in the separated type Paludarium
Another Solution will be by using plants that tolerate low light intensity
You can select a proper plants for the Paludarium which accept low light from here
For the small and medium sized built- in Paludarium same Fresh Water Aquarium Lights will be enough for land and aquatic parts ..
Above Using the lights hood close to the water surface to deliver the enough intensity to the water tank can be damage the paludarium 's terrarium view above is an example .
Below using the hinged or light clamp can be expose you to the electrical shock be aware of using the electricals - light must be humidity resistance
- Land or Terrarium Components Used in Paludarium :
1- Heater .
3- Other equipments and Accessories .
Some lights hoods which can be used for Paludariums The popular bulbs used is T 5 , PC and LED ..
Check for the Land reptiles and amphibians if it is required a UV lights
1- Heaters and Heating :
Keeping your Critters Cozy and Warm
During the winter, it is not uncommon for average household temperatures to be several degrees lower than normal. This cooler environment may lead to a lower than average temperature inside the vivarium, to the point that steps need to be taken to heat it. Although dart frogs (any many other reptile or amphibian inhabitants) can tolerate temperatures into the mid 50s, they benefit from warmer, more stable conditions. This blog post will go over 5 of the most common ways to heat a vivarium: heat pads, heater cable, submersible water heaters,radiant heat lamps, and room/space heaters. Regardless of the method you choose to go about heating a vivarium, I strongly recommend utilizing a reliable digital thermometer to monitor temperatures.
Two rules of thumbs can be used to measure the Heating required for the Paludarium
1 ) When the water in the paludarium less than 15 % of the total paludarium size or capacity the Heating for the land part will be important ..
2 ) But when we have To much water and big water section which aquarium heater can be used ( Fully Submersible ) then the humidity and the air inside the paludarium will be enough to warm up the land section ..
This will be depending into two factors:
1) The Temperature required for the Livestock inside the Paludarium ...
2) The Temperature of the Area (City) that the paludarium in..
You need to study carefully the temperature of each animal and also the plants and decided whether you need to heat or no.
Also the City that you live also the temperature of the outside paludarium .. Some areas like tropical and sub-tropical and the Moderate areas around the world..
Heating Devices :
1- Heat Pads :
Hear Pads are typically applied on the bottom or side of the Paludarium . When used on the bottom, they are more effective raising the overall temperature of the Paludarium , as they will heat any water standing in the Bottom . When applied to the side, heat pads can be an effective way of creating a horizontal heat gradient. There are stories that heat pads can crack the bottom of a tank – when used with a thermostat, as they are designed for, this should not be an issue.
This type is recommended for Built-In Paludarium type with less 20% water .
Heat pads can be useful when heating the Paludarium and terrarium .
2-Heater Cable :
Similar to a heat pad, heater cable is basically a long, insulated cable that contains a heating element inside. The cable is generally waterproof, and can be buried in substrate or placed in hollow limbs (such as bamboo). By placing the heater cable in a certain location, a hot spot can be produced. If the heater cable is more evenly distributed over the entire land area in paludarium (ie buried in the substrate), it can be used to evenly raise the ambient temperature of the land area or terrarium . As before, this product was designed to be used with a thermostat, and it is strongly recommended.
This type is recommended for Built-In and separated type Paludarium and with large land or terrarium area . and to be used only for land areas
Several types of Heat Cable which come with Thermostat .
3- Radiant Heat Lamps :
Generally used to provide a basking site for reptiles, radiant heat lamps can be used successfully in vivaria, as long as advanced planning is given. Many amphibians, dart frogs included, tend to utilize basking spots if they are provided, even when temperatures are not below average to begin with!
There are several different basking lights available on the market – in my experience, halogen bulbs are the most efficient. They tend to be lower wattage than traditional filament basking bulbs, and are very good at creating small basking areas at a distance. Generally, the bulb should be shining into the land area of the paludarium through screen – glass may shatter under the halogen bulb as it is heated. Due to the need for at least a partial screen top when utilizing a basking bulb and humidity loss due to evaporation, you must figure out how to aid in increasing/maintaining the overall humidity of the enclosure. Automated misting/fogging will greatly increase your ability to maintain humidity when using basking/radiant heat bulbs.
