2- Koi Guide :
A Brief History of Koi
Koi, or Nishikigoi (Cyprinus carpio), are descendents of the common carp. In nature they are brown, but through selective breeding by the Japanese, numerous colors and patterns were developed. In the 17th century Chinese rice farmers began keeping carp in their rice paddies. This practice found its way to Japan. The Japanese rice farmers begin to notice slight color variations in a few of the carp and bred these "mutants" into what eventually became what we now know as koi.
It wasn't until early in the 20th century that koi left Japan and were raised in Europe and eventually North America.
Koi normally attain lengths of approximately 2 to 3 feet and weight up to 35 lbs. Because of their large size, they should only be kept in large ponds of at least 1000 gallons. Koi need very good water quality to remain healthy. Sophisticated filtration systems should be used to maintain this water.
Koi that have been well cared for have a life expectancy of around 50-70 years and have been known to live to be over 200 years old.
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How To Do Koi Fish Care
A Beginner’s Guide to Koi Carp :
courtesy to : yourkoipond.com/a-beginners-guide-to-koi-carp/
If you are interested in keeping ornamental pond fish and want to keep something slightly more exotic than the humble goldfish, the beautiful and attractive koi carp may already have caught your eye.
These popular, large-growing and very long lived fish are not hugely difficult to keep, but they can prove more of a challenge than smaller pond fish, so it is important to go into keeping koi carp with your eyes open!
Here are some of the most frequently asked questions about koi carp from prospective keepers…
What are koi carp?
Koi carp are a domesticated version of the carp species that live wild in various areas of the world, selectively bred for their color and appearance.
Koi were first kept in captivity in Japan, and are native to Asia and Central Europe. They are classed as an ornamental or decorative fish, meaning that they are bred for their looks and as pets, rather than to provide food or for sport.
How long do koi live?
Koi carp are among the most long lived of domestic fish when kept within an appropriate environment, and should be considered as a lifelong pet.
The commonly accepted average age for a well kept domestic koi is around 50 years, however, it is not unheard of for koi to live to over 100 years – and even over 200 years in one well documented case!
How large do koi grow?
Koi carp can grow very large, given enough time and the right environment, potentially reaching over three feet in length! They are also fast growing, and will soon outgrow a pond that is too small for them, leading to potential health problems.
Are koi carp expensive?
There is no one answer to how much koi carp cost, as prices vary greatly. Small, young koi carp for the pet market can be picked up for under $10 each, while mature specimens that have reached a large size and have particularly desirable colors and markings often change hands for tens of thousands of dollars – and sometimes even more!
However, for the beginner koi keeper, the cost of your first koi carp should be well within your budget.
What do you need to keep koi carp?
Koi carp need a very large pond in order to thrive, something that first time keepers often overlook or underestimate.
They will also require sufficient filtration and aeration within their pond, regular pond maintenance, feedingand general care.
The main thing that you need to keep koi carp, however, is lots of time to research properly! Make sure you go into koi ownership with your eyes open, and ensure that you have a good understanding of what koi need to thrive before you get started!
What Koi Need :
Lots of water - The ideal setup for koi is a pond of at least 1000 gallons with a smooth gravel substrate, rocks, and hardy plants. Koi are moderately cold tolerant, well suited for ponds in most climates.
One reason for their popularity is their rate of growth and size at maturity. Koi can grow to eight inches in length in their first year, and twelve to sixteen inches by the end of their second year. Under ideal conditions - perfect pond size, temperature, water quality, and food availability - they will grow as long as thirty-six inches and weigh over forty-five pounds. Due to the size limitations of most household or corporate ponds, however, koi seldom achieve this size. An average mature length of twenty-one inches is more common.
In addition to adequate surface area, a good pond for koi will be at least three to four feet deep. At this depth koi will find the cooler water they need during the warm summer months.
Cold protection - Koi have adapted to survive the brief, cold winters. Like most fish, they need time to adjust to variations in temperature, so care needs to be taken in their handling.
Koi can remain outdoors so long as the pond does not freeze too deep. A 6-8 inch thick ice cover over a 3-4 foot deep pond is acceptable so long as a substantial area of surface water is open at all times to allow for gas exchange. An aeration device will help prevent freezing in cool climates, but for colder regions a de-icer will be needed to maintain an open area.
Care and companionship - Unlike the goldfish won at the carnival or fair, koi live a long time…possibly a very long time…an average of somewhere between twenty-five and thirty-five years. Exceptional koi have been known to live up to 200 years. To say that this requires a long-term commitment is an understatement. Few dispute that the effort is worthwhile. In fact, once attached to your fish, you may find yourself moving them with you should you ever need to relocate.
Over time, koi will come to recognize you personally. Also, because koi are gregarious, they interact well together. They actually prefer company and will swim together in formation. Although they are peaceful fish, they do feed aggressively. Watching the boil of koi at feeding time is fun and exhilarating.
During active, summer feedings the amount of waste created by the koi will increase. Be sure to maintain efficient biological filtration and increase oxygen levels throughout the summer to pervent toxic ammonia build up.
Filtration - Substantial mechanical and biological filtration should be provided in order to maintain proper water conditions. The ideal pond will have a bottom drain to facilitate water changes and waste removal. With the addition of a high volume filter, many swimming pools have been successfully converted for use as koi ponds.
A good diet - The appearance and health of koi are dramatically affected by diet. The staple diet of koi is a quality pellet or flake food. But to optimize growth potential and color, it is also important to supplement their diet. A balanced diet will vary seasonally to include a mix of wheat germ, protein, fruits, vegetables, plankton, shrimp, andcolor enhancing
foods. Also, because foods may lose nutritional value with age, you should watch dates on packages and be sure that all foods are fresh.
Containing ingredients like spirulina and carotene, color enhancing foods work very well to bring out vibrant coloration of koi. During use of these products the white areas of the fish may develop an orange or yellow cast. To maintain brilliant white areas, many enthusiasts alternate the use of color enhancing foods with other quality diets.
Careful feeding - Koi have no true stomachs and cannot store excess food. The only result of overfeeding, and it is a negative one, is an overload of nutrients in the pond which can lead to serious problems, including excessive algae and poor water quality. It is especially important not to feed koi at all when the water temperature dips below an average of 40 degrees. During this time, the bio-filter in the pond shuts down, making any addition to the bio-load in the pond a hazard. At the same time, the bacteria koi use to process their food cease to work.
Plants - Koi and pond plants are excellent for one another. koi waste feeds plants. Plants create oxygen, and their shade helps cool the water and protect the koi. But because koi are omnivorous and eat plant matter, they will definitely eat the roots of pond plants, and will dig hard to get to them. It is recommended that a barrier be constructed - stone, large rocks, baskets, and so on - to isolate and protect plants, not eliminate them.
Koi enhance their own color by eating certain algae. The last thing you should want to do is wipe out algae populations with controls like copper sulphate. Instead, make selective use of products like ALGAEFIX, or natural controls like barley straw. In addition to helping control algae, koi also help control mosquitoes by feeding on their larvae, reducing the need for pesticides.
Protection from predators - Due to their brilliant color and size, koi are seldom hard to spot. As a result, they need protection from natural predators such as large birds and mammals. Netting will keep most birdlife out. If raccoons, bears, or other large predators threaten, electric fencing may be necessary to keep them out. Keepers of corporate ponds also find that they need to protect their koi from well-meaning employees who want to feed them, often with inappropriate foods.
By starting with the right setup, your koi will thrive for years to come. Management will be simplified, greatly boosting your enjoyment.
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