The sight and sound of water has always drawn the interest of people. Water adds an appealing element to a garden. Water gardens can include fountains, waterfalls, small ponds and elaborate combinations of rockwork and lighting. Basically, a water garden is just a pool of water that is home to plants and possibly fish and other water creatures. Natural ponds or large spaces are no longer needed for a water garden. They can consist of a concrete dish, half barrel, plastic tub or anything else that can hold water.
Waterfalls , Ponds & water Gardens
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materials you need ..
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Water Gardens History :
courtesy to : gardenartistics.com/water-gardens-history/
By: James Ross
Water gardens not only add garden artwork to a yard, but they also provide many functions, from adding a calming ambiance to providing water for wildlife. Knowing a little bit about the history of water gardens may help you decide if you want to include a water feature in your garden.
Fountains and Water Features from the Middle ages to the Early Renaissance
After the fall of the Roman Empire, monasteries kept alive utilitarian gardening until the beginning of the Renaissance in the late fourteenth century. They led the way in the management of land and control of water, using wells, local rivers and streams for domestic use and for fishponds. Simple cisterns could be found in cloister gardens and in many monasteries a wall fountain was placed within the cloister or, later on, at the meeting point of traversing paths, perhaps as part of the religious symbolism of the cross or the Garden of Eden. One of the influences on fountain design came from early church decoration on fonts and holy water basins. The design of receiving basins, which took the overflow from a fountain, was inspired by the iconography and numerical significance of the number of sides of a font. Six was important in the writings of St Augustine, as it was associated with the sixth day of the Passion, the day of Crucifixion, which St Augustine took as a symbol of the destruction of the body of sin. Octagonal basins also had their origins in Christian doctrine, where eight sides represented the eighth day, signifying the resurrection of Christ, which became the first day or the beginning of another world for the newly baptized. In the Middle Ages the public display of notable religious water features such as carved fonts and water stoops was to be found only in major church buildings. Decoration on church fonts often adopted Bible stories associated with water such as the baptisms of Christ and John the Baptist, and stories of Moses. Fonts were one of the most highly decorated pieces of church furniture. In the Middle Ages fonts where adorned with powerful religious symbolism such as scenes showing Adam and Even in the Garden of Eden. Garden fountains where often used for bathing and represented an earthly paradise and a source for spiritual rejuvenation. There are few civic fountains remaining of this period yet there are several located in Viterbo and the Fontana Maggiore in Perugia Italy. The Viterbo Fountain of Santa Faustina has minimal decoration with Four Lion fountains. The Lion has symbolized nobility bravery and strength for many different cultures over thousands of years throughout Europe.
Early Renaissance :
During the late 1400s there was a cultural shift towards an appreciation of the finer aspects of art and literature. Now art was to be appreciated purely for its own sake. In Italy the evolution in philosophical thinking begun by Marsilio Ficino made efforts to reconcile paganism with religion and this together with the growing interest in antique remains allowed pagan images to be considered acceptable for contemporary designs. Small bronze pagan figures were particularly popular and were much prized as collectors’ items. They could be admired, discussed and handled with appreciation as much for their craftsmanship as for their subject matter. Similar designs were ideal for fountain figures. Until now most fountains, even those with figures, were set against a wall where a reservoir was concealed. The small bronze wall fountain figure thought to be by Donatello called Winged Boy with a Fantastic Fish, dating from about 1435-40, may be the link between wall-mounted and freestanding bronze fountains. The winged boy or putto is modeled almost in the round. He stands with his weight on his right leg to balance the large fish that he holds across his shoulders as he glances down to the left. He steadies the fish with his left hand and holds his other out in a clenched fist facing downwards. A neat hollow between the fingers of his right hand suggests that this cavity once held an object, possibly a small water wheel fixed on to a rod that whirled round under the force of water sprayed upwards by the little boy. As water filled the figure it also ran from the mouth of the fish. It is a fountain of mirth following the traditional belief that little urinating boys brought good luck. Donatello had carved many such small figures during his career, borrowing examples from antique putti on sarcophagi in the vicinity of Florence. One, on a sarcophagus in the Campo Santo in Pisa, shows a fruit and wine harvest gathered by putti with one infant lifting his shirt to urinate. So important were antique objects that Brunelleschi, the friend of Donatello, was reported to have thought nothing of walking 80 km/50 miles to see an antique vessel in Cortona when told about it.