Radiant basking bulbs, such as this halogen bulb, are a great way to providebasking spots in the vivarium for those species that require them.
The Hobbyist here added the Radiant Heat Lamp as an outside fixture for the turtle paludarium
Day Light Basking Spot light
The Holder for the basking radiant lamp
The Basking Radiant lamp will be used only for the terrarium or land part of the Paludarium .. You must take in your consideration three things :
1) Study carefully the requirements of the animal that you will keep and if require an radiant heat spot
2) This type of lamp not effect the water may be water will remain cold it is a complementary source of heat.. You need also to warm the water and may be the other part of the land section with this type of heat source .
3) this type of lighting will effect the humidity inside the paludarium because it is help to dry the paludarium .
Above a Paludarium with upper Basking light use for some reptiles which required a bath or pool and basking light to dry out ..
The type of the paludarium here is separated type
species like Iguanas and Gonocephalus grandis(Great Angle Head Lizard) required this type of paludarium
4- Room/Space Heaters:
For those of us who have given in to the addiction and now maintain several Paludariums , or a room dedicated to them, it can be much more efficient to heat an entire room instead of individual Plaudarium . From infrared heaters to space heaters to oil-filled radiators, there are several different modes of heating your room. Choosing the one that is right for you will depend on your individual situation and your budget.
This type can provide both the aquatic and the land sections with enough heat.. But may be you need a radiant basking light only for some special species ..
A room full of paludariums containing animals that enjoy heat, such as these in the pictures , would benefit from a room or space heater.
One of the responsibilities that comes with animal ownership is providing your captive with an environment that meets it’s needs. Steps must be taken to insure that your reptile or amphibian pet is kept within a temperature range that the animal is comfortable.
Temperature Control :
Effective temperature control is essential to the successful long-term operation of a paludarium. Both air and water temperature should be monitored (and, if needed, adjusted) on a regular basis. In some cases, temperature is made to fluctuate in a manner that simulates day/night or seasonal conditions. It may be necessary to apply multiple heating and/or cooling devices-particularly if thermal gradients need to be established between the terrestrial and aquatic sections, or across the terrestrial section itself.
The most simple way of heating the aquatic section is with thermostat-controlled submersible (and preferably shatterproof) aquarium heaters; operating these devices within the reach of amphibians or aquatic reptiles is discouraged, however, as even brief contact can result in burn injuries. Aquarium substrate heating coils may be preferable in that they prevent burns, in addition to benefiting aquatic plant growth. A thermostat-controlled heat pad can be placed underneath, and/or on the wall of, the enclosure. Heat pads are an attractive choice in that they are safe for herps, benefit aquatic plants, and reduce the amount of cords running into the enclosure. Major water cooling will usually require the use of an aquarium chiller. Minor water cooling can be accomplished simply by directing one or more fans over the water surface.
Interesting natural behaviors of some fish species, such as these archerfish (Toxotes jaculatrix), are best elicited-and best observed-in paludaria. Photo by Erich Sia.
The terrestrial section can, if necessary, be similarly cooled with fans. Heating the terrestrial section, on the other hand, can be much more involving. Air has a significantly lower specific latent heat value (i.e., more readily gains/loses thermal energy) than does water; air temperature is consequently far less stable than water temperature. Efforts to control temperature in the terrestrial section can be complicated by fluctuations of airflow or humidity from within, or from without, the enclosure. Further complicating air temperature control is the need (in certain cases) to simultaneously maintain warmer and cooler areas.
Establishing thermal gradients across the terrestrial section facilitates thermoregulation for herps and other exotherms. During daylight hours, locally heated areas-usually encompassing about a third of the volume of the enclosure-can be provided with incandescent spotlights. Any required nocturnal heating can be provided with infrared-emitting ceramic lamps. Side-mounted heat pads can be used to provide either continual or supplemental heat. All heating devices that are to operate on a daily cycle should be individually controlled by automatic timers.