One of the problems facing Renaissance artists who were interested in free-standing bronze sculpture for fountain design was how to resolve the all round viewpoints that such a figure required. Donatello produced probably the first sculpture in this style around 1430, the bronze statue of David, now in the Bargello in Florence, using the lost wax method. Because there was so little water for fountain display, artists had to consider the impact of the fountain when it was not working. The architectural lines of Renaissance gardens could be maintained in all seasons by using shaped evergreen planting and architectural features; fountains needed to be equally interesting at all times. Other problems in fountain production at this time included the need for a mechanism to vary the speed of water flow and the difficulty of putting designs into practice.
Because pagan subjects such as the Boy with a Dolphin were now acceptable in art, humanist patrons who wished to keep up appearances of Christian belief could do so even while decorating their gardens with pagan images. The book Hypnerotomachia Poliphili by a Venetian monk, Francesco Colonna, was published in 1499. It follows the steps of the hero, Poliphilo, in a dream sequence that begins by a stream and continues through the magnificent gardens of an imaginary world. Twelve fountains are described in detail, each acting as a stage setting for the unfolding story. Giochi d’acqua (Water Games) and table fountains are described but there is little technological detail. The timely rediscovery of grotesque decoration (so called because it was found in grottoes) in the Domus Aurea (Golden House of Nero) in Rome in the 1480s offered artists the opportunity to reflect this style in their work. This can be seen in the woodcut illustrations in Hypnerotomachia Poliphili. Fountains and water features in private residences were a celebration of a person or family’s wealth and prosperity. In urban areas they combined religious and civic themes, which summarized the town’s revival and were seen as a crowing achievement for all to enjoy.
5000 Years Ago History Of Water Garden - Historical Cultivation
Water Gardening Timeline :
courtesy to :
By Kit & Ben Knotts
In trying to create a chronology of the development of ornamental water gardening, you will see that we had to explore many other topics which can't really be separated from the main one. This is described in more detail in our Short History of Water Gardening and the topics are often included in the Timeline as part of the overall frame of reference.
Many of the events listed below have links to interesting articles, most of which provide confirmation of the dates given, from sources we believe to be credible. Though some of these articles are within this website, many are not and will open in a new window. Close that window to return to this page. Links we have selected are as ad free as possible. We appreciate additions and corrections to this Timeline and to the History. We will also appreciate knowing if any of the links stop working. Write :
125-115 million years BCE :
Earth's Geologic Timeline
Fossil water lily (Nymphaeale) flower from the Early Cretaceous (Barremian or Aptian) of Portugal - Article
Fossil aquatic plant (Archaefructus sinensis, meaning "ancient fruit from China.") in China - Article
Water lilies one of the most ancient angiosperm (flowering) plants - Article
66 million years BCE
54.8-33.7 million years BCE
Fossil Nelumbo, Lower Eocene Epoch, in souteastern North America - Article
45 million years BCE
Fossil Nymphaea is Middle Eocene - Abstract
The Garden of Eden? - Article
Lotus seeds in Hemudu, Zhejing Province, China - Article not found
Domestication of rice in Thailand
3100 BCE - 1400 AD
Nymphaea and Nelumbo evident in Egyptian art - Article not found
Legends of the "Blue Lotus" (Nymphaea caerulea) in Egypt - Article
Papyrus and "lotus" in Egypt - Article not found
"Sacred White Lotus" (Nymphaea lotus) in Egypt - Article not found
The Lotus and the Nile - Article not found
Hieroglyphics from First Dynasty of Ancient Egypt
Earliest planned gardens with ponds, Egypt - Article not found
From 2500 BCE
The lotus in Hinduism - Article
Lotus legends - Article
First plant collecting expedition - Article
Shijing (The Book of Songs) mentioned lotus - Poem not found
Ancient Indian University Nalanda, "giver of the lotus" - Article
From 521 BCE
Persian gardens with ponds and fountains - Article not found
Paradise Gardens - Article not found
From 500 BCE
The lotus in Buddhism - Article
The Silk Road - Map
About 450 BCE
Greek historian Herodotus wrote of Nelumbo in Egypt - Article not found
About 300 BCE
Theophrastus wrote De historia plantarum (A History of Plants) and
De causis plantarum (About the Reasons of Vegetable Growth)
From 206 BCE
Imperial gardens of China, from the Han Dynasty - Article not found
Chinese gardens - Short history not found
About 1 CE
Seeds of the "Ohga Lotus" in Japan - Article not found
Gardens of the Roman Empire - Article not found
English gardens - Short history
Japanese gardens - Article
Introduction of Buddhism into Japan - Timeline not found
The lotus in Japanese art - Article
Islamic conquest of Spain
Nelumbo seeds from ancient Chinese lake viable - Article
Crusaders brought Islamic garden style to England - Article not found
The Alhambra built - Article
Renaissance gardens - Article not found
Traditional Japanese Gardens - Article found
"Modern" Taxonomic Botany and Floristics - Article not found
William Turner (1510-1568), “Father of English Botany” recognized the English white waterlily, later named Nymphaea alba L., in his book The Names of Herbes
Taj Mahal built - Article not found
Carl Linnaeus published Species Plantarum, in it naming Nymphaeas alba and lotus
Development of Kew Gardens - Article
Nymphaea odorata, an American species, was introduced in England
Francis Masson sent Nymphaea capensis, from South Africa, to Kew Gardens
Tadeáš Haenke discovered Victoria in Bolivia
Joseph Banks introduced to England Nymphaea rubra (synonym of N. pubescens) from India
Nymphaea tetragona imported to England
Aime Bonpland and Alexander von Humboldt saw Victoria near Corrientes, Argentina
Augustin de Candolle described 26 species of Nymphaea in Prodomus Systematis Naturalis Regni-Vegetabilis, his treatise on systematic botany
Eduard Poeppig found Victoria on the Amazon
John Lindley established the genus Victoria and described the species regia from specimens and figures sent to Europe by Robert Schomburgk
The first Victoria flowered in cultivation in a specially built greenhouse at the Duke of Devonshire's estate at Chatsworth, England.
W. Bidwell first saw Nymphaea gigantea
Botanists Jules-Emile Planchon, J.G.C. Lehmann and Robert Caspary begin research on Nymphaea
Joseph Paxton designed the Crystal Palace for the Great Industrial Exhibition of 1851
in London using the leaf of Victoria as inspiration
Joseph Paxton claimed to have produced the first hybrid waterlily ((N. rubra x N. lotus) calling it N. ‘Devoniensis’. It was generally believed to be a self-pollination of N rubra.
B.E. Kjellmark collected N. alba var. rubra, the “Swedish Red Waterlily”.
Henry Shaw opened Missouri Botanical Garden - Article not found
E. Sturtevant, New Jersey USA, introduced his first waterlily hybrids
Joseph Bory Latour-Marliac sent his earliest hybrid Nymphaea‘Marliacea Chromatella’ to Kew Gardens.
William Tricker introduced his first hybrid waterlilies
Peter Bisset introduced Nymphaea 'Omarana'
Henry A. Dreer Nurseries introduced its first hybrid waterlilies
Antoine Lagrange introduced Nymphaea ‘Marie Lagrange’
Claude Monet began his series of paintings of waterlilies
James Gurney introduced Nymphaea ‘Frank Trelease’
Lily ponds added at Tower Grove Park by James Gurney
Fr. Henkel, F. Rehnelt and L. Dittman published Das Buch der Nymphaeaceen oder Seerosengewächse
George H. Pring of Missouri Botanical Garden introducedNymphaea ‘Castaliflora’
Martin E. Randig introduced his first hybrid waterlilies
Bill Frase introduced Nymphaea ‘Electra’
Otto Beldt introduced Nymphaea 'Mystery'
Perry D. Slocum introduced his first waterlily hybrids
Charles Winch introduced Nymphaea 'Lavender'
Longwood Gardens added waterlily pools - History
Patrick Nutt of Longwood Gardens hybridized Victoria 'Longwood Hybrid'
Perry D. Slocum introduced Nelumbo ‘Mrs. Perry D. Slocum’
Kirk Strawn introduced his first waterlily hybrids
Ken Landon introduced Nymphaea ‘Pink Starlet’
Dr. Slearmlarp Wasuwat published his early Nymphaea hybrids
Johan Harder introduced Nymphaea 'Karleen Harder'
Perry D. Slocum and Peter Robinson published the book WATER GARDENING, Water Lilies and Lotuses
Kit & Ben Knotts, Trey & Nancy Styler, Joe Summers of Missouri Botanical Garden introduced the hybrid Victoria 'Adventure'
Kit & Ben Knotts introduced Victoria 'Challenger'
Florida Aquatic Nurseries won the IWGS/RHS Banksian Medal for N. 'William McLane'
Leeann Connelly won the IWGS/RHS Banksian Medal for N. 'Helen Nash'
Rich Sacher won the IWGS/RHS Banksian Medal for N. 'Star of Zanzibar'
Craig Presnell won the IWGS/RHS Banksian Medal for N. 'Midnight Serenade'
Charleston Aquatic Nursery won the IWGS/RHS Banksian Medal for N. 'Chaz'
Craig Presnell won the IWGS Competition for New Waterlilies for N. 'Foxfire'
Charles Winch won the IWGS Competition for New Waterlilies for N. 'Blue Aster'
( Some links not work .. So it is not huperlinked